ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Matt Pearson (1996). Predicate Fronting and Constituent Order in Malagasy.

URL: http://www-unix.oit.umass.edu/~kbj/ling495B/content/Pearson_Malagasy.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3729&langcode=plt (2019-05-27).

 

Example #1:

    (1)   a.     Mpianatra ny        rahalahiko
    student     Det brother=1s
    `My brother is a student'
Example #2:

    c.     Feno rano        ny tavoahangy
    full   water Det bottle
    `The bottle is full of water'
Example #3:

    (9)   a.    Misotro toaka sy         mihinam-bary      Rakoto                                (Keenan 1976)
    AT.drink liquor and AT.eat-rice            Rakoto
    `Rajaona drinks liquor and eats rice'
Example #4:

    (10) a.     Misotro toaka Rajaona { ary / *sy } mihinam-bary               Rakoto
    AT.drink liquor Rajaona                      AT.eat-rice       Rakoto
    `Rajaona drinks liquor and Rakoto eats rice'
Example #5:

    b.    Misotro toaka Rajaona { sy / ?? ary } Rakoto
    AT.drink liquor Rajaona               Rakoto
    `Rajaona and Rakoto drink liquor'
Example #6:

    (11) a.       Manoratra ny taratasy ny mpianatra
    AT.write     Det letter        Det student
    `The student is writing the letter(s)'
Example #7:

    b.     Manoratra taratasy ny mpianatra
    AT.write     letter      Det student
    `The student is writing { letters / a letter }'
Example #8:

    (13) a.      Namangy       ny      rainyi       ny mpianatra tsirairay      i
    Pst.AT.visit Det father=3 Det student           each
    `Each studenti visited hisi father'
Example #9:

    (14) a. * Namangy        ny mpianatra tsirairayi            ny rainyi
    Pst.AT.visit Det student           each           Det father=3
    `Hisi father visited each studenti'
Example #10:

    (16) a.      Tsy namaky          ny boky ny              lehilahy
    Neg Pst.AT.read Det book Det                man
    `The man did not read the book'
Example #11:

    (23) a.          Mihinana ny voasary ny gidro
    AT.eat    Det orange Det lemur
    `The lemur is eating the orange'
Example #12:

    b.        Ny gidro no mihinana ny voasary
    Det lemur Foc AT.eat             Det orange
    `It's the lemur who is eating the orange'
Example #13:

    (24) a.        Tsy mpianatra ny          rahalahiko
    Neg student        Det brother=1s
    `My brother is not a student'
Example #14:

    b.      Tsy mpianatra no nanoratra              ny taratasy
    Net student        Foc Pst.AT.write Det letter
    `It wasn't a student who wrote the letter'
Example #15:

    (25) a.        Tsy nanoratra        ny taratasy ny mpianatra
    Neg Pst.AT.write Det letter           Det student
    `The student didn't write the letter'
Example #16:

    b. * Nanoratra      ny taratasy tsy ny mpianatra
    Pst.AT.write Det letter         Neg Det student
    `Not the student wrote the letter'
Example #17:

    (31) a.      Nanoratra     taratasy (ve) ny mpianatra omaly
    Pst.AT.write letter           Det student yesterday
    `Yesterday the student wrote a letter'
Example #18:

    b.    Mandamina ny trano (ve) Rakoto matetika                                       (cf. Rackowski 1998)
    AT.arrange Det house            Rakoto generally
    `Generally Rakoto puts the house in order'
Example #19:

    (32) a.      Manoratra taratasy any an-tokotany (ve)                     ny mpianatra
    AT.write     letter      there Obl=garden                   Det student
    `The student is writing a letter in the garden'
Example #20:

    b. % Manoratra taratasy (ve) ny mpianatra                   any an-tokotany
    AT.write     letter              Det student           there Obl=garden
    `The student is writing a letter in the garden'
Example #21:

    (34) a.        Nanoratra     taratasy (ve) ny         mpianatra omaly
    Pst.AT.write letter           Det student        yesterday
    `Yesterday the student wrote a letter'
Example #22:

    b.      Nanoratra     taratasy (ve) omaly            ny mpianatra
    Pst.AT.write letter           yesterday      Det student
    `Yesterday the student wrote a letter'
Example #23:

    (35) a.     Mihinana ny voasary ny gidro
    AT.eat    Det orange Det lemur
    `The lemur is eating the orange'
Example #24:

    b.    Mihinana inona ny gidro?
    AT.eat      what    Det lemur
    `What is the lemur eating?'
Example #25:

    (36) a. * Mihinana ny voasary iza?
    AT.eat     Det orange who
    `Who is eating the orange?'
Example #26:

    b.    Iza no mihinana ny voasary?
    who Foc AT.eat         Det orange
    `Who is eating the orange?'
Example #27:

    (37) a.     Nanapaka bozaka omaly            i   Bakoly
    Pst.AT.cut grass       yesterday Det Bakoly
    `Bakoly cut the grass yesterday'
Example #28:

    b.    Omaly      dia nanapaka       bozaka i   Bakoly
    yesterday Dia Pst.AT.cut grass       Det Bakoly
    `Yesterday, Bakoly cut the grass'
Example #29:

    c.    I     Bakolyi dia nanapaka          bozaka omaly       e       i
    Det Bakoly Dia Pst.AT.cut grass              yesterday
    `As for Bakoly, (she) cut the grass yesterday'
Example #30:

    d.    Omaly       i     Bakolyi dia nanapaka          bozaka e       i
    yesterday Det Bakoly Dia Pst.AT.cut grass
    `Yesterday, as for Bakoly, (she) cut the grass'
Example #31:

    (38) a. * Tsy i       Bakolyi dia nanapaka           bozaka        omaly     ei
    Neg Det Bakoly Dia Pst.AT.cut grass                      yesterday
    `Not Bakoly, (she) cut the grass yesterday'
Example #32:

    b.    I    Bakolyi dia tsy nanapaka bozaka omaly               e         i
    Det Bakoly Dia Neg Pst.AT.cut grass            yesterday
    `Bakoly, (she) didn't cut the grass yesterday'
Example #33:

    b.    Tena Rabe no mahandro vary
    indeed Rabe Foc AT.cook rice
    `It is indeed Rabe who cooks rice'
Example #34:

    (42) a.      Ny mpianatrai dia [WhP nanoratra                             ny taratasy ] ei
    Det student         Dia        Pst.AT.write                  Det letter
    `As for the student, he wrote the letter'
Example #35:

    c. * Ny mpianatrai dia [WhP nosoratana                ei ]   ny taratasy
    Det student         Dia         Pst.TT.write            Det letter
    `As for the student, he wrote the letter'
Example #36:

    (43) a.      Nanapaka      bozaka omaly        i   Bakoly
    Pst.AT.cut grass        yesterday Det Bakoly
    `Bakoly cut the grass yesterday'
Example #37:

    b.     Nanapaka      bozaka i       Bakoly omaly
    Pst.AT.cut grass       Det Bakoly yesterday
    `Bakoly cut the grass yesterday'
Example #38:

    c.     Omaly      dia nanapaka       bozaka i   Bakoly
    yesterday Dia Pst.AT.cut grass       Det Bakoly
    `Yesterday, Bakoly cut the grass'
Example #39:

    (44) a.      Nanapaka      bozaka haingana i    Bakoly
    Pst.AT.cut grass       quickly Det Bakoly
    `Bakoly cut the grass quickly'
Example #40:

    b. * Nanapaka      bozaka i       Bakoly haingana
    Pst.AT.cut grass       Det Bakoly quickly
    `Bakoly cut the grass quickly'
Example #41:

    c. * Haingana dia nanapaka bozaka i       Bakoly
    quickly     Dia Pst.AT.cut grass Det Bakoly
    `Quickly, Bakoly cut the grass'
Example #42:

    (45) a.     Matory ve ny gidro?
    AT.sleep Qu Det lemur
    `Is the lemur sleeping?'
Example #43:

    b.   Naka         fanafody ho anao        ve       ny reninao?
    Pst.AT.get medicine for 2s.Acc Qu             Det mother=2s
    `Did your mother get medicine for you?'
Example #44:

    (46)        Ny mpianatra ve no namaky                    ny boky?
    Det student         Qu Foc Pst.AT.read Det book
    `Is it the student who is reading the book?'
Example #45:

    b.   Namaky       boky ve ny mpianatra omaly?
    Pst.AT.read book Qu Det student            yesterday
    `Was the student reading a book yesterday?'
Example #46:

    (48) a.     Nanapaka bozaka omaly             ve i Bakoly?
    Pst.AT.cut grass      yesterday Qu Det Bakoly
    `Did Bakoly cut the grass yesterday?'
Example #47:

    b.   Omaly      ve dia nanapaka         bozaka i   Bakoly?
    yesterday Qu Dia Pst.AT.cut grass         Det Bakoly
    `Yesterday, did Bakoly cut the grass?'
Example #48:

    c.   I     Bakolyi ve dia nanapaka            bozaka omaly       ei?
    Det Bakoly Qu Dia Pst.AT.cut grass                yesterday
    `As for Bakoly, did (she) cut the grass yesterday?'
Example #49:

    d.   Omaly       ve i        Bakolyi dia nanapaka         bozaka ei?
    yesterday Qu Det Bakoly Dia Pst.AT.cut grass
    `Yesterday, as for Bakoly, did (she) cut the grass?'
Example #50:

    (49)        Ny mpianatra mamaky teny, ny mpampianatra mihaino
    Det student        AT.read word Det teacher            AT.listen
    `The students read aloud, (while) the teacher listens'
Example #51:

    (50)         Ny mpianatra ve mamaky teny, ny mpampianatra ve mihaino?
    Det student        Qu AT.read word Det teacher             Qu AT.listen
    `Do the students read aloud, (while) the teacher listens?'
Example #52:

    (51)         Ianao ve ho tonga any             anefa     izahay aza niverina?
    2s    Qu Irr arrive there although 1ex              even Pst.AT.return
    `You will reach that place, even though we (were forced to) turn back?'
Example #53:

    (56)          Omaly       ve dia nanapaka              bozaka i   Bakoly
    yesterday Qu Dia Pst.AT.cut              grass  Det Bakoly
    `Yesterday, Bakoly cut the grass'
Example #54:

    (59) a.       Niditra       tao        an-trano ny zaza
    Pst.AT.enter Pst.there Obl=house Det child
    `The child entered the house'
Example #55:

    b.    Nahare      [ ny zaza niditra             tao  an-trano ]                   ny vehivavy
    Pst.AT.hear   Det child Pst.AT.enter Pst.there Obl=house                    Det woman
    `The woman heard the child enter the house'
Example #56:

    (60) a.       Namaky        boky ny mpianatra
    Pst.AT.read book Det student
    `The student was reading a book'
Example #57:

    (i)           Aza      mitabataba     [ satria [ ny rainareo           mamaky boky ] ]
    Neg.Imp AT.make.noise because Det father=2p AT.read book
    `Don't make noise because your father is reading a book'
Example #58:

    b.    Nahita      [ ny mpianatra namaky              boky ]         ny mpampianatra
    Pst.AT.see     Det student       Pst.AT.read book             Det teacher
    `The teacher saw the student read(ing) a book'
Example #59:

    (61) a.      Nahare        ny alika ny zaza
    Pst.AT.hear Det dog       Det child
    `The child heard the dog'
Example #60:

    (63) a.      Nahare      [ ny zaza niditra             tao  an-trano ]               ny vehivavy
    Pst.AT.hear   Det child Pst.AT.enter Pst.there Obl=house                Det woman
    `The woman heard the child enter the house'
Example #61:

    b.    Nahita      [ ny mpianatra namaky              boky ]       ny mpampianatra
    Pst.AT.see     Det student       Pst.AT.read book           Det teacher
    `The teacher saw the student read(ing) a book'
Example #62:

    (65)         Hitako     [ Rajaona manoratra taratasy ] ary [ Rakoto                mamaky boky ]
    TT.see=1s Rajaona AT.write letter                and    Rakoto        AT.read book
    `I saw Rajaona writing letters and Rabe reading a book'
Example #63:

    (68) a.       Nahita       [ ny    mpianatra namaky              boky ]     ny mpampianatra
    Pst.AT.see     Det student        Pst.AT.read      book       Det teacher
    `The teacher saw Rabe read a book'
Example #64:

    (70) a.      ny zazalahy [Rel namangy          ahy      an-tsekoly omaly ]
    Det boy              Pst.AT.visit 1s.Acc Obl=school yesterday
    `the boy who visited me at school yesterday'
Example #65:

    b.     ny zazalahy [Rel novangiako             an-tsekoly omaly   ]
    Det boy               Pst.TT.visit=1s Obl=school yesterday
    `the boy who I visited at school yesterday'
Example #66:

    (73) a.      it_ boky mena it_
    this book red   this
    `this red book'
Example #67:

    (75) a.     Manoratra taratasy Rajaona { ary / ??sy } mamaky boky Rakoto
    AT.write letter        Rajaona and              AT.read book Rakoto
    `Rajaona is writing letters and Rakoto is reading a book'
Example #68:

    b.   Manoratra taratasy Rajaona { sy / ??ary } Rakoto
    AT.write letter      Rajaona and          Rakoto
    `Rajaona and Rakoto are writing letters'
Example #69:

    (76)        Hitako     [ Rajaona manoratra taratasy ] { ary / ??sy } [ Rakoto              mamaky boky ]
    TT.see=1s Rajaona AT.write letter                  and     Rakoto              AT.read book
    `I saw Rajaona writing letters and Rabe reading a book'
Example #70:

    (78) a.      Nahita     [ anao     namaky       boky ] ny mpampianatra
    Pst.AT.see 2s.Acc Pst.AT.read book        Det teacher
    `The teacher saw you reading a book'
Example #71:

    b.     Nahita      [ an-dRabe namaky         boky ] ny mpampianatra
    Pst.AT.see     Acc=Rabe Pst.AT.read book     Det teacher
    `The teacher saw Rabe reading a book'
Example #72:

    (80) a.       Manasa ny lamba { aho / % izaho }
    AT.wash Det clothes 1s.Nom
    `I am washing the clothes'
Example #73:

    b.     { Izaho / * aho } no manasa ny lamba
    1s.Nom            Foc AT.wash Det clothes
    `It is I who am washing the clothes'
Example #74:

    c.     { Izahoi / * ahoi } dia manasa          ny lamba e              i
    1s.Nom              Dia AT.wash Det clothes
    `As for me, (I) am washing the clothes'
Example #75:

    (82) a.        Mihevitra i       Tenda [ fa        manaja    ny mpampianatra Rabe ]
    AT.think Det Tenda           that AT.respect Det teacher      Rabe
    `Tenda thinks that Rabe respects the teacher'
Example #76:

    b.      Mihevitra an-dRabe [ ho manaja                  ny mpampianatra ]                i   Tenda
    AT.think Acc=Rabe           Part AT.respect Det teacher                          Det Tenda
    or `Tenda thinks (of) Rabe that (he) respects the teacher'
Example #77:

    (83)           Nahita      [ an-dRabe namaky         boky ] ny mpampianatra
    Pst.AT.see     Acc=Rabe Pst.AT.read book     Det teacher
    `The teacher saw Rabe reading a book'
Example #78:

    (i)            Nilaza       tamin-katezerana an-dRabe ho mpangalatra Rasoa
    Pst.AT.say Pst.with-anger         Acc=Rabe Part thief Rasoa
    `Rasoa said angrily of Rabe that (he was) a thief'
Example #79:

    (ii)   a.      Namono       tamin-katezerana ny          voalavo ny mpamboly
    Pst.AT.kill Pst.with-anger          Det   rat     Det farmer
    `The farmer killed the rat angrily'
Example #80:

    b. ? Namono       ny voalavo tamin-katezerana               ny mpamboly
    Pst.AT.kill Det rat            Pst.with-anger          Det farmer
    `The farmer angrily killed the rat'
Example #81:

    (84)        ? Nilaza        an-dRabe tamin-katezerana ho mpangalatra              Rasoa
    Pst.AT.say Acc=Rabe Pst.with-anger             Part thief           Rasoa
    `Rasoa said (of) Rabe angrily (that he was) a thief'
Example #82:

    (85) a. ? Tsy mijery       intsony ny namany izy        ireo
    Neg AT.watch anymore Det friend=3 3.Nom Pl
    `They are not watching their friends anymore'
Example #83:

    b.     Tsy mijery       ny namany intsony           izy ireo
    Neg AT.watch Det friend=3 anymore 3.Nom Pl
    `They are not watching their friends anymore'
Example #84:

    (86) a. ? Tsy mijery       intsony ny namany miady                        izy   ireo
    Neg AT.watch anymore Det friend=3 AT.fight                      3.Nom Pl
    `They are not watching their friends fight anymore'
Example #85:

    b. * Tsy mijery       ny namany intsony            miady           izy   ireo
    Neg AT.watch Det friend=3 anymore AT.fight                    3.Nom Pl
    `They are not watching their friends fight anymore'
Example #86:

    c.     Tsy mijery       ny namany miady              intsony       izy   ireo
    Neg AT.watch Det friend=3 AT.fight anymore                  3.Nom Pl
    `They are not watching their friends fight anymore'
Example #87:

    (87) a.      Mihevitra an-dRasoa ho namono                  ny voalavo (ve)        ny zaza
    AT.think Acc=Rasoa Part Pst.AT.kill Det rat                           Det child
    `The child believes Rasoa to have killed the rat'
Example #88:

    (88) a.      Nahare        an-dRabe niditra         tao  an-trano  (ve) ny zaza
    Pst.AT.hear Acc=Rabe Pst.AT.enter Pst.there Obl=house      Det child
    `The child heard Rabe enter the house'
Example #89:

    (89) a.      Nahita       an-dRabe namaky          boky (ve)          ny mpampianatra
    Pst.AT.see Acc=Rabe Pst.AT.read book                     Det teacher
    `The teacher saw Rabe reading a book'
Example #90:

    (92) a.      Manantena ny vehivavy [ fa             hamono ny akoho aho          ]
    AT.hope    Det woman             that Irr.AT.kill Det chicken 1s.Nom
    `The woman hopes that I will kill the chicken'
Example #91:

    b.    Taitra    izy    roalahy [ nahare          izany vaovao izany ]
    surprised 3.Nom two.male Pst.AT.hear that        news that
    `The two men were surprised to hear that news'
Example #92:

    (96) a.      Manantena ny vehivavy [ fa             hamono ny akoho aho          ]
    AT.hope    Det woman             that Irr.AT.kill Det chicken 1s.Nom
    `The woman hopes that I will kill the chicken'
Example #93:

    (97) a. * Namangy      ny    vehivavy            an-dRasoa
    Pst.AT.visit Det woman                 Acc=Rasoa
    `The woman visited Rasoa'
Example #94:

    (98) a.      Namangy      an-dRasoa ny vehivavy
    Pst.AT.visit Acc=Rasoa Det woman
    `The woman visited Rasoa'
Example #95:

    (104)         Manasa tsara ny lambany foana i         Ketaka
    AT.wash well Det clothes=3 always Det Ketaka
    `Ketaka always washes his clothes well'
Example #96:

    (106)        Misotro mangatsiaka ny kafe           Rasoa
    AT.drink cold              Det coffee Rasoa
    `Rasoa drinks coffee cold'
Example #97:

    (108) a.     Nijinja     vary haingana ny mpamboly
    Pst.ATcut rice quickly        Det farmer
    `The farmer harvested rice quickly'
Example #98:

    b.   Nijinja     haingana ny vary ny mpamboly
    Pst.AT.cut quickly Det rice          Det farmer
    `The farmer harvested the rice quickly'