ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Harold Torrence (2005). Chapter 3.

URL: http://www.people.ku.edu/~torrence/academic/dissertation-files/torrence-dis-chapter-3-relatives.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3764&langcode=wol (2019-05-21).

 

Example #1:

    (1) a. j.u u tx ?                                 u-construction
    cl.u 3pl smoke
    "what (ji-class item) did they smoke?"
Example #2:

    b. ymbaa j.u u tx                            u-relative clause
    marijuana cl.u 3pl smoke
    "some marijuana that they smoked"
Example #3:

    (2) a. ymbaa j.i u tx                        i-relative clause
    marijuana cl.i 3pl smoke
    "the (proximal) marijuana that they smoked"
Example #4:

    b. ymbaa j.a u tx                         a-relative clause
    marijuana cl.a 3pl smoke
    "the (distal) marijuana that they smoked"
Example #5:

    (3) a. u.m picc                             u-DP
    u.cl bird
    "a bird"
Example #6:

    b. k.u dem                              u-CP
    cl.u go
    "who went?"
Example #7:

    c. xac b.a                              a-DP
    dog cl.a
    "the dog there"
Example #8:

    d. bgg-na-u [ a dem ]                 a-CP
    want-na-3pl a leave
    "they want to leave"
Example #9:

    e. xaj b.i                              i-DP
    dog cl.i
    "the dog"
Example #10:

    f. l.i mu lekk gato bi                  i-CP
    cl.i 3sg eat cake the
    "(the fact) that he ate the cake"
Example #11:

    (4) a. xale b-u-ma gis                                    Relative Clause
    child cl-u-1sg see
    "a child that I saw"
Example #12:

    c. xac b-oo-b-u                                       Demonstrative
    dog cl-dem-cl-u
    "aforementioned dog"
Example #13:

    (5) a. xale b-a-ma gis                                                  Relative Clause
    child cl-a-1sg see
    "the child (distal) that I saw"
Example #14:

    b. bgg-na-a-ln- jnd                                           Complementizer
    want-na-1sg-3pl-a buy
    "I want to buy them"
Example #15:

    c. a-ka dof!                                                       Exclamative
    a-emp crazy
    "how crazy!"
Example #16:

    d. xac b-oo-b-a                                                    Demonstrative
    dog cl-dem-cl-a
    "said dog (distal)"
Example #17:

    (i) xac b-ng-u-y             lekk              u-Progressive
    dog cl-def+prog-u-di eat
    "the dog (somewhere) is eating"
Example #18:

    (ii) xac b-ng-a-y           lekk               a-Progressive
    dog cl-def+prog-a-di eat
    "the dog (over there) is eating"
Example #19:

    (iii) dr-na-a-k- dr                       Intensive Doubling
    hit-na-1sg-3sg-a hit
    "I really hit him"
Example #20:

    (iv) di-na-a-ko         dr--dr             Intensive Doubling
    di-na-1sg-3sg hit-a-hit
    "I will really hit him"
Example #21:

    (v) da-ma-ko jm- dr                        Restructuring
    do-1sg-3sg try-a hit
    "try to hit him is what I did"
Example #22:

    (vi) da-ma-ko jm--jm- dr                Restructuring + Intensive Doubling
    do-1sg-3sg try-a-try-a       hit
    "really try to hit him is what I did"
Example #23:

    (9) xac b-i                                                        i-determiner
    dog cl-i
    "the dog that has existed recently"
Example #24:

    (10) xac b-    a                                                   a-determiner
    dog cl-a
    "the dog    that existed long ago"
Example #25:

    (11) xac b-u                                                       u-Determiner
    dog cl-u
    "the dog that has existed at some point"
Example #26:

    (13) di-na-a    bgg doom j-u-mu-y jkk-        am
    di-na-1sg love child cl-u-3sg-di be.first-a have
    "I will love the first child that she has"
Example #27:

    (14) a. Isaa ak Bint dr-n-u xale b-i                            Definite Article
    isaa and binta hit-na-3pl child cl-def
    "Isaa and Binta hit the child"
Example #28:

    b. Isaa ak     Bint    dr-n-u b-enn xale                Numeral
    isaa and    binta    hit-na-3pl cl-1 child
    "Isaa and   Binta   hit a child"
Example #29:

    c. Isaa ak Bint dr-n-u b-enn xale b-i Numeral and Definite Article
    isaa and binta hit-na-3pl cl-1 child cl-def
    "Isaa and Binta hit one of the two children"
Example #30:

    (i) a-g        pal-am        g-i
    indef-cl calabash-3sg cl-def
    "one of his calabashes"
Example #31:

    (15) a. jnq      bi, kaay!
    woman the come.imper.
    (lit. "the young lady, come here!")
Example #32:

    b.yow mi, kaay!
    youind the, come.imper.
    "you, yes you, come here!"
Example #33:

    c. %gis-na-a Isaa mi10
    see-na-1sg isaa the
    "I saw the Isaa"
Example #34:

    (17) a. (u.b) xale b.u [TP ma gis]                          u-relative clause
    u.cl child cl-u     1sg see
    "a child that I saw"
Example #35:

    b. xale b.i [TP ma gis] (b-i)                        i-relative clause
    child cl.i   1sg see      cl-i
    "the (proximal) child that I saw"
Example #36:

    c. xale b.a [TP ma gis] (b-a)                        a-relative clause
    child cl.a      1sg see cl-a
    "the (distal) child that I saw"
Example #37:

    (18) [DP y     [CP*(w.)     jnd]] feebar-na
    elephant      cl.u 2sg buy sick-na
    "an elephant you bought is sick"
Example #38:

    (19) a. xale yi      jox-na-u jign ji      tr bi ca lekkool bi
    child the.pl give-na-3pl woman the book the P school the
    "the children gave the woman the book at school"
Example #39:

    b.xale y.i jox jign ji tr bi ca lekkool bi                          subject relative
    child cl.i give woman the book the P school the
    "the children that gave Binta the book at school"
Example #40:

    c. jign j.i xale yi      jox tr bi ca lekkool bi                         IO relative
    woman cl.i child the.pl give book the P school the
    "the woman that the children gave the book to at school"
Example #41:

    d. tr b.i xale yi      jox jign ji ca lekkool bi                         DO relative
    book cl.i child the.pl give woman the P school the
    "the book that the children gave to the woman at school"
Example #42:

    e. lekkool b.i xale yi      jox-e jign ji tr bi       adjunct relative
    school cl.i child the.pl give-loc woman the book the
    "the school where the children gave the woman the book"
Example #43:

    f. ubbi-na-a bunt bi ak caabi ji
    open-na-1sg door the with key the
    "I opened the door with the key"
Example #44:

    g. caabi j.i ma ubbe-e         bunt bi                               instrumental relative
    key cl.i 1sg open-instr door the
    "the key that I opened the door with"
Example #45:

    h. n.i mu ubb-       bunt bi
    cl.i 3sg open-mann door the
    "the way he opened the door"
Example #46:

    b. caabi j.i ma fa xale yi         ubb-ee-l        bunt bi dmb        (ji)
    key cl.i 1sg loc child the.pl open-instr-ben door the yesterday the
    "the key that children opened the door with there for me yesterday"
Example #47:

    (21) a. jign j. ng d-oon xool
    woman cl.a 2sg di-past look.at
    "the (distal) woman that you were looking at"
Example #48:

    b. jign j.i ngn d-oon xool                             -i- relative clause
    woman cl.i 2pl    di-past look.at
    "the woman that you were looking at"
Example #49:

    c. jign j.u a d-oon xool                                 -u- relative clause
    woman cl.u 2 di-past look.at
    "a/some woman that you were looking at"
Example #50:

    d. jign .u a-ln d-oon xool                -u- relative clause
    woman cl.u 2-pl   di-past look.at
    "some/whichever women yall were looking at"
Example #51:

    (23) *tr b.i xale yi         jnd-na-u-(ko) dmb
    book cl.i child the.pl buy-na-3pl-3sg yesterday
    "the book that the children bought yesterday"
Example #52:

    (i) xale y.i nga xam ne [CP da-u lekk gato bi ]
    child cl.i 2sg know ne          do-3pl eat cake the
    (lit. "the children who you know that they ATE the cake")
Example #53:

    c. tr b.i xale yi       foog ne [CP l-a-a       jnd]       embedded cleft
    book cl.i child the.pl think ne       xpl-a-1sg buy
    "the book that the children think I bought"
Example #54:

    (26) a. xale b.u leen gis
    child cl.u 2/3pl see
    *"the child that saw them/yall"
Example #55:

    b. xale b.i leen gis
    child cl.i 2/3pl see
    *"a proximal child that saw them/yall"
Example #56:

    c. xale b.a leen gis
    child cl.a 2/3pl see
    *"a distal child that saw them/yall"
Example #57:

    (28) a. xale b.u ma gis (%b-i)17                                                    (See (17)b)
    child cl.u 1sg see     cl-i
    "a child that I saw, any/whatever child that I saw"
Example #58:

    b. *(u.j) jign j.i ln-f jox a.y tr                                   (See (17)a)
    u-cl woman cl.i 3pl-loc give a.cl book
    "a certain woman who gave them some books there"
Example #59:

    c. *xale b.a ma gis (*b-i)
    child cl-a 1sg see cl-i
    "the child that I saw"
Example #60:

    (30) kwl g.i
    gazelle cl.def
    "the gazelle"
Example #61:

    (33) a. tr b.i Bint jnd
    book cl.i binta buy
    "the book that Binta bought"
Example #62:

    (37) a.?tr b.i nga wax [CP b.i xale yi         scc ]
    book cl.i 2sg say       cl.i child the.pl steal
    "the book that you said the children stole"
Example #63:

    b. ?tr b.a nga wax [CP b.a xale yi           scc ]
    book cl.a 2sg say         cl.a child the.pl steal
    "the (distal) book that you said the children stole"
Example #64:

    c. ?tr b.u a wax [CP b.u xale yi                scc]
    book cl.u 2sg say          cl.u child the.pl steal
    "a book that you said that the children stole"
Example #65:

    (i) tr b.i nga wax [CP l-a xale yi                 scc ] (bi)
    book cl.i 2sg say           xpl-a child the.pl steal      the
    "the book that you said that the children stole
Example #66:

    (ii) tr b.a nga wax [CP l-a xale yi               scc ] (ba)
    book cl.a 2sg say           xpl-a child the.pl steal      the.distal
    "the (distal) book that you said that the children stole"
Example #67:

    (iii) (ab) tr b.u a wax [CP l-a xale yi                scc ]
    a book cl.u 2sg say            xpl-a child the.pl steal
    "a book that you said that the children stole"
Example #68:

    (38) a. rccu-na-a l.i Isaa dq xale yi                                             rccu + i
    regret-na-1sg cl.i isaa chase child the.pl
    "I regret that Isaa chased the children"
Example #69:

    b. rccu-na-a l.a Isaa dq-oon xale yi                                        rccu +a
    regret-na-1sg cl.a isaa chase-past child the.pl
    "I regret that Isaa chased the children"
Example #70:

    d. *rccu-na-a      Isaa                                                    *rccu + DP
    regret-na-1sg isaa
    "I regret Isaa"
Example #71:

    b. gm-na-a        ne Isaa dq-na xale yi                                   gm + ne
    believe-na-1sg ne isaa chase-na child the.pl
    "I believe that Isaa chased the children"
Example #72:

    c. gm-na-a        l.i Isaa dq xale yi           (l.i)            gm + i
    believe-na-1sg cl.i isaa chase child the.pl cl.i
    "I believe that Isaa would chase the children (in those circumstances)"
Example #73:

    d. gm-na-a         l.a Isaa dq-oon xale yi        (l.a)          gm + a
    believe-na-1sg cl.a isaa chase-past child the.pl cl.a
    "I think that Isaa would have chased the children (in those circumstances)"
Example #74:

    (41) a. d-oon-na-a       lekk ceebu.jn                          (definite) past
    di-past-na-1sg eat rice.fish
    "I was eating fish-rice (...when X walked in)"
Example #75:

    b.d-aan-na-a         lekk ceebu.jn                       habitual past
    di-habpast-na-1sg eat rice.fish
    "I used to eat fish-rice"
Example #76:

    b. d-aa-wu-ma          woon lekk ceebu-jn        habitual past + definite past
    di-habpast-neg-1sg past eat rice-fish
    "I did not use to eat fish-rice (long ago)"
Example #77:

    (i) d-aan-oon-na-a                 lekk ceeb-u jn
    di-habpast-past-na-1sg eat rice-u fish
    "I used to eat fish-rice (long ago)"
Example #78:

    (43) a. d-aan-nga             raxas y-epp cin y.u m togg-e-waan                       u...V-aan
    di-habpast-2sg+na wash       cl-all     pot cl.u 1sg    cook-instr-habpast
    "you used to wash every pot that I used to cook with"
Example #79:

    b.d-aan-nga             raxas y-epp cin y.u m d-aan                  togg-e u...d-aan V
    di-habpast-2sg+na wash      cl-all     pot cl u 1sg di-habpast cook-instr
    "you used to wash every pot that I used to cook with"
Example #80:

    c. *d-aan-nga           raxas y-epp cin y.i m             togg-e-waan          *i...V-aan
    di-habpast-2sg+na wash       cl-all     pot cl.i 1sg    cook-instr-habpast
    "you used to wash every pot that I used to cook with"
Example #81:

    d. d-aan-nga          raxas y-epp cin y.i m d-aan                 togg-e       i...d-aan V
    di-habpast-2sg+na wash cl-all          pot cl i 1sg di-habpast cook-instr
    "you used to wash every pot that I used to cook with"
Example #82:

    e. *d-aan-nga           raxas y-epp cin y.a m togg-e-waan                      *a...V-aan
    di-habpast-2sg+na wash cl-all          pot cl.a 1sg cook-instr-habpast
    "you used to wash every pot that I used to cook with"
Example #83:

    f. d-aan-nga           raxas y-epp cin y.a m d-aan                 togg-e      a...d-aan V
    di-habpast-2sg+na wash       cl-all     pot cl u 1sg di-habpast cook-instr
    "you used to wash every pot that I used to cook with"
Example #84:

    (i) gis-na-a-k         bs b.i m dem-oon
    see-na-1sg-3sg day cl.i 1sg leave-past
    "I saw him the day that I left"
Example #85:

    (ii) *gis-na-a-k       Top b.i ma dem-oon
    see-na-1sg-3sg        cl.i 1sg leave-past
    "I saw him when I left"
Example #86:

    (i) ?cin l.u m togg-e-waan
    pot cl.u 1sg cook-instr-hab
    "a pot that I used to cook with"
Example #87:

    (48) togg-oon-na-a-ko, laata nga w
    cook-past-na-1sg-3sg before 2sg arrive
    "I had (already) cooked it before you arrived"
Example #88:

    (i) b.u ma bey-aan ceeb                                     St. Louis
    cl.u 1sg cultivate-past.hab rice                      habitual past
    *"if I had used to cultivate rice"
Example #89:

    (ii) b.u ma bey-oon ceeb                                    St. Louis
    cl.u 1sg cultivate-past rice                          simple past
    *"when I cultivated rice"
Example #90:

    (49) d-aa-wu-ma       woon lekk ceebu-jn        habitual past + past
    di-past-neg-1sg past eat rice-fish
    "I did not use to eat fish-rice (long ago)"
Example #91:

    (51) a. gr g.i Bint gis-n                            -i- + V-raising
    man cl.i binta see-past
    "the man (proximal) that Binta saw"
Example #92:

    b. gr g. Bint gis-n                          -a- + V-raising
    man cl.a binta see-past
    "the man (distal) that Binta saw"
Example #93:

    c. gr g.u Bint gis-n                          -u- + V-raising
    man cl.u binta see-past
    "a man that Binta saw"
Example #94:

    (i) b.i ma [gis-] woon Isaa                              V perf       past           Dakar
    cl.i 1sg see-perf past       isaa
    "when I saw Isaa"
Example #95:

    (58) a.    b.u ma-ko gis-, di-na-a wax ak            moom
    cl.u 1sg-3sg see-perf di-na-1sg speak with 3sgstr
    "when(ever) I see him, I will speak with him"
Example #96:

    b.    b.u ma-ko d-ee       gis, di-na-a wax ak moom
    cl.u 1sg-3sg di-perf see di-na-1sg speak with 3sgstr
    "the exact moment I see him, I will speak with him"
Example #97:

    (59) a. b.u ma-ko-y gis, di-na-a wax ak moom
    cl.u 1sg-3sg-di see di-na-1sg speak with 3sgstr
    "(habitually,) when I see him, I speak with him"
Example #98:

    (65) a. tr b.i jign ji jox xale yi          dmb
    book cl.i woman the give child the.pl yesterday
    "the book that the woman gave to the children"
Example #99:

    b. *xalek y.i [ trj b.i [TP jign ji jox tj tk dmb       ]]
    child cl.i book cl.i       woman the give       yesterday
    "the children that the book that the woman gave yesterday"
Example #100:

    d. gr g.i ma scc [DP xaj-*(am)]
    man cl.i 1sg steal      dog-3sg
    "the man that I stole his dog"
Example #101:

    (66) a. gis-na-a Bint [laata u jox tr yi          xale bi]
    see-na-1sg binta before 3pl give book the.pl child the
    "I saw Binta before they gave the books to the child"
Example #102:

    b. *tri y.i ma gis Bint [laata u jox ti xale bi ]
    book cl.i 1sg see binta before 3pl give child the
    "the books that I saw Binta before they gave the child"
Example #103:

    (67) a. ftte-na-a    k.u scc tr bi
    forget-na-1sg cl.u steal book the
    "I forgot who stole the book"
Example #104:

    b. *tr b.i ma ftte k.u scc
    book cl.i 1sg forget cl.u steal
    "the book that I forgot who stole"
Example #105:

    c. *tr b.i ma ftte k.an mo o scc
    book cl.i 1sg forget cl.an 3sg a steal
    "the book that I forgot who it was that stole"
Example #106:

    (68) a.       wax-na-a     ak Mdu
    speak-na-1sg with moodu
    "I spoke to Moodu"
Example #107:

    b.     k-an l-a-u wax-*(al)?                        al + A-moved object
    cl-an xpl-a-3pl speak-appl
    "who did they speak to?"
Example #108:

    c.    *wax-al-na-a      (ak) Mdu                   al + in situ object
    speak-appl-na-1sg with moodu
    "I spoke to Moodu"
Example #109:

    d.    *jm-na-a-k door-a wax-al                    al + restructured clitic
    try-na-1sg-3sg begin-a speak-appl
    "I tried to begin to speak to him"
Example #110:

    (69) gr g.i wuud       bi wax-*(al)             A-movement of Applied Object
    man cl.i shoemaker the speak-appl
    "the man that the shoemaker talked to"
Example #111:

    (70) *lekkool b.i wuud      bi wax-e-el       gr gi
    school cl.i shoemaker the speak-loc-appl man the
    "the school where the shoemaker talked to the man"
Example #112:

    (71) a. ymbaa j.i Isaa jnd dmb
    marijuana cl.i isaa buy yesterday
    "the marijuana that Isaa bought yesterday"
Example #113:

    (72) a. def-na-a      tr Senegaal                                        Idiom
    make-na-1sg book senegal
    (Lit. "I maka a book Senegal")
Example #114:

    c. [tri b-i-ng foog ne l-a-a           def ti gaal gi] jaaxal-na-ma
    book cl-i-2sg think that xpl-a-1sg do         boat the surprise-na-1sg
    "the dedication that you think that I have for the boat surprised me"
Example #115:

    (i) fas-na-a yn dem
    tie-na-1sg decision leave
    "I decided to leave"
Example #116:

    (ii) *[yn b-i-m fas dem] bett-na-leen
    decision cl-i-1sg tie leave surprise-na-3pl
    "the decision that I made to leave surprised them"
Example #117:

    (75) gis-na-u s-een bopp
    see-na-3pl P-3pl head
    "they saw their head(s)"
Example #118:

    (76) a. gis-na-u s-een bopp
    see-na-3pl P-3pl head
    "they saw their head(s)"
Example #119:

    b. s-een bopp gis-na-u-leen
    P-3pl head see-na-3pl-3pl
    "their heads saw them"
Example #120:

    (78) [nataal-u bopp-ami] b.i Isaai scc
    picture-u head-3sg cl.i isaa steal
    "the picture of hisi/j head that Isaai stole"
Example #121:

    (80) [DP [CP ymbaa j.i Isaa jnd] (j.i) ]
    marijuana cl.i isaa buy cl.def
    "the marijuana that Isaa bought"
Example #122:

    (83) a. xam-na-a-ko                                          verb
    know-na-1sg-3sg
    "I know it"
Example #123:

    b. xam-na-a-ko        xell                            know + xell
    know-na-1sg-3sg id
    "I am really sure of it"
Example #124:

    c. *wr-na-a-k         xell                         *be sure + xell
    be.sure-na-1sg-3sg id
    "I am really sure of it"
Example #125:

    d. *xell-na-a-ko                                      ideophone
    id-na-1sg-3sg
    "I am really sure of it"
Example #126:

    (84) a. dgg-na-u jn yi                                    verb
    cut-na-3pl fish the
    "they cut the fish"
Example #127:

    b. dgg-na-u jn yi ftiit                          cut + ftiit
    cut-na-3pl fish the id
    "they cut the fish in one stroke (in one motion)"
Example #128:

    c. ry-na-u jn wi ftiit                           kill + ftiit
    kill-na-3pl fish the id
    "they killed the fish by cutting it (in one motion)"
Example #129:

    d. *ftiit-na-u jn yi                             ideophone
    id-na-3pl fish the
    "they cut the fish in one stroke (in one motion)"
Example #130:

    (85) a. *ubbi-na-u bunt bi ftiit
    open-na-3pl door the id
    "they opened the door in one motion"
Example #131:

    b. *tisli-n-u ftiit
    sneeze-na-3pl id
    "they sneezed"
Example #132:

    (ii) sedd guyy
    cold id
    "very cold"
Example #133:

    (iv) dagg          yoloos
    walk.slowly id
    "walk stealthily"
Example #134:

    (v) *(ne) yoloos (dagg)
    ne id          walk.slowly
    "walk stealthily"
Example #135:

    (vi) (*ne) yoloos-yoloos-u
    ne id-id-?
    "walk stealthily"
Example #136:

    (88) a. gis-n-u jn w. i [TP m dgg ftiit ] w.i                 ideophone...det
    see-na-3pl fish cl.i      1sg cut id         cl.def
    "they saw the fish that I cut in one stroke"
Example #137:

    b. scc-na-u tr b.i [TP neex Isaa lool ] b.i             adverb...det
    steal-na-3pl book cl.i      please isaa very cl-def
    "they stole the book that Isaa really likes"
Example #138:

    (89) a. gis-n-u jn w.i [TP m dgg ] w.i          ftiit         det...ideophone
    see-na-3pl fish cl.i      1sg cut cl.def id
    "they saw the fish that I cut in one stroke"
Example #139:

    b. scc-na-u tr b.i [TP neex Isaa ] b.i       lool       det...adverb
    steal-na-3pl book cl.i      please isaa cl.def very
    "they stole the book that Isaa really likes"
Example #140:

    (90) a. *di-na-a jng taalif bi dmb
    di-na-1sg read poem the yesterday
    "I (habitually) read the poem yesterday"
Example #141:

    b.di-na-a jng [ taalif b.i nga bind dmb        b.i ] adverb...det
    di-na-1sg read poem cl.i 2sg write yesterday cl.def
    "I will read the poem that you read yesterday"
Example #142:

    c. di-na-a jng [ taalif b.i nga bind b.i       dmb ] det...adverb
    di-na-1sg read poem cl.i 2sg write cl.def yesterday
    "I will read the poem that you read yesterday"
Example #143:

    (93) a. [kan [k.u jnd tr ]] l-a-u     dr                    post-nominal relative
    who cl.u buy book xpl-a-3pl hit
    "who that bought a book did they hit?"
Example #144:

    b.?[[k.u jnd tr ] kan ] l-a-u dr                   pre-nominal relative
    cl.u buy book who xpl-a-3pl hit
    "who that bought a book did they hit?
Example #145:

    (94) a. [lani [l.u nu lekk ti ]] l-a Bint jnd                    post-nominal relative
    what cl.u 1pl eat           xpl-a binta buy
    "what that we ate did Binta buy?"
Example #146:

    b.?[[l.u nu lekk ti ] lan] l-a Bint jnd                   pre-nominal relative
    cl.u 1pl eat      what xpl-a binta buy
    "what that we ate did Binta buy?"
Example #147:

    (95) a. [fan [ f.u nu lekk-e yaasa] ] l-a-u          yq          postnominal relative
    where cl.u 1pl eat-loc yaasa xpl-a-3pl destroy
    "where that we ate yaasa is it that they destroyed?"
Example #148:

    b. [[f.u nu lekk-e yaasa] fan ] l-a-u            yq       prenominal relative
    cl.u 1pl eat-loc yaasa where xpl-a-1pl destroy
    "where that we ate yaasa is it that they destroyed?"
Example #149:

    (i) [[k.i scc jn ] kan] l-a-u dq
    cl.i steal fish who xpl-a-3pl chase
    "who that stole a fish did they chase?"
Example #150:

    (ii) *[kan [ k.i scc jn ]] l-a-u           dq
    who cl.i steal fish xpl-a-3pl chase
    "who that stole a fish did they chase?"
Example #151:

    (iii) *[[[kan [ k.i dem]] k-i ] l-a-u dr                                            postnominal relative
    who cl.i leave cl-def xpl-a-3pl hit
    "who that left did they hit?"
Example #152:

    (iv) *[[[k.i dem] k-i] kan] l-a-u dr                                                prenominal relative
    cl.i leave cl-def who xpl-a-3pl hit
    "who that left did they hit?"
Example #153:

    (v) *[[[k.i dem ] kan] k-i] l-a-u              dr                                   prenominal relative
    cl.i leave who cl-def xpl-a-3pl hit
    "who that left did they hit?"
Example #154:

    (99) a.[ lani [l.u nu lekk ti ]] l-a Bint jnd                        postnominal relative
    what cl.u 1pl eat          xpl-a binta buy
    "what that we ate did Binta buy?"
Example #155:

    b.?[[l.u nu lekk ti ] lan] l-a Bint jnd                prenominal relative
    cl.u 1pl eat      what xpl-a binta buy
    "what that we ate did Binta buy?"
Example #156:

    (103) a. garab *(g).u wert                          -u-attributive adjective
    tree    cl.u green
    "a green tree"
Example #157:

    b. garab *(g).u ma gis                     -u-relative clause
    tree     cl.u 1sg see
    "a tree that I saw"
Example #158:

    (105) a. xale yi      mer-na-u                                      na-clause
    child the.pl angry-na-3pl
    "the children became angry"
Example #159:

    b. xale yi      da-u-a mer                                  verb cleft
    child the.pl do-3pl-a angry
    "the children are angry"
Example #160:

    c. xale yi      da-u-a mer-ul     woon                      verb cleft
    child the.pl do-3pl-a angry-neg past
    "the children were not angry"
Example #161:

    (106) a. di-na-u lekk ceeb                                 na-clause, active verb
    di-na-3pl eat rice
    "they eat rice"                                    habitual
Example #162:

    b. di-na-u feebar                                  na-clause, adjective
    di-na-3pl sick
    *"they are sickly"                               *habitual
Example #163:

    c. mu a    di lekk ceeb                             subject cleft, active verb
    3sg a   di eat rice
    "they   eat rice"                                habitual
Example #164:

    d. mu a di feebar                                   subject cleft, adjective
    3sg a di sick
    "it them who will be sick"                       future
Example #165:

    (107) a. fas wa          daf-a gaaw                                           adjective
    horse the.dist do-a fast
    "the horse there is fast"
Example #166:

    b.fas wa          daf-a daw gaaw                                       bare adverb
    horse the.dist do-a run fast
    "the horse there ran quickly"
Example #167:

    c. fas    wa       daf-a daw (daw) b.u gaaw
    horse the.dist do-a run run cl.u fast
    "the horse there ran quickly"
Example #168:

    d. fas    wa       daf-a daw l.u gaaw                                  l.u adverb
    horse the.dist do-a run cl.u fast
    "the horse there ran quickly"
Example #169:

    e. fas wa         daf-a daw ci l.u gaaw                                ci l.u adverb
    horse the.dist do-a run P cl.u fast
    "the horse there ran quickly"
Example #170:

    (i)      di-na-u di lekk ceeb                 na-clause, active verb
    di-na-3pl di eat rice
    *"they will eat rice"                 *future
Example #171:

    (ii)     di-na-u di feebar                    na-clause, adjective
    di-na-3pl di sick
    *"they will be sick"                  *future
Example #172:

    f. fas    wa      daf-a daw n.u gaaw                         n.u adverb
    horse the.dist do-a run cl.u fast
    "the horse there ran in a way that was quick"
Example #173:

    (108) a. garab g.i wert (g.i)                                       i-adjective
    tree cl.i green cl.def
    "the GREEN tree(, not the blue one)"
Example #174:

    b. garab g.i ma gis          (g.i)                           i-relative clause
    tree cl.i 1sg see cl.def
    "the tree that I saw"
Example #175:

    c. garab g.a wert-*(oon) (g.a)                               a-adjective
    tree cl.a green-past      cl.def.dist
    "the formerly green tree"
Example #176:

    d. garab g.a ma gis-oon (g.a)                                a-relative clause
    tree cl.a 1sg see-past cl.def.dist
    "the tree I saw (long ago)"
Example #177:

    (109) a. garab g.u wert g-i                                   u...i adjective
    tree cl.u green cl.def
    "the green tree"
Example #178:

    c. garab g.u wert g-a                                   u...a adjective
    tree cl.a green cl-def.dist
    "the green tree over there"
Example #179:

    (110) a. xaj b.u mer                                        intransitive adjective
    dog cl.u angry
    "an angry dog"
Example #180:

    b. xaj b.u mer     b-i                                intransitive adjective
    dog cl.u angry cl-def
    "the angry dog"
Example #181:

    (111) a. xaal w.u or-ul woon (w-i)                         u-adjectival relative clause
    melon cl.u ripe-neg past cl-def
    "the melon that was not ripe"
Example #182:

    b. xaal w.i or-ul woon (w-i)                      i-adjectival relative clause
    melon cl-i ripe-neg past cl-def
    "the melon that was not RIPE (...not the other one)"
Example #183:

    c. xaal w-a or-ul woon (w-a)                         a-adjectival relative clause
    melon cl-a ripe-neg past      cl-def.dist
    "the melon that was not ripe (long ago)"
Example #184:

    d. xaal w-a-ma jnd-ul wn (w-a)                     a-relative clause
    melon cl-a-1sg buy-neg past cl-def.dist
    "the melon that I did not buy (long ago)"
Example #185:

    (112) a. xaj b.i nga foog b.i xonq                          cl.i....cl.i adjective
    dog cl.i 2sg think cl.i red
    "the dog that you think is black"
Example #186:

    b. xaj b.i nga foog b.i ma xool                       cl.i...cl.i relative
    dog cl.i 2sg think cl.i 1sg look.at
    "the dog that you think I looked at"
Example #187:

    (113) a. *xaj b.a nga foog b.a xonq(-oon)                   *cl.a....cl.a adjective
    dog cl.a 2sg think cl.a red-past
    "the dog that you think was black long ago"
Example #188:

    b. xaj b.a nga foog b.a ma xool                        cl.a...cl.a relative
    dog cl.a 2sg think cl.a 1sg look.at
    "the dog that you think I looked at long ago"
Example #189:

    c. *xaj b.u a foog b.u xonq                           *cl.i....cl.i adjective
    dog cl.u 2sg think cl.u red
    "a dog that you think is black"
Example #190:

    d. xaj b.u a foog b.u ma xool                          cl.i...cl.i relative
    dog cl.u 2sg think cl.u 1sg look.at
    "adog that you think I looked at"
Example #191:

    (116) a. [DP [CP xaal w.u or xomm ] w.i ]                         ideophone...det
    melon cl.u ripe id         cl.def
    "the perfectly ripe melon"
Example #192:

    b. [DP [CP xaal    w.u or ] w.i     xomm ]                det...ideophone
    melon cl.u ripe cl.def id
    "the perfectly ripe melon"
Example #193:

    c. [DP [CP xaal w.u or lool ] w.i     ]                   adverb ...det
    melon cl.u ripe very cl.def
    "the very ripe melon"
Example #194:

    d. [DP [CP xaal w.u or ] w.i     lool ]                   det...adverb
    melon cl.u ripe cl.def very
    "the very ripe melon"
Example #195:

    (119) [an      [.u gtt ]] l-a-u        y xool
    who(pl) cl.u short xpl-a-3pl di look.at
    "who(pl) short is it that they are looking at?"
Example #196:

    (i) *[kan k.i/u     xale yi     dq ] k-i       l-a     Isaa bgg
    who cl.i/u   child the.pl chase cl-def xpl-a isaa love
    "who that    the children chased is it that Isaa loves?"
Example #197:

    (124) a.[CP [CP k.u lekk gato bi] k.u u foog]                                    u-construction
    cl.u eat cake the cl.u 3pl think
    "who ate the cake do they think?"
Example #198:

    (i) [k.u njool k-i kan lool ] l-a-u            dr
    cl.u tall cl-def who very xpl-a-3pl hit
    "which very tall person did they hit?"
Example #199:

    b.*gis-na-a [DP [CP [CP k.u lekk gato bi ] k.u u foog]]               relative clause
    see-na-1sg              cl.u eat cake the cl.u 3pl think
    "I saw someone who they think ate the cake"
Example #200:

    (125) a. ci l.o o teg tr bi
    P cl.u 2sg put book the
    "on what did you put the book?"
Example #201:

    b.*gis-na-a   [DP ci l.o o teg tr bi ]
    see-na-1sg      P cl.u 2sg put book the
    "I saw on what you put the book"
Example #202:

    (126) a. #k.an     k.u lekk gato bi
    cl.an    cl.u eat cake the
    "who     that ate the cake"                       relative clause
Example #203:

    b.[k.an k.u lekk gato bi] nga            gis         relative clause
    cl.an cl.u eat cake the xpl.a.2sg see
    (lit. "which person, who has the property
Example #204:

    c. k.an nga        foog k.u lekk gato bi            u-chain
    cl.an xpl.a.2sg think cl.u eat cake the
    "who do you think ate the cake?"
Example #205:

    (129) a. *[[CP tj k.u dem ] kanj] l-a-u        foog                     u-construction
    cl.u leave who      xpl-a-3pl think
    "who do they think left?"
Example #206:

    b. [[CP tj k.u dem ] kanj ] l-a-u       dr                    relative clause
    cl.u leave who xpl-a-3pl hit
    "who that left did they hit?"
Example #207:

    (130) *[ wh l.u Bint jnd ] l-a-u      scc
    cl.u binta buy xpl-a-3pl steal
    "what that Binta bought did they steal?"
Example #208:

    b. yaasa [b.i leen-fa Isaa togg-al ] saf-na                       relative clause
    yaasa cl.i 3pl-loc isaa cook-ben be.tasty-na
    "the yaasa that Isaa cooked for them there tasted good"
Example #209:

    (134) a. b.u  dem-ee                                             -u- temporal relative clause
    cl.u 3sg leave-perf
    "when(ever) he leaves"
Example #210:

    b. b.i mu dem-ee                                         -i- temporal relative clause
    cl.i 3sg leave-perf
    "when he left"
Example #211:

    (136) a. b.i (*u) xale yi    dem-ee Ndar                        DP subject
    cl.i 3pl child the.pl go-perf st. louis
    "when the children went to St. Louis"
Example #212:

    (i) b.u nga lekk-ee                     2sg temporal clause         (adapted from Halaoui 1984, p.30)
    cl.u 2sg eat-perf
    "when you eat"
Example #213:

    (ii) b.u a lekk-ee                      2sg conditional clause
    cl.u 2sg eat-perf
    "if you eat"
Example #214:

    b. xale yi      b.i *(u) dem-ee Ndar                            DP topic
    child the.pl cl.i 3pl go-perf st. louis
    "the children, when they went to St. Louis"
Example #215:

    (137) a. *b.i ma gis-n Isaa, da-ma tiit                               *i....-oon
    cl.i 1sg see-past isaa do-1sg be.scared
    "when I saw Isaa, I got scared"
Example #216:

    c. b.u     ma gis-n Isaa                                       u...-oon
    cl.u    1sg see-past isaa
    "if I   had seen Isaa"
Example #217:

    (138) a. b-u-ma am-oon xaalis, di-na-a kon jnd woto                             Imperfective Matrix CP
    cl-u-1sg have-past money di-na-1sg cond buy car
    "If I had money, I would buy a car"
Example #218:

    b. b-u-ma am-oon xaalis, jnd-kn-na-a            woto Past Matrix CP
    cl-u-1sg have-past money buy-cond+past-na-1sg car
    "If I had had money, I would have bought a car"
Example #219:

    (139) a. xaj b.i Isaa gis-n                               (cf. (137)a)
    dog cl.i isaa see-past
    "the dog that Isaa saw"
Example #220:

    b. xaj b.a Isaa gis-n                             (cf. (137)b)
    dog cl.a isaa see-past
    "the (distal) dog that Isaa saw"
Example #221:

    c. xaj b.u Isaa gis-n                             (cf. (137)c)
    dog cl.u Isaa see-past
    "a dog that Isaa saw"
Example #222:

    (140) a. b.i ma d-oon togg yaasa
    cl.i 1sg di-past cook yaasa
    "when I was cooking yaasa"
Example #223:

    b. b.a ma d-oon togg yaasa
    cl.a 1sg di-past cook yaasa
    "when I was cooking yaasa (long ago)"
Example #224:

    (i) b.i Isaa gis-n                         (cf. (137)a)
    cl.i isaa see-past
    "the (bi-class) thing that Isaa saw"
Example #225:

    (ii) b.a Isaa gis-n                        (cf. (137)b)
    cl.a isaa see-past
    "the (distal bi-class) thing that Isaa saw"
Example #226:

    (iii) b.u Isaa gis-n                       (cf. (137)c)
    cl.u isaa see-past
    "some/whatever (bi-class) thing that Isaa saw"
Example #227:

    c. b.u ma d-oon togg yaasa
    cl.u 1sg di-past cook yaasa
    "when(ever) I was cooking yaasa"
Example #228:

    (141) a. b.u Bint gis-aan Isaa, d-aan-na- ragal                                          u...V-aan
    cl.u binta see-past isaa di-past-na-3sg afraid
    "when Binta used to see Isaa, she used to become afraid"
Example #229:

    b. *b.i Bint gis-aan Isaa, d-aan-na-       ragal                               *i...V-aan
    cl.i binta see-past isaa di-past-na-3sg afraid
    "when Binta used to see Isaa, she used to become afraid"
Example #230:

    c. *b.a Bint gis-aan Isaa, d-aan-na-        ragal                              *a...V-aan
    cl.i binta see-past isaa di-past-na-3sg afraid
    "when Binta used to see Isaa, she used to become afraid"
Example #231:

    (i) b-u-ma d-aan            bey       ceeb
    cl-u-1sg di-habpast cultivate rice
    "when I used to cultivate rice" (...)                  temporal
Example #232:

    (ii) b-u-ma d-aan-oon              bey        ceeb
    cl-u-1sg di-habpast-past cultivate rice
    "when I used to cultivate rice" (...)                  counterfactual conditiona
Example #233:

    (142) a. (*a/u.b) b.u xale yi       lekk-ee                *ndef det...cl.u
    an     cl.u child the.pl eat-perf
    "if/when the children eat"
Example #234:

    b. b.i xale yi lekk-ee (*bi)                       *cl.i...det
    cl.i child the.pl eat-perf the
    "when the children ate"
Example #235:

    c. b.a xale yi       lekk-ee (*ba)                 *cl.a...det
    cl.a child the.pl eat-perf the
    "when the children ate (long ago)"
Example #236:

    d. b.i mtt Isaa (bi)                              relative clause
    cl.i bite isaa the
    "the bi-class object that bit Isaa"
Example #237:

    (143) a. xaj b.i ma gis-(*) dmb                         relative clause
    dog cl.i 1sg see-perf yesterday
    "the dog that I saw yesterday"
Example #238:

    b. gis-(*)-na-a xaj b.i dmb                     matrix clause
    see-perf-na-1sg dog the yesterday
    "I saw the dog yesterday"
Example #239:

    (144) %b.u nu y dem?
    cl.u 1pl di leave
    "when will we leave?"
Example #240:

    (146) a. s.u ma Isaa dr-*(), di-na-a jy                     s-conditional
    cl.u 1sg Isaa hit-perf,       di-na-1sg cry
    "if Isaa hits me, I will cry"
Example #241:

    b. f.u ma Isaa dr-(), di-na-a   jy                    f-temporal/conditional
    cl.u 1sg isaa hit-perf di-na-1sg cry
    "if Isaa hits me, I will cry"
Example #242:

    (147) a. *s.i/a ma gis- Isaa                              *whsi + i/a
    cl.i/a 1sg see-perf isaa
    "when I saw Isaa"
Example #243:

    b. f.i/a ma gis- Isaa                               whfi + i/a
    cl.i/a 1sg see-perf isaa
    "when I saw Isaa"
Example #244:

    (148)    a. bs b.i                                         temporal noun
    day cl.def
    "the day"
Example #245:

    b. bs b.i ma gis-*() xac bi
    day cl.i 1sg see-perf dog the
    "the day that I saw the dog"
Example #246:

    c. xaj b.i                                                 lexical noun
    dog cl.def
    "the dog"
Example #247:

    d. xaj b.i ma gis-(*)                                    lexical noun relative
    dog cl.i 1sg see-perf
    "the dog that I saw"
Example #248:

    (149) a. xac b.i ma gis (bi)                                                lexical noun
    dog cl.i 1sg see the
    "the dog that I saw"
Example #249:

    b. bs b.i m gis-         Isaa (bi)                               temporal NP
    day cl.i 1sg see -perf isaa the
    "the day that I saw Isaa "
Example #250:

    (i) gannaaw b-i-ma-ko gis-                               Relative Clause Structure
    back        cl-i-1sg-3sg see-perf
    "after I saw him"
Example #251:

    (ii) gannaaw ma gis-ko                                     Some Other Stucture
    back       1sg see-3sg
    "after I saw him"
Example #252:

    c. b.i ma gis- Isaa (*bi)                                          temporal clause
    cl.i 1sg see-perf isaa the
    "when I saw Isaa"
Example #253:

    (150) a. bs b.i ma gis-n Isaa                                              temporal NP
    day cl.i 1sg see-past isaa
    "the day that I saw Isaa"
Example #254:

    b. b.i ma gis-(*n) Isaa                                            temporal clause
    cl.i 1sg see-past isaa
    "when I saw Isaa"
Example #255:

    (151) *raxas-nga    cin l-u-m togg-e-waan
    raxas-2sg+na pot cl-u-1sg cook-instr-past
    "you washed the pot that I used to cook with"
Example #256:

    (i) %waxtu w.i ma gis- wn/* gis-n- Isaa                      *St. Louis, Dakar, Gambia
    time cl.i 1sg see-perf past/ see-past-perf isaa
    "the time when I saw Isaa"
Example #257:

    (ii) *bi/a dmb-ee
    cl-i/a yesterday-perf
    "when it was yesterday"
Example #258:

    (i) di-na raxas cin l-i-m d-aan togg-e
    di-na wash pot cl-i-1sg di-past cook-instr
    "he will wash the pot that I used to cook with"
Example #259:

    (152) a. b.u ma-leen de-e dr, di-na-u daanu
    cl.u 1sg-3pl di-perf hit, di-na-3pl fall
    "the moment I hit them, they will fall"
Example #260:

    b. b.i/a ma-leen de-e dr, d-aan-na-u           daanu
    cl-i/a 1sg-3pl di-perf hit di-past-na-3pl fall
    "when I used to hit them, they would fall"
Example #261:

    (153) b.i ma gis- wn Isaa, da-ma-a tiit-n                     Dak, Gam, *St.L
    cl.i 1sg see-perf past isaa do-1sg-a be.scared-past
    "when I saw Isaa, I became scared"
Example #262:

    (154) fan   l-a-u    gis-*() Isaa
    where xpl-a-3pl see-loc isaa
    "where did they see Isaa?"
Example #263:

    (155) c/s-i     l-a-a       gis-*() tr bi
    cl/cl-det xpl-a-1sg see-loc book the
    "it was on it that I saw the book"
Example #264:

    (156) ka l-a-u          d-oon seetaan-(*e(e)) telebisiyo
    when xpl-a-3pl di-past see-perf              television
    "when is it that they were watching television?"
Example #265:

    (157) a. b.i/a/*u ma (di) laa-ta gis Isaa                   temporal past "before" clause
    cl.i/a/u 1sg di ?-?     see isaa
    "before I saw Isaa"
Example #266:

    b.laa-ta ma gis Isaa                                 subjunctive "before"clause
    ?-?    1sg see isaa
    "before I arrived"
Example #267:

    (158) a. *b.i/a ma laa-te-(e) gis Isaa
    cl.i/a 1sg ?-?-perf see isaa
    "before I saw Isaa"
Example #268:

    b. *b.i/a ma laa-ta gis- Isaa
    cl.i/a 1sg ?-? see-perf isaa
    "before I saw Isaa"
Example #269:

    (159) bi//a/*u ma laa-taa gis Isaa
    cl.i/a/u 1sg ?-?    see isaa
    "before I saw Isaa"
Example #270:

    (161) a. b.i ma-y laa-ta gis Isaa                                   di...laa-ta
    cl.i 1sg-di ?-?     see isaa
    "before I saw Isaa"
Example #271:

    b. b.i ma laa-ta-y gis Isaa                                  laa-ta...di
    cl.i 1sg ?-?-di see Isaa
    "before I saw Isaa"
Example #272:

    d. b.i ma laa-taa-y gis Isaa                        laa-taa...di
    cl.i 1sg ?-?-di see isaa
    "before I saw Isaa"
Example #273:

    (162) a.laa-ta nga-ko-y togg                               CltS-CltO di
    ?-?    2sg-3sg-di cook
    "before you were cooking it"
Example #274:

    b. laa-ta nga di-ko togg                          CltS di-Clt   O
    ?-? 2sg di-3sg cook
    "before you were cooking it"
Example #275:

    (163) a. *b.i/a ma d-aan laa-ta togg ceebu.jn
    cl.i/a 1sg di-past ?-?     cook rice.fish
    "before I used to cook fishrice"
Example #276:

    c. laa-ta ma d-aan togg ceebu.jn
    ?-? 1sg di-past cook rice.fish
    "before I used to cook fishrice"
Example #277:

    (164) b.i/a ma d-aan gis Isaa
    cl.i/a 1sg di-past see isaa
    "when I used to see Isaa"
Example #278:

    (165) a. b.i/a ma ko-y laa-ta gis48                                          clitic...di
    cl.i/a 1sg 3sg-di ?-? see
    "before I saw him"
Example #279:

    b. b.i/a ma di-ko laa-ta gis                                          di...clitic
    cl.i/a 1sg di-3sg ?-? see
    "before I saw him"
Example #280:

    (166) a. b.i ma ko-y togg
    cl.i 1sg 3sg-di cook
    "when I was cooking it"
Example #281:

    (167) a. laa-ta ma gis-ko                                 CltS V-Clt    O
    ?-? 1sg see-3sg
    "before I saw him"
Example #282:

    b. *laa-ta ma-ko gis
    ?-? 1sg-3sg see
    "before I saw him"
Example #283:

    (168) b.a-laa ma togg-al-leen Isaa
    cl.a-? 1sg cook-ben-3pl isaa
    "before I cooked them for Isaa"
Example #284:

    (169) b.u/*i-laa ma togg-al-leen Isaa
    cl.u/i-?   1sg cook-ben-3pl isaa
    "before I cook them for Isaa"
Example #285:

    (170) di-na-a-ko def b.a.la nga-y laa-ta w49
    di-na-1sg-3sg do cl.a.? 2sg-di ?-? arrive
    "I will do it before you arrive"
Example #286:

    (172) a. %gr g.u xale yi        gis g.i         Ziguinchor,*St. Louis,*Dakar
    man cl.u child the.pl see cl.i
    "the very man that the children saw/exactly the man that the children saw"
Example #287:

    b. gr g.i xale yi       gis g.i              Ziguinchor,     St. Louis,    Dakar
    man cl.i child the.pl see cl.i
    "the man that the children saw"
Example #288:

    (174) taabal j.u xonq j.i
    table cl.u red cl.i
    "the red table"
Example #289:

    (175) a. xaj b.u y Isaa gis
    dog cl.u ? isaa see
    "the type of dog that Isaa sees"
Example #290:

    b. xaj y.u y Isaa gis
    dog cl.u ? isaa see
    "the types of dogs that Isaa sees"
Example #291:

    c. xaj b.i y Isaa gis
    dog cl.i ? isaa see
    "the type of dog that Isaa sees"
Example #292:

    d. xaj b.a y Isaa gis
    dog cl.a ? isaa see
    "the type of dog that Isaa sees"
Example #293:

    (176) a. xaj b.ii
    dog cl.this
    "this dog"
Example #294:

    b. b.ii    xaj
    cl.this dog
    "THIS dog (not that one)"
Example #295:

    c. xaj b.i-le
    dog cl.i-?
    "this dog"
Example #296:

    d. b.i-le (b) xaj
    cl.i-? cl dog
    "THIS dog"
Example #297:

    (177) a. xaj b.i ma gis b.i-le
    dog cl.i 1sg see cl.i-?
    "this dog that I saw"
Example #298:

    b. xaj b.i-le ma gis (*b.i)
    dog cl.i-? 1sg see cl.def
    "this dog that I saw"
Example #299:

    c. xaj b.i ma gis b.i-i
    dog cl.i 1sg see cl.i-?
    "this dog that I saw"
Example #300:

    d. xaj b.i-i ma gis (*b.i)
    dog cl.i-? 1sg see cl.def
    "this dog that I saw"