ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

William Harold Torrence (2005). Chapter 2.

URL: http://www.people.ku.edu/~torrence/academic/dissertation-files/torrence-dis-chapter-2-u-construction.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3834&langcode=wol (2019-05-26).

 

Example #1:

    (1) k.u xale bi dr                              u-form
    cl.u child the hit
    "who did the child hit?"
Example #2:

    (2) k.an l-a xale bi dr                         an-form
    cl-an xpl-a child the hit
    "who is it that the child hit?"
Example #3:

    (4) a. k.u togg ceeb bi ak jn wi                                     subject
    cl.u cook rice the and fish the
    "who cooked the rice and the fish?"
Example #4:

    b. y.u jign ji togg                                             direct object
    cl.u woman the cook
    "what(pl) did the woman cook?"
Example #5:

    c. f.u jign ji togg-e ceeb bi ak jn wi                         locative adjunct
    cl.u woman the cook-loc rice the and fish the
    "where did the woman cook the fish and the rice?"
Example #6:

    e. l.u Isaa ubb-     bunt yi                                    instrumental object
    cl.u isaa open-instr door the.pl
    "what did Isaa open the doors with?"
Example #7:

    b. m.u mu lekk                                         mi-class
    cl.u 3sg eat
    "what (m-class item) did he eat?"
Example #8:

    (6) a. [CP k.u Isaa foog [CP k.u lekk gato bi ]]                          subject
    cl.u isaa think    cl.u eat cake the
    "who does Isaa think ate the cake?"
Example #9:

    b. [CP f.u Isaa wax ne [CP f.u-ma jng-e taalif ya]]                  adjunct
    cl.u isaa say that     cl.u-1sg read-loc poem the.pl
    "where did Isaa say that I read the poem?"
Example #10:

    (7) a. [CP .an l-a-nu    gm ne [CP .u Isaa bgg]]                      direct object
    cl.an xpl-a-1pl believe that     cl.u isaa love
    "who(pl) do we believe that Isaa loves?"
Example #11:

    (9) a. gis-na-a   #&%@                            statement
    see-na-1sg
    "I saw #&%@"
Example #12:

    b. k.o o gis ?                                echo question
    cl.u 2sg see
    "you saw who?"
Example #13:

    (13) a. k-enn     w-na
    class-one arrive-na
    "someone arrived"
Example #14:

    (14) a. xale yi      togg-al-na-u     Isaa ceebujn               lexical DP
    child the.pl cook-ben-na-3pl isaa rice.fish
    "the children cooked Isaa fishrice"
Example #15:

    b. xale yi togg-al-na-u Isaa l.an                                            an-form
    child the cook-ben-na-3pl isaa cl.an
    "the kids cooked what for Isaa?"                                           echo
Example #16:

    c. *xale yi togg-al-na-u       Isaa l.u                                      u-form
    child the cook-ben-na-3pl isaa l.u
    "the kids cooked what for Isaa?"
Example #17:

    d. *xale yi      togg-al-na-u-l.u    Isaa                                    u-form
    child the.pl cook-ben-na-3pl-cl.u isaa
    "the children cooked what for Isaa?"
Example #18:

    (15) a. l-an xale yi togg-al-na-nu-*(ko) Isaa                                                  an-form
    cl-an child the cook-ben-na-3pl-3sg isaa
    "what, the children cooked it for Isaa?"
Example #19:

    b. *l-u xale yi togg-al-na-nu-(ko) Isaa                                                u-form
    cl.u child the cook-ben-na-3pl-3sg isaa
    "what, the children cooked it for Isaa?"
Example #20:

    (16) l.an xale yi       lekk-na-u-*(ko)
    what child the.pl eat-na-3pl-3sg
    "the children ate what?" (echo)
Example #21:

    (17) a. xale yi      lekk-na-u l.an                               an-form
    child the.pl eat-na-3pl what
    "the children ate what?"                                   Echo only
Example #22:

    b. xale yi      lekk-agum-na-u l.an                       an-form
    child the.pl eat-already-na-3pl what
    "what have the children already eaten?"
Example #23:

    c. xale yi      lekk-agum-na-u ceebujn bi                lexical DP
    child the.pl eat-already-na-3pl rice.fish the
    "have the children already eaten the fishrice?"
Example #24:

    (18) a. *l.u xale yi       lekk-agum-na-u-(ko)                    left periphery
    cl.u child the.pl eat-already-na-3pl-3sg
    "what have the children already eaten?"
Example #25:

    b. *xale yi     lekk-agum-na-u-l.u                        clitic position
    child the.pl eat-already-na-3pl-cl.u
    "what have the children already eaten?"
Example #26:

    c. l.u xale yi       lekk-agum                             u-contruction
    cl.u child the.pl eat-already
    "what have the children already eaten?"
Example #27:

    (19) a. k-an l-a xale yi           dr                  an-form
    cl-an xpl-a child the.pl hit
    "who is it that the children hit?"
Example #28:

    c. *k.u     l-a-u    dr                         u-Form
    class-u xpl-a-3pl hit
    "who did the children hit?"
Example #29:

    b.k.an ak l.an l-a xale yi dq?                                          an-form
    cl.an and cl.an xpl-a child the chase
    "who and what is it that the children chased?"
Example #30:

    c. *k.u ak l.u xale yi dq                                               an-form
    cl.u and cl.u child the chase
    "who and what did the children chase?"
Example #31:

    (22) *k.u te l.u xale yi dq                                                     u-form
    cl.u and cl.u child the chase
    "who and what did the children chase?"
Example #32:

    (23) a. *k.u l.u jox-oon xale yi3                                                cl.u...cl.u
    cl.u cl.u give-past child the
    (intended: "who gave what to the children?")
Example #33:

    b.k.an l.an l-a jox-oon xale yi                                          cl.an...cl.an
    cl.an cl.an xpl-a give-past child the
    "as for who, what is it that he gave to the children?"                 echo only
Example #34:

    (27) a. k.u Bint dr
    cl.u binta hit
    "who did Binta hit?"
Example #35:

    b. *xale yi      jox-na-u-fa-l.u     Isaa                 na-clause
    child the.pl give-na-3pl-loc-cl.u isaa
    (intended: "what did the children give to Isaa there?")
Example #36:

    (29) a.[CP k.u xale yi       foog [CP k.u a     bgg]] ?
    cl.u child the.pl think    cl.u 2sg love
    "who do the children think that you love?"
Example #37:

    b.[CP f.u mu wax [CP f.u Mdu gis-e-woon Dudu dmb]] ?
    cl.u 3sg say     cl.u moodu see-loc-past dudu yesterday
    "where did he say that Moodu saw Dudu yesterday?"
Example #38:

    c.[CP f.u a defe [CP f.u Maryam wax [CP f.u u y         teg tr yi ]]]
    cl.u 2sg think   cl.u maryam say    cl.u 3pl imp put book the.pl
    "where do you think Maryam said they will put the books?"
Example #39:

    (32) [CP k.u2 xale bi foog [CP k.u1 Bint dr]]
    cl.u child the think cl.u binta hit
    "who does the child think that Binta hit?"
Example #40:

    (33) a. l.u Bint jnd
    cl.u binta buy
    "what did Binta buy?"
Example #41:

    b. *[CP l.u xale bi foog [CP k.u Bint dr]]
    cl.u child the think      cl.u binta hit
    "what does the child think who did Binta hit?"
Example #42:

    c. n.u u def4
    cl.u 3pl do
    "what did they do?"
Example #43:

    d. *[CP n.u a foog [CP l.u u def ]
    cl.u 2sg think   cl.u 3pl do
    "what do you think they did?"
Example #44:

    (i) *n.u u togg
    cl.u 3pl cook
    "what did they cook?"
Example #45:

    (ii) n.u mu wax-(*e)
    cl.u 3sg say-mann
    "what did he say?"
Example #46:

    (iii) n.u u ko def-*(e)
    cl.u 3pl 3sg do-mann
    "how did they do it?"
Example #47:

    (34) a. keq itom [CP wen-il         nemiy-ac-il ]          (adapted from Bruening 2004, 17b)
    what say      who-obviative see-3conjunct-participle
    "who did he say he saw?"
Example #48:

    b. keq Mihku ikonewato-k                             (adapted from Bruening 2004, 28b)
    what mihku deny-3conjunct
    "what did Mihku deny?"
Example #49:

    (35) a. [CP kan l-a xale bi gm [CP k.u Bint gis]]
    who xpl-a child the believe        cl.u binta see
    "who is it that the child believes that Binta saw?"
Example #50:

    b.[CP b.an     tr l-a xale bi foog [CP b.u Bint scc]]
    cl.which book xpl-a child the think cl.u binta steal
    "which book is it that the child think that Binta stole?"
Example #51:

    c.[CP nan l-a-u    wax [CP n.u jign ji defe [CP n.u Bint ubbe-e     bunt bi]]]
    how xpl-a-3pl say     cl.u woman the think   cl.u. binta open-mann door the
    door?"
Example #52:

    (37) a. [CP kan l-a xale bi gm [CP k.u Isaa wax [CP k.u Bint gis]]]
    who xpl-a child the believe cl.u isaa say            cl.u binta see
    "who is it that the child believes that Isaa said that Binta saw?"
Example #53:

    (40) a. k.u u foog k.u Isaa dq?
    cl.u 3pl think cl.u isaa chase
    "who do they think that Isaa chased?"
Example #54:

    (41) *[CP k.an l-a-u     defe [CP k.an l-a Isaa dq ]] *cl.an...cl.an
    cl.an xpl-a-3pl think     cl.an xpl-a isaa chase
    "who do they think that Isaa chased?"
Example #55:

    (44) a. [CP k.u xale bi foog [CP k.u dem]]                                u-chain
    cl.u child the think    cl.u leave
    "who does the child think left?"
Example #56:

    b.[CP k.u dem]i [CP k.u xale bi foog ti ]                        u-chain + clausal pied piping
    cl.u leave      cl.u child the think
    "who left does the child think?"
Example #57:

    b. k.u a am xel-aar (*ne) k.u d-ul togg ceebujn
    cl.u 2sg have mind-two that cl.u di-neg cook rice.fish
    "who do you doubt will cook fishrice?"
Example #58:

    (49) l.u Bint ftte l.u ma togg
    cl.u binta forget cl.u 1sg cook
    "what did Binta forget that I cooked?"
Example #59:

    (51) a. [CP y.o o foog [CP y.u kan wax [CP y.u Isaa di             togg ]]]
    cl.u 2sg think cl.u who say           cl.u isaa imperf cook
    "what(pl) do you think that who said that Isaa will cook?"
Example #60:

    b. [CP y.o o foog [CP y.u Bint wax kan [CP y.u Isaa di             togg ]]]
    cl.u 2sg think cl.u binta say who cl.u isaa imperf cook
    "what(pl) do you think that Binta told who that Isaa will cook?"
Example #61:

    (52) l.u Isaa scc?
    cl.u isaa steal
    "what did Isaa steal?"
Example #62:

    (53) a. j.u [TP u-ko-fa      jnd-l-n dmb ]                          u-construction
    cl.u    3pl-3sg-loc buy-ben-past yesterday
    "what (ji-class item) did they buy there for him yesterday?"
Example #63:

    b. ymbaa j.u [TP u-ko-fa       jnd-l-n dmb ]                relative clause
    marijuana cl.u   3pl-3sg-loc buy-ben-past yesterday
    "some marijuana that they bought there for him yesterday"
Example #64:

    (55) a. yoxo    y.u [nit     k.i] bale-e       [kr g.i]                   agreement to left
    pl.hand cl.u person cl.def sweep-instr house cl.def
    "some hands that the person swept the house with"
Example #65:

    (57) __ l.u Isaa scc?                      (=(52))
    cl.u isaa steal
    "what did Isaa steal?"
Example #66:

    (i) gis-na-a      xaj b.u      xale yi     dq
    see-na-1sg dog cl.u      child the.pl chase
    "I saw a dog that the    children chased"
Example #67:

    (62) a. xaj b.an
    dog cl.wh
    "which dog?"
Example #68:

    b. muus m.n
    cat cl.wh
    "which cat?"
Example #69:

    (i) b.an       xaj
    cl.which dog
    "which dog?"
Example #70:

    (63) a. xale bi dem-na          [laata Bint togg-al Mdu laax]
    child the leave-neutral before bint cook-ben moodu laax
    "the child left before Binta cooked Moodu laax"
Example #71:

    c. *l.ui xale b-i     dem [laata Bint togg-al Mdu ti ]
    cl.u child cl-def go before binte cook-ben moodu
    "what did the child go before Binte cooked Moodu?"
Example #72:

    (64) a. *l.ani l-a-u    jend a-y      nen ak t                          an-form
    cl.an xpl-a-3pl buy indef-cl egg and
    "what did they buy eggs and?"
Example #73:

    b. *l.ui u jend a-y      nen ak t                                 u-form
    cl.u 3pl buy indef-cl egg and
    "what did they buy eggs and?
Example #74:

    (65) a. *l.ani l-a Dudu xam ndax       ti l-a-a jnd                     an-form
    cl.an l-a dudu know whether      l-a-1sg buy
    "what does Dudu know whether I bought?"
Example #75:

    b. *l.u Dudu xam ndax        ti l-a-a jnd                         u-form
    cl.u dudu know whether      l-a-1sg buy
    "what does Dudu know whether I bought?"
Example #76:

    (66) a. k.ui-u foog ne l-a [xale b-u nekk]i dr                        u-form
    cl.u-3pl think that xpl-a child cl.u exist hit
    "who do they think that every child hit?"
Example #77:

    b.k-ani l-a-u      foog ne l-a        [xale bu nekk]i dr                         an-form
    cl-an xpl-a-3pl think that xpl-a child cl.u exist hit
    "who is it that they think that it was that every child hit?"
Example #78:

    (67) jngalekat yi daje-na-u     *(ak) Isaa
    teacher the meet-neutral-3pl with isaa
    "the teachers met with Isaa"
Example #79:

    (68) *jngalekat yi daje-el-na-u          Isaa
    teacher    the meet-appl-neutral-3pl isaa
    "the teachers met with Isaa"
Example #80:

    (69) *jngalekat yi daje-el-na-u-ko      (ak) (Isaa)
    teacher    the meet-appl-na-3pl-him with isaa
    "the teachers met with Isaa"
Example #81:

    (70) *jngalekat yi bgg-n-u-k- [CP jm- [CP daje-el   ]]
    teacher    the want-na-3pl-3sg-a try-a       meet-appl
    "the teachers want to try to meet him"
Example #82:

    b.Isaa, m-i jngalekat yi daje-*(el) daanu-na                Relative Clause
    isaa cl-i teacher     the meet-appl fall-na
    "Isaa, who the teachers met with, fell down"
Example #83:

    (72) a. k-an l-a jngalekat yi daje-*(el)                   an-Form
    cl-an xpl-a teacher       the meet-appl
    "who is it that the teachers met?"
Example #84:

    b. k.u jngalekat yi daje-*(el)                      u-Form
    cl.u teacher   the meet-appl
    "who did the teachers meet?"
Example #85:

    b. jngalekat yi yomb-na-u daje*(-el)                      tough-mvt
    teacher    the easy-na-3pl meet-appl
    "the teachers are easy to meet with"
Example #86:

    c. *jngalekat yii yomb-na-u daje ak oomi                 tough-mvt + PP
    teacher the easy-na-3pl meet with 3plstrong
    "the teachers are easy to meet with them"
Example #87:

    (74) a. k.an l-a-u       foog ne [na-CP xale yi         dr-na-u-*(ko)]       na-clause
    cl.an xpl-a-3pl think ne           child the.pl hit-na-3pl-3sg
    "who is it that they think that the children hit him?"
Example #88:

    b. k.u u foog ne [na-CP xale yi         dr-na-u-*(k) ]              na-clause
    cl.u 3pl think ne      child the.pl hit-na-3pl-3sg
    "who do they think that the children hit him?"
Example #89:

    c. k.an l-a-u foog ne [daf-CP xale yi            da-u-*(ko) dr ]    daf-clause
    cl.an xpl-a-3pl think ne         child the.pl do-3pl-3sg hit
    "who is it that they think that the children did hit him?"
Example #90:

    d. k.u u foog ne [daf-CP xale yi        da-u-*(ko) dr ]             daf-clause
    cl.u 3pl think ne        child the.pl do-3pl-3sg hit
    "who do they think that the children hit him?"
Example #91:

    *.u sa yaay defe Isaa wax-na-(leen) .u Bint togg-al ceeb
    cl.u your mother think isaa say-na-3pl     cl.u binta cook-ben rice
    "who(pl) does your mother think Isaa said Binta cooked rice for?"
Example #92:

    *.u sa yaay defe oom, Isaa wax-na-(leen) .u Bint togg-al ceeb
    cl.u your mother think 3plstrong isaa say-na-3pl cl.u binta cook-ben rice
    "who(pl) does your mother think that Isaa said Binta cooked rice for?"
Example #93:

    *y.u sa yaay foog Isaa daf-a-(leen) wax y.u jign ji scc
    cl.u your mother think isaa daf-a-3pl      say cl.u woman the steal
    "what(pl) does your mother think that Isaa said that the woman stole?"
Example #94:

    *y-u sa yaay foog oom Isaa daf-a-(leen) wax y-u jign ji scc
    cl.u your mother think 3plstrong isaa daf-a-3pl say cl.u woman the steal
    "what(pl) does your mother think that Isaa said that the woman stole?"
Example #95:

    -u sa yaay defe -u Isaa wax -u Bint togg-al ceeb
    cl.u your mother think cl.u isaa say cl.u binta cook-ben rice
    "who does your mother think that Isaa said that Binta cooked rice for?"
Example #96:

    -u sa yaay defe (noom) l-a Isaa wax -u Bint togg-al ceeb
    cl.u your mother think 3plstr xpl-a isaa say cl.u binta cook-ben rice
    "who(pl) does your mother think it was that Isaa said Binta cooked rice for?
Example #97:

    (78) lani l-a-u wax ne ti l-a          Isaa defe ne ti l-a Bint di togg                  t   i
    what xpl-a-3pl say ne       xpl-a isaa think ne       xpl-a binta di cook
    "what did they say that Isaa thinks that Binta will cook?"
Example #98:

    b.*y.u u foog k.an l-a Bint wax ne y.u Maryam di togg
    cl.u 3pl think cl.an xpl-a binta tell ne cl.u maryam di cook
    "what(pl) do they think who is it that Binta told what Maryam will cook?"
Example #99:

    (82) a. [CP y.u u foog [CP l-a Bint wax k.an ne [CP y.u Maryam di togg ]]]
    cl.u 3pl think   xpl-a binta tell cl.an ne        cl.u maryam di cook
    "what(pl) do they think who is it that Binta told what Maryam will cook?"
Example #100:

    b. [CP y.an l-a-u foog [CP l-a Bint wax k-an ne [CP y.u Maryam di togg ]]]
    cl.an xpl-a think xpl-a binta tell cl-an ne         cl.u maryam di cook
    "what(pl) do they think who is it that Binta told what Maryam will cook?
Example #101:

    (84) a. *[CP y.u xale bi defe [CP k.u Bint wax [CP y.u Isaa di togg ]]]
    cl.u child the think  cl.u binta tell   cl.u isaa di cook
    "what(pl) does the child think who did Binta tell what(pl) will Isaa cook?"
Example #102:

    b.*[CP y.an l-a xale bi defe [CP k.u Bint wax [CP y.u Isaa di togg ]]]
    cl.an xpl-a child the think   cl.u binta tell      cl.u isaa di cook
    "what(pl) does the child think who did Binta tell what(pl) will Isaa cook?"
Example #103:

    (87) %xaj b.u u gis
    dog cl.u 3pl see
    "which dog did they see?"
Example #104:

    (88) a. gis-na-a a.b        xaj                             statement
    see-na-1sg indef.cl dog
    "I saw a dog"
Example #105:

    b. xaj b.u mu (di)?                                            follow up to (88)a
    dog cl.u 3sg di
    "which dog is it?"
Example #106:

    c. gis-na-a ay         xaj                                     statement
    see-na-1sg indef.cl dog
    "I saw some dogs"
Example #107:

    d. xaj y.u u (di)                                             follow up to (88)c
    dog cl.u 3pl di
    "which dogs are they?"
Example #108:

    (89) a. *l.u xale yi lekk foofu
    cl.u child the eat there
    "what did the children eat there?"
Example #109:

    b. l.u .an lekk foofu
    cl.u cl.an eat there
    "who(pl) ate what there?"
Example #110:

    (91) a. .u jox xale yi        l.an                         u..an
    cl.u give child the.pl cl.an
    "who(pl) gave what to the children?"
Example #111:

    b. *l.an -u (ko) jox xale yi                        *an...u
    cl.an cl.u 3sg give child the.pl
    "who(pl) gave what to the children?"
Example #112:

    (93) #xool-na-u whi
    look.at-na-3pl
    "they looked"
Example #113:

    [CP k.u ma foog ne [CP l-a bint dr ]]
    cl.u 1sg think that     xpl-a binta hit
    "who do I think that Binta hit?"
Example #114:

    *[CP l-a-a     foog ne [CP k.u bint dr ]]
    xpl-a-1sg think that     cl.u binta hit
    "who do I think that Binta hit?"
Example #115:

    (96) a. *whi l-a-u    dr ti
    xpl-a-3pl hit
    "who did they hit?"
Example #116:

    (97) a. k.an ak l.an l-a        xale yi dq?                           an-forms
    cl-an and cl.an xpl-a child the chase
    "who and what is it that the children chased?"
Example #117:

    b.*k.u ak l.u xale yi dq                                       u-forms with ak
    cl.u and cl.u child the chase
    "who and what did the children chase?"
Example #118:

    c. *k.u te l.u xale yi dq                                      u-forms with te
    cl.u and cl.u child the chase
    "who and what did the children chase?"
Example #119:

    (99) k.an ak l.u u dq ca lekkool ba19
    cl.an and cl.u 3pl chase at school the
    "who and what did they chase at school?
Example #120:

    (101) *l.u ak k.an l-a-u          dq ca lekkool ba
    cl.u and cl-an xpl-a-3pl chase at school the
    "what and who is it that they chased at school?"
Example #121:

    ??[CP k.u xale yi foog [CP k.u jign ji wax [CP k.u lekk gato bi ]]]
    cl.u child the think cl.u woman the say        cl.u eat cake the
    "who do the children think that the woman said ate the cake?"
Example #122:

    ??.u xale bi foog .u jign ji wax ne .u Bint dr
    cl.u child the think cl.u woman the say that cl.u binta hit
    "who does the child think the woman said that Binta hit?"
Example #123:

    f.u xale bi foog f.u jign ji wax ne f.u Bint jng-e tr bi
    cl.u child the think cl.u woman the say that cl.u binta read-loc book the
    "where does the child think that the woman said that Binta read the book?"
Example #124:

    (105) a. [CP [CP whi k.u u dr-n ti ]j k.u Bint foog tj ]
    cl.u 3pl hit-past       cl.u binta think
    "who does Binta think they hit?
Example #125:

    d. [CP k.an l-a-u dr-n, [CP k.u Bint foog ]]
    cl.an xpl-a-3pl hit-past   cl.u binta think
    "who does Binta think they hit?"
Example #126:

    b. [b.an xale]j l-a-u        foog [CP tj b.u Isaa dr tj ]
    cl.an child xpl-a-3pl think            cl.u isaa hit
    " which child is it that they think Isaa hit?"
Example #127:

    b. l.u Bint foog (ne) l.u sa xarit tx                            Direct Object
    cl.u binta think ne cl.u your friend smoke
    "what does Binta think that your friend smoked"
Example #128:

    c. n.u u defe (ne) n.u ma ubb-           bunt yi                Adjunct
    cl.u 3pl think ne cl.u 1sg open-mann door the
    "how do they think that I opened the door"
Example #129:

    (109) k.an k.i      l-a-u wax k.u scc gato bi
    cl.an cl.def xpl-a-3pl say cl.u steal cake the
    "who is it that they said stole the cake?"
Example #130:

    b. di-na-a dr [DP k.u u defe k.u            scc gato]        u-chain relative clause
    di-na-1sg hit        cl.u 3pl think cl.u   steal cake
    "I will hit whoever they think stole a     cake"
Example #131:

    (111) *??gis-na-a k.u-u defe k.u scc gato
    see-na-1sg cl.u-3pl think cl.u steal cake
    "I saw someone who they think stole a cake"
Example #132:

    (112) a. laaj-na-a Bint k.u togg ceeb bi
    ask-na-1sg binta cl.u cook rice the
    "I asked Binta who cooked the rice"
Example #133:

    b. laaj-na-a Bint ndax/ndegem togg-na ceeb bi
    ask-na-1sg binta whether/whether cook-na rice the
    "I asked Binta whether she cooked the rice"
Example #134:

    c. *k.u u laaj Bint k.u togg ceeb bi                          subject u-chain
    cl.u 3pl ask binta cl.u cook rice the
    "who did they ask Binta who cooked the rice?"
Example #135:

    d.*l.u u laaj Bint l.u sa yaay togg                 object u-chain
    cl.u 3pl ask binta cl.u your mother cook
    "what did they ask Binta what your mother cooked?"
Example #136:

    (113) a. xam-na-a     k.u yq      tabax yi
    know-na-1sg cl.u destroy building the
    "I know who destroyed the buildings"
Example #137:

    (115) a. k-an l-a-u     birl (*ne) k.u scc gato yi                                          Subject
    cl-an xpl-a-3pl find.out ne cl.u steal cake the
    "who did they find out who stole the cakes?"
Example #138:

    b. k.u-u birl     (ne) k.u Isaa dq                                                  Object
    cl.u-3pl find.out ne cl.u isaa chase
    "who did they find out who did Isaa chase?"
Example #139:

    (116) k.u u laaj Binta [cleft CP moom mu a togg ceeb bi ]
    cl.u 3pl ask binta          3sgstr 3sg a cook rice the
    ("who did they ask Binta, him, was it him who cooked the rice?")
Example #140:

    (117) a. *k.an nga        ftte ndax     k.u jng tr bi
    cl.an xpl+a+2sg forget whether cl.u read book the
    "who did you forget whether read the book?"
Example #141:

    b. *l.u a     ftte ndax      l.u Bub jng
    cl.u 2sg forget whether cl.u buba read
    "what did you forget whether Buba read?"
Example #142:

    (119) a. bgg-n-u-(*m) ma togg-leen
    want-na3pl-1sg    1sg cook-3pl
    "they want me to cook them"
Example #143:

    b.tere-na-u-ma     (ma) togg-leen
    prevent-na-3pl-1sg 1sg cook-3pl
    "they prevented me from cooking them"
Example #144:

    c. digl-n-u-m *(ma) togg-leen
    advise-na-3pl-1sg 1sg cook-3pl
    "they advised me I cook them"
Example #145:

    (i) k.an l-a-u yg k.u Isaa dr
    cl.an xpl-a-3pl find.out cl.u isaa hit
    "who is it that they found out who Isaa hit?"
Example #146:

    (ii) *k.u u yg            k.u Isaa dr
    cl.u 3pl find.out cl.u isaa hit
    "who did they find out who Isaa hit?"
Example #147:

    (120) a. bgg-na-nu Isaa jnd ymbaa ji                                 +Sujunctive Predicate
    want-na-1pl isaa buy marijuana the
    "we want Isaa to buy the marijuana"
Example #148:

    b.k.u nu bgg k.u jnd ymbaa ji26              +Subjunctive Predicate
    cl.u 1pl want cl.u buy marijuana the           Subject
    "who do we like who bought the marijuana?"
Example #149:

    c. k.an l-a-nu bgg k.u jnd ymbaa ji           +Subjunctive Predicate
    cl.an xpl-a-1pl want cl.u buy marijuana the    Subject
    "who do we like who bought the marijuana?"
Example #150:

    d.l.u nu bgg l.u Isaa jnd                                     +Subjunctive Predicate
    cl.u 1pl want cl.u isaa buy                                          Direct Object
    "what do we like that Isaa bought?"
Example #151:

    (i) tere-na-u-ma         ne *(ma) togg
    prevent-na-3pl-1sg ne       1sg cook
    "they prevented that I cook"
Example #152:

    e. l.an l-a-nu      bgg l.u Isaa jnd              +Subjunctive Predicate
    cl.an xpl-a-1pl want cl.u isaa buy                      Direct Object
    "what do we like that Isaa bought?"
Example #153:

    (121) a. l.u Bint bgg [CP ma jnd-(k) ]
    cl.u binta want      1sg buy-3sg
    "what does Binta want me to buy?"
Example #154:

    b. l.an l-a Bint bgg [CP ma jnd-(ko) ]
    cl.an xpl-a binta want    1sg buy-3sg
    "what does Binta want me to buy?"
Example #155:

    (122) [CP l.u nu togg-al xale yi ] l-a       Isaa bgg
    cl.u 1pl cook-ben child the xpl-al isaa want
    "that we cook what for the children is it that Isaa wants?"
Example #156:

    (123) *y.an l-a-u-ko       tere     y.u mu togg
    cl.an xpl-a-3pl-3sg prevent cl.u 3sg cook
    "what(pl) did they prevent him from cooking?
Example #157:

    (124) a. digal-na-a-ln u jng tr bi ypp
    advise-na-1sg-3pl 3pl read book the completely
    "I advised them they read the book completely"
Example #158:

    b. *k.u a digal k.u lekk gato yi                                                       Subject
    cl.u 2sg advise cl.u eat cake the
    "who did you advise who to eat the cakes?"
Example #159:

    c.y.u a-ko     digal y.u mu lekk                                                       Direct Object
    cl.u 2sg-3sg advise cl.u 3sg eat
    "what(pl) did you advise him he eat?"
Example #160:

    d.y.an nga-ko          digal y.u mu lekk                                               Direct Object
    cl.an xpl+a+2sg-3sg advise cl.u 3sg eat
    "what(pl) did you advise him he eat?"
Example #161:

    (125) tinu-na-a-k    (ci) *mu lekk gato yi
    beg-na1sg-3sgobj P 3sg eat cake the
    "I begged him to eat the cakes"
Example #162:

    (126) a. y.o o-ko      tinu ci *(mu) lekk-*(leen)                                              u-form
    cl.u 2sg-3sg beg P 3sg eat-3pl
    "what(pl) did you beg him that he eat them?
Example #163:

    b.y.an nga-ko             tinu ci *(mu) lekk-*(leen)                                  an-form
    cl.an xpl+a+2sg-3sg beg P 3sg eat-3pl
    "what(pl) is it that you begged him that he eat them?"
Example #164:

    (127) a. l.u a-ko tinu (*ci) l.u mu lekk
    cl.u 2sg-3sg beg P cl.u 3sg eat
    "what did you beg him what he eat?"
Example #165:

    b. l.an nga-ko           tinu (*ci) l.u mu lekk
    cl-an xpl+a+2sg-3sg beg P cl.u 3sg eat
    "what is it that you begged him what he eat?"
Example #166:

    (128) a. teg-na-u tr bi ci taabal ji
    put-na-3pl book the P table the
    "they put the book on the table"
Example #167:

    (i) da-ma dogu ci jnd-k                     Clitic low
    da-1sg decide P buy-3sg
    "I DECIDED to buy it
Example #168:

    (ii) *da-ma-ko dogu ci jnd
    da-1sg-3sg decide P buy
    "I DECIDED to buy it"
Example #169:

    (iii) da-ma-ko dog- jnd
    da-1sg-3sg decide-a buy
    "I DECIDED to buy it"
Example #170:

    (iv) *da-ma dog- jnd-k                    *Clitic low
    da-1sg decide-a buy-3sg
    "I DECIDED to buy it"
Example #171:

    b. (ci) l.u u teg tr bi29
    P cl.u 3pl put book the
    "(at) what did they put the book?"
Example #172:

    (130) a. [PP ci f.an ] l-a-u     teg tr bi
    P cl.an xpl-a-3pl put book the
    "at where did they put the book?"
Example #173:

    b. [PP f.an ci ] l-a-u teg tr bi
    cl.an P xpl-a-3pl put book the
    "at where did they put the book?"
Example #174:

    (i) (ci) f.u u teg tr bi
    P cl.u 3pl put book the
    "at where did they put the book?"
Example #175:

    (133) gis-na-a (*ci) l.u u teg tr bi
    see-na-1sg P cl.u 3pl put book the
    "I saw something on which they put the book"
Example #176:

    (134) ci l.u a foog (*ci) l.u u teg tr bi
    P cl.u 2sg think    P cl.u 3pl put book the
    "at what do you think they put the book?"30
Example #177:

    (i) ci f.u a foog (*ci) f.u u teg tr bi
    P cl.u 2sg think P cl.u 3pl put book the
    "at where do you think they put the book?"
Example #178:

    (135) ci l.u u foog ci l-a-a        teg tr bi
    P cl.u 3pl think P xpl-a-1sg put book the
    "at what do they think I put the book?"
Example #179:

    (136) a. (*ci) f.u xale yi di fo-we                      *u-form in PP
    P cl.u child the di play-loc
    "where are the children playing?"
Example #180:

    (137) (ci) f.an l-a    xale yi di fo-we                  an-form in PP
    P cl.an xpl-a child the di play-loc
    "(at) where are the children playing?"
Example #181:

    (143) a. k.u y Gllaay?                    cf. (140)c
    cl.u di gallaay
    "who is Gallaay?"
Example #182:

    b. *k.u mu di Gllaay               cf. (140)a
    cl.u 3sg di gallaay
    "who is Gallaay?"
Example #183:

    (144) k.u mu te l.u mu dq ca lekkool ba
    cl.u 3sg and cl.u 3sg chase P school the
    *"who and what did he chase at school?"