ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Sachiko Aoshima (2003). THE GRAMMAR AND PARSING OF WH-DEPENDENCIES.

URL: http://www.ling.umd.edu/Aoshima/Aoshima_Diss_2003.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3697&langcode=jpn (2018-04-25).

 

Example #1:

    (1)    John-wa Mary-ga        kodomo-ni sono hon-o         ageta-to      omotteiru.
    John-top Mary-nom child-dat         that book-acc gave-Comp          thinks
    `John thinks that Mary gave that book to the child.'
Example #2:

    (2)    John-ga    sensei-ni     [Mary-ga     sono hon-o       nakusita-to] tutaeta.
    John-nom teacher-dat Mary-nom that book-acc lost-Comp               told
    `John told the teacher that Mary lost that book.'
Example #3:

    (4)    a.      John-wa [Mary-ga       dare-ni    sono hon-o ageta-to]      itta-no?
    John-top Mary-nom whom-dat that book-acc gave-Comp said-Q
    `Who did John say Mary gave that book to?'
Example #4:

    b.      John-wa [Mary-ga       dare-ni    sono hon-o    ageta-ka] itta.
    John-top Mary-nom whom-dat that book-acc gave-Q said
    `John said who Mary gave that book to.'
Example #5:

    (5)    a.      John-wa [Mary-ga         dare-ni     sono hon-o     ageta-ka] itta.
    John-top Mary-nom whom-dat that book-acc gave-Q               said
    `John said to whom Mary gave that book.'
Example #6:

    (6)     *John-ga       dare-ni [Mary-ga        sono hon-o       katta-ka]     tazuneta.
    John-nom who-dat          Mary-nom that book-acc bought-Q asked
    Lit. `John asked whom Mary bought that book.'
Example #7:

    (5)    a.      John-wa [Mary-ga        dare-ni    sono hon-o ageta-to]      iimasita-ka?
    John-top Mary-nom whom-dat that book-acc gave-Comp said-Q
    `Who did John say Mary gave that book to?'
Example #8:

    b.      John-wa [Mary-ga         dare-ni   sono hon-o     ageta-ka] iimasita.
    John-top Mary-nom whom-dat that book-acc gave-Q said
    `John said to whom Mary gave that book to.'
Example #9:

    (6)     a.      John-wa [Mary-ga         dare-ni     sono hon-o      ageta-ka] sitteiru.
    John-top Mary-nom whom-dat that book-acc gave-Q                knows
    `John knows to whom Mary gave that book.'
Example #10:

    kakarityoo-ga     itta.
    supervisor-nom said
    `The supervisor said what kind of computer the director is using.'
Example #11:

    (9)    a.      *John-wa dare-ni      [Mary-ga    kuru-ka] itta.
    John-top who-dat Mary-nom come-Q told
    Lit. `*John said to whom whether Mary is coming.'
Example #12:

    b.      John-wa Mary-ni       [dare-ga kuru-ka] itta.
    John-top Mary-dat who-nom come-Q told
    `John told Mary who is coming.'
Example #13:

    yonda-to      tosyositu-de      sisyo-ni        iimasita-ka?
    read-DeclC library-at           librarian-dat told-Q
    that the principal read a book for?'
Example #14:

    yonda-to        tosyositu-de     sisyo-ni       iimasita-ka?
    read-DeclC      library-at       librarian-dat told-Q
    that the principal read a book for?'
Example #15:

    yonda-ka tosyositu-de          sisyo-ni        iimasita.
    read-Q      library-at         librarian-dat told
    principal read a book for.'
Example #16:

    yonda-ka tosyositu-de            sisyo-ni        iimasita.
    read-Q       library-at          librarian-dat told
    principal read a book for.'
Example #17:

    iimasita-ka?
    told-Q
    president promised a raise to the assistant manager at the meeting?'
Example #18:

    iimasita-ka?
    told-Q
    `Which employee told the managing director that the president
Example #19:

    atta-ka      sitteiru.
    met-Q        knows
    `John knows which friend Mary met at the park.'
Example #20:

    c.      Dono tomodati-ni         John-wa Mary-ga       syookaisita-no?
    which friend-dat         John-top Mary-nom introduced-Q
    `Which friend did Mary introduce John to?
Example #21:

    d.      Dono tomodati-ni         John-wa Mary-ga       syookai-dekiru-no?
    which friend-dat         John-top Mary-nom introduce-can-Q
    `Which friend can John introduce Mary to?'
Example #22:

    miseta-ka oboeteiru-no?
    showed- Q remember-Q
    `Does the class teacher remember which new student the librarian showed that boo
Example #23:

    (1)      John-ga      Mary-ni       bara-o     ageta.
    John-nom Mary-dat rose-acc gave
    `John gave Mary roses.'
Example #24:

    b.      Bob-ga Mary-ni ringo-o ageta.
    Bob-nom Mary-dat apple-acc gave
    `Bob gave Mary the apple.'
Example #25:

    c.      Bob-ga Mary-ni ringo-o tabeta inu-o ageta.
    Bob-nom Mary-dat apple-acc ate dog-acc gave
    `Bob gave Mary the dog which ate the apple.'
Example #26:

    (i)      Kyooju-ga gakusei-ni tosyokansisyo-ga kasita mezurasii komonjo-o                     yabutta / miseta.
    professor-nom student-dat librarian-nom lent unusual ancient manuscript-acc tore/ showed
    someone (pro).'
Example #27:

    b.       Mariko-ga otooto-o yonda.
    Mariko-nom       otooto-acc called
    `Mariko called her brother.'
Example #28:

    (i)     a.       Mariko-o [soto-de buranko-ni notte-ita]otooto-ga yonda.
    Mariko-acc outside swinging-on swing brother-nom called
    `The young brother, who was swinging on a swing outside called Mariko.'
Example #29:

    b.       Mariko-ga [soto-de buranko-ni notte-ita]otooto-o        yonda.
    Mariko-nom outside swinging-on swing       brother-acc called
    `Mariko called the young brother who was swinging on a swing outside.'
Example #30:

    teineini hometa-to         Aiharasan-ga     hanasiteita.
    politely praised-Comp Aihara-nom           said
    who had served tea to the manager.
Example #31:

    b.      ?*Karei-no tomodati-ga sono otokoi-ni hotyoo-de osoikakata.
    he-gen friend-nom the man-dat knife-with attacked
    `His friend attacked the man with a knife.'
Example #32:

    obento-o        watasita-ka      titioya-wa oboeteita.
    lunchbox-acc handed-Q            father­top remembered
    a lunch box after breakfast.'
Example #33:

    isoide       obento-o        watasita-ka     titioya-wa    oboeteita.
    in a hurry lunch box-acc     handed-Q       father­top    remembered
    handed a lunch box in a hurry after breakfast.'
Example #34:

    isoide       obento-o         watasita-ka    oba-wa       oboeteita.
    in a hurry lunch box-acc handed-Q            aunt­top remembered
    handed a lunch box in a hurry after breakfast.'
Example #35:

    isoide       obento-o        watasita-ka     titioya-wa    oboeteita.
    in a hurry lunch box-acc     handed-Q       father­top    remembered
    a lunch box to the aunt in a hurry after breakfast.'
Example #36:

    isoide       obento-o         watasita-ka    titioya-wa     oboeteita.
    in a hurry lunch box-acc handed-Q            father­top remembered
    a lunch box to the uncle in a hurry after breakfast.'
Example #37:

    Kare-no gakusei-ga syokudoo-de sensei-ni          atta.
    He-gen student-nom cafeteria-at teacher-dat met
    `His student met the teacher at the cafeteria. '
Example #38:

    Kare-no gakusei-ni syokudoo-de sensei-ga           atta.
    He-gen student-dat cafeteria-at teacher-nom met
    `His student, the teacher met at the cafeteria.'
Example #39:

    Kare-no dono-gakusei-ga       syokudoo-de sensei-ni         atta-no?
    He-gen which- student-nom cafeteria-at        teacher-dat met-Q
    `Which of his students met the teacher at the cafeteria?'
Example #40:

    Kare-no dono-gakusei-ni      syokudoo-de      sensei-ga     atta-no?
    He-gen which- student-dat cafeteria-at       teacher-nom met-Q
    `Which of his students, did the teacher meet at the cafeteria?'
Example #41:

    b.      Frank-ni Tom-ga        Guy-o      korosu-daroo-to John-wa iwaseta.
    Frank-dat Tom-nom Guy-acc kill-will-Comp John-top said-cause
    `John made Frank say Tom would kill Guy.'
Example #42:

    (17)   a.     Yoko-ga kodomo-o koosaten-de           mikaketa onnnanoko-ni koe-o kaketa.
    Yoko-nom child-Acc intersection-at saw          girl-dat     voice-acc called
    `Yoko called the girl who saw the child at the intersection.'
Example #43:

    komonjo-o                            yabutta / miseta.
    ancient manuscript-acc                tore/ showed
    the librarian lent to someone (pro).'
Example #44:

    (7)    Dare-ni    John-ga    Mary-ga     keeki-o    ageta-ka sitteiru.
    Who-dat John-nom Mary-nom cake-acc gave-Q                 know
    `John knows who Mary gave cake to.'
Example #45:

    (13)   a.      Kare-no dono kodomo-ni       hahaoya-ga ringo-o ageta-no?
    He-gen which children-dat mother-nom apple-acc gave-Q
    `Which of his children did the mother give an apple to?
Example #46:

    b.      Kare-no dono kodomo-ga       hahaoya-ni ringo-o ageta-no?
    He-gen which children-nom mother-dat apple-acc gave-Q
    `Which of his children gave an apple to the mother?
Example #47:

    (i)      Mary-ga Nancy-ni John-ga ringo-o 3-tu katta-to                     itta.
    Mary-nom Nancy-dat John-nom apple-acc 3-cl bought-that said
    `Mary said to Nancy that John bought three apples.'
Example #48:

    (ii)     Mary-ga Nancy-ni [katta-to]              itta-no-wa [John-ga ringo-o 3-tu] da.
    Mary-nom Nancy-dat [bought-that] said-nl-top John-nom apple 3-cl be
    Lit. `It is [John three apples] that Mary said to Nancy that bought.'
Example #49:

    (19)     Dare-ni     John-ga       Mary-ga        keeki-o      ageta-to           omotteiru-no?
    Who-dat John-nom Mary-nom cake-acc gave-Comp                             think-Q
    `To whom does John think Mary gave cake?'
Example #50:

    (i)      Sono seito-ni     sisyo-wa       kootyoo-ga       tosyositu-de ehon-o             yondeiru-to      itta.
    that student-dat librarian-top principle-nom library-at picture book-acc reading-Comp told.
    `The librarian said to that student that the principal was reading a picture boo
Example #51:

    (ii)     Sono seito-ni     sisyo-wa       kootyoo-ga        tosyositu-de neteiru-to         itta.
    that student-dat librarian-top principle-nom library-at          sleeping-Comp told.
    `The librarian said to that student that the principal was sleeping at the libra
Example #52:

    (22)   Dare-ni    John-ga    Mary-ga     keeki-o      ageta-to   iwaseta-no / osieta-no?
    Who-dat John-nom Mary-nom cake-acc gave-Com               tell-caused-Q / told-Q
    `To whom did John say that Mary gave cake?'
Example #53:

    (23)     Dare-ni     John-ga      Mary-ga       Tom-ni       keeki-o     ageta-to      iimasita-ka?
    Who-dat John-nom Mary-nom Tom-dat cake-acc gave-Comp said-Q
    `To whom did John say that Mary gave Tom a cake?'
Example #54:

    (i)    Dono seito-ni      tannin-wa         kootyoo-ga        hon-o yondeiru-to       sisyo-ni osiemasita-ka?
    Which student-dat class teacher-top principal-nom book-acc reading-Comp librarian-dat told-Q
    `Which student did the class teacher told the librarian that the principal was r
Example #55:

    (i)     a.       Tom-ga Tokyo-ni itta.
    Tom-nom Tokyo-to went
    `Tom went to Tokyo.'
Example #56:

    c.       John-no ronbun-ga Tom-ni hihans-areta.
    John-gen paper-nom Tom-by criticized-Passive
    `John's paper was criticized by Tom.'
Example #57:

    (ii)     a.      John-ga Tom-ni Tokyo-ni ikaseta.
    Jon-nom Tom-dat Tokyo-to went-Causative
    `John made Tom go to Tokyo.'
Example #58:

    b.       John-ga      Tom-ni Mary-ni awaseta.
    John-nom Tom-dat Mary-dat met-causative
    `John made Tom meet Mary.'
Example #59:

    (25)         John-ga         Mary-ni Tom-ni            keeki-o    age-saseta.
    Jon-nom Tom-dat Mary-dat met-Comp said
    `John said that he met Mary.'
Example #60:

    (iv)         a.       John-ga      Tom-ni gakkaisi-ni hihans-areta         ronbun-o        miseta.
    John-nom Tom-dat journal-by criticized-Passive paper-acc             showed
    `John showed Tom the paper that was criticized by the journal.
Example #61:

    b.       John-ga      Tom-ni Mary-ni hihans-areta            ronbun-o         miseta.
    Jon-nom Tom-dat Mary-by criticized-Passive paper-acc                 showed
    `John showed Tom the paper that was criticized by Mary.
Example #62:

    (29)     John-ga       kodomo-ni Mary-ga             kasita hon-o              miseta / yabutta.
    John-nom child-dat           Mary-nom lent            book-acc        showed / torn
    b.       `John tore the book which Mary lent to the child.'
Example #63:

    (i)      a.       Yoko-ga kodomo-o koosaten-de mikaketa               takusii-ni noseta.
    Yoko-nom child-acc intersection-at saw               taxi-dat put-on
    `Yoko put the child in the taxi which she saw at    the intersection.'
Example #64:

    b.       Yoko-ga kodomo-o koosaten-de mikaketa                onnnanoko-ni koe-o kaketa.
    Yoko-nom child-acc intersection-at saw               girl-dat        called
    `Yoko called the girl who saw the child at the in   tersection.'
Example #65:

    (i)     a.       John-ga kujira-o       mita soogankyoo
    John-nom whales-acc saw binoculars
    `binoculars with which John saw whales'
Example #66:

    b.       John-ga karaoke-de ryuukooka-o              utatta baa
    John-nom karaoke-with popular song-acc sang bar
    `a bar where John sang a popular song with karaoke'
Example #67:

    c.       John-ga koi-ni otita natu
    John-nom love-dat fell summer
    `the summer when John was fallen in love'
Example #68:

    iimasita-ka?
    told-Q
    promised a raise to the assistant manager at the meeting?'
Example #69:

    Taro-wa Hanako-ga          enkai-de dare-ni atta-ka sitteiru.
    Taro-top Hanako-nom party-at          who-dat met-Q knows.
    `Taro knows who Hanako met at the party.'
Example #70:

    Tomoko-mo Hanako-ga          enkai-de dare-ni atta-ka sitteiru.
    Tomoko-also Hanako-nom party -at who-dat met-Q knows.
    `Tomoko also knows who Hanako met at the party.'
Example #71:

    Demo, Jiro-wa Hanako-ga enkai-de dare-ni           atta-ka sitteiru-no?
    But,    Jiro-top Hanako-nom party-at who-dat met-Q knows-Q
    `But, who does Jiro know whether Hanako met at the party?'
Example #72:

    Saburo-ni da-yo.
    Saburo-dat Copula-Aff
    `(It's) Saburo.'
Example #73:

    Un, Jiro-mo sitteiru-yo.
    Yes Jiro-also knows-Aff
    `Yes, he does.'
Example #74:

    koto-o       hanasita.
    things-acc talked
    `Taro talked about the friend that knows who Hanako met at the party.'
Example #75:

    koto-o     hanasita.
    thing-acc talked
    `Tomoko also talked about the friend that knows who Hanako met at the party.'
Example #76:

    tomodati-no koto-o     hanasita-no?
    friend-gen things-acc talked-Q
    party?'
Example #77:

    tomodati-no koto-o        hanasita-no?
    friend-gen things-acc talked-Q
    met at the party?'
Example #78:

    Saburo-ni da-yo.
    Saburo-dat Copula-Aff
    `(It's) Saburo.'
Example #79:

    Un, Jiro-mo        hanashita-yo.
    Yes Jiro-also said-Aff
    `Yes, he did.'
Example #80:

    (i)     Dare-ni Jiro-wa Hanako-ga enkai-de pro atta-ka sitteiru tomodati-no koto-o hanasita-no?
    who-dat Jiro-top Hanako-nom party-at         met-Q knows friend-gen thing-acc said-Q
    `To whom did Jiro talk about the friend that knows whether Hanako met someone at
Example #81:

    (7)    Nani-o      Taro-wa     Hanako-ga tabeta-ka siritagatteiru-no?
    what-acc Taro-top      Hanako-nom ate-Q          wants-to-know-Q
    b. 'What does Taro want to know whether Hanako ate?'
Example #82:

    (8)    a.      Dare-ga sono hon-sika yomanakatta-no?
    who-nom that book-SIKA read-not-Q
    `Who read only that book?
Example #83:

    b.      *Taro-sika nani-o yomanakatta-no?
    Taro-SIKA what-acc read-not-Q
    `What did only Taro read?'
Example #84:

    c.      Nani-o Taro-sika yomanakatta-no?
    what-acc Taro-SIKA read-not-Q
    `What did only Taro read?'
Example #85:

    (i)     *John-ga Mary-ga nani-o        katta kadooka siritai.
    John-nom Mary-nom what-acc bought whether want-to-know
    `John wants to know whether Mary bought what.'
Example #86:

    (ii)    Bill-ga nani-o John-ga Mary-ga             katta-ka sitteiru kadooka sirabeteiru.
    Bill-nom what-acc John-nom Mary-nom bought-Q know            whether investigating
    `Bill is investigating whether John knows what Mary bought.'
Example #87:

    (12)   Nani-o     Taro-wa       Hanako-ga tabeta-ka siritagatteiru-no?
    what-acc Taro-top       Hanako-nom ate-Q            wants-to-know-Q
    b. 'What does Taro want to know whether Hanako ate?'
Example #88:

    (19)     Taro-wa       Hanako-ga nani-o            tabeta-ka siritagatteiru-no?
    Taro-top Hanako-nom what-acc ate-Q                      wants-to-know-Q
    b. 'What does Taro want to know whether Hanako ate?'
Example #89:

    (1)     a.      John-wa [Mary-ga              dare-ni        atta-to]      omotteiru-no?
    John-top Mary-nom who-dat met-Comp think-Q
    `Who does John think Mary met?'
Example #90:

    (2)     a.       John-wa [Mary-ga         dare-ni atta-to          yuu mondai-o] kentoositeiru-no?
    John-top Mary-nom who-dat met-that say problem-acc investigating-Q
    Mary met x?'
Example #91:

    (i)      Kootyoo-wa [Tanaka sensei-ga dare-ni dasita           syukudai-ni] nani-o tukekuwaeta-no?
    Principal-top Prof Tanaka-nom who-dat assigned homework-dat what-acc added-Q
    Prof. Tanaka assigned to x?'
Example #92:

    (6)    John-wa [dare-o     hihansita ronbun]-o yondeiru-no?
    John-top who-acc criticized paper-acc reading-Q
    `Who is the person x such that John is reading the paper that criticized x?'
Example #93:

    (7)    John-wa [Mary-ga      dare-ni atta-to      yuu mondai-o]      kentoositeiru-no?
    John-top Mary-nom who-dat met-Comp say problem-acc investigating-Q
    met x?'
Example #94:

    (16)   John-wa     [dare-o   hihansita ronbun-o] yondeiru-no?
    John-nom who-acc criticized      paper-acc reading-Q
    `Who is the person x such that John is reading the paper that criticized x?'
Example #95:

    (19)   a.      Dare-ga katta-no?
    who-nom won-Q
    `Who won?'
Example #96:

    b.      John desu.
    John copula
    `(It's) John.'
Example #97:

    (20)   a.      Chomsky desu.
    Chomsky copula
    `(It's) Chomsky.'
Example #98:

    b.      Chomsky-o        hinansita ronbun desu.
    Chomsky-acc criticized book copula
    `(It's) a paper that criticized Chomsky.'
Example #99:

    (i)      *John-wa Mary-ga naze kaita hon-o yondeiru-no?
    John-top Mary-nom why wrote book-acc reading-Q
    Lit. `Is John reading a book that Mary wrote why?'
Example #100:

    (ii)     Nani-o     kyootyoo-wa nani-ni tukekuwaeta-no?
    what-acc principal-top what-dat added-Q
    `What did the principal add what to?'
Example #101:

    (24)   a.      John-wa Mary-ga nani-o katta-ka siritagatteiru.
    John-top Mary-nom what-acc bought-Q want-to-know
    `John wants to know what Mary bought.'
Example #102:

    b.          John-wa [Mary-ga nani-o tabeta kadooka] dare-ni osieta-no?
    John-top Mary-nom what-acc ate whether who-dat told-Q
    Mary ate y?'
Example #103:

    (26)   a.      John-wa [[dare-o hihansita] ronbun-o] yondeiru-no?
    John-nom who-acc criticized paper-acc reading-Q
    `Who is the person x such that John is reading the paper that criticized x?'
Example #104:

    (ii)    a.       ?*John-ga Mary-ga nani-o tabeta kadooka Tom-ni tazuneta-no?
    John-nom Mary-nom what-acc ate whether Tom-dat asked-Q
    `?*What did John ask Tom whether Mary ate t?'
Example #105:

    b.       John-ga Mary-ga nani-o tabeta kadooka dare-ni tazuneta-no?
    John-nom Mary-nom what-acc ate whether who-dat asked-Q
    `Who did John ask t whether Mary ate what?'
Example #106:

    (31)     John-wa [[dare-o hihansita] ronbun-o] yondeiru-no?
    John-nom who-acc criticized paper-acc reading-Q
    `Who is the person x such that John is reading the paper that criticized y?'
Example #107:

    (32)     John-wa [Mary-ga         dare-ni atta-to          yuu mondai-o] kentoositeiru-no?
    John-top Mary-nom who-dat met-that say problem-acc investigating-Q
    met x?'
Example #108:

    (37)   Otagaii-ni [John-no hahaoya]-ga [[Mary to Pam]-ga ti atta to] omotteiru.
    each other-dat John-gen mother -nom Mary and Pam-nom met that think
    `Each other, John's mother thinks that Mary and Pam met.'