ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Toshio Ohori (1992). Diachrony in Clause Linkage and Related Issues.

URL: http://wings.buffalo.edu/linguistics/people/students/dissertations/ohori/ohori.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 384&langcode=jpn (2018-04-26).

 

Example #1:

    Miti-ni kuruma-o tome-te-oi-ta.
    street-DAT car-ACC park-TE-put-PAST
    street.'
Example #2:

    Heya-de razio-o kake-te suugaku-o benkyoo.si-ta.
    room-LOC radio-ACC play-TE math-ACC study-PAST
    radio, (I) studied math in my room.'
Example #3:

    Tosyokan-de suugaku-o benkyoo.si-te.iru-to soto-de rarii-ga hazimat-ta.
    PAST
    'As (I) was studying math in the library, (they) started a rally outside.'
Example #4:

    hazimat-ta.
    NOM start-PAST
    outside.'
Example #5:

    (20)   Sakuban-wa oki-te.i-rare-nakat-ta-n-desu-ka?
    last.night-TOP wake.up-STAT-MOD-NEG-PAST-PRT-PRED-Q
    'Weren't (you) able to stay awake last night?'
Example #6:

    masu.
    MOD-POL
    making it public.'
Example #7:

    (30)   Ohiru-wa zisaboke-de zenzen oki-te.i-rare-mase-n-desi-ta.
    PAST
    'During the daytime, (I) could not stay awake at all from jet lag.'
Example #8:

    (32)   Miti-ni kuruma-o tome-te-oki-masi-ta.
    street-DAT car-ACC park-TE-put-POL-PAST
    '(I) kept the car parked on the street.'
Example #9:

    (38)   Heya-de razio-o kake-te suugaku-o benkyoo.si-masi-ta.
    room-LOC radio-ACC play-TE math-ACC study-POL-PAST
    '(I) played the radio and studied math in (my) room.'
Example #10:

    (39)   ?Heya-de razio-o kake-masi-te suugaku-o benkyoo.si-masi-ta.
    room-LOC radio-ACC play-POL-TE math-ACC study-POL-PAST
    '(I) played the radio and studied math in (my) room.'
Example #11:

    masi-ta.
    POL-PAST
    '(I) was studying math in the library and (they) started a rally outside.'
Example #12:

    hazimari-masi-ta.
    start-POL-PAST
    '(I) was studying math in the library and (they) started a rally outside.'
Example #13:

    Ame-ga hut-ta-si kaze-mo hidoku hui-ta.
    rain-NOM fall-PAST-SI wind-also terribly blow-PAST
    'It rained, and the wind also blew terribly.'
Example #14:

    Ame-ga hut-ta-no-ga Taroo-wa iya.dat-ta.
    rain-NOM fall-PAST-NZ-NOM Taroo-TOP hate-PAST
    'Taro hated it that it rained.'
Example #15:

    Ame-ga hure-ba siai-wa tyuusi-dat-ta.
    rain-NOM fall-BA game-TOP suspended-PRED-PAST
    'If it had rained, the game would have been suspended.'
Example #16:

    (48)   Ame-ga hure-ba siai-wa tyuusi-da.
    rain-NOM fall-BA game-TOP suspended-PRED
    'If it rains, the game will be suspended.'
Example #17:

    (50)     Werther-wa Lotte-o uti-korosi-ta.
    Werther-TOP Lotte-ACC shoot-kill-PAST
    'Werther shot Lotte to death.'
Example #18:

    (N-2) Hon-o tot-te (PAUSE) mi-masi-ta.
    book-ACC take-TE see-POL-PAST
    Without pause: '(I) tried reading the book (to see what would happen).'
Example #19:

    (72)   Taroo-wa neko-ni gyuunyuu-o noma-se-ta.
    Taroo-TOP cat-DAT milk-ACC drink-CAUS-PAST
    'Taroo let the cat drink milk.'
Example #20:

    (84)   Boosi-o kabe-ni kake-ta.
    hat-ACC wall-DAT hang-PAST
    '(I) hung my hat on the wall.'
Example #21:

    (85)   Hon-o yomi-kake-te otya-ni si-ta.
    book-ACC read-hang-TE tea-DAT do-PAST
    '(I) withdrew from reading and had a cup of tea.'
Example #22:

    Wangan.sien.hi-no 90-oku doru-o makanau sekiyu.zoozee-ga --#1
    hike-NOM
    'The oil tax hike which will create nine billion dollars of (Japan's)
Example #23:

    1-niti-kara zissi-ni-nari, --#2
    1-day-from effective-DAT-become
    'became effective as of (April) 1, (and)
Example #24:

    --#3
    the.like
    'all over the country the gas tax has been raised about one yen per liter
Example #25:

    sekiyu.seehin.kakaku-ga wazuka.nagara agat-ta. --#4
    oil.product.price-NOM a.little become.higher-PAST
    'the price of petroleum products has become a little higher.
Example #26:

    Naganen yasukat-ta enerugii.kakaku-ga motarasi-ta mono-o --#5
    thing-ACC
    'What the long-lasting low energy cost has brought about
Example #27:

    kangaeru yoi kikai-da. --#6
    think.over good occasion-PRED
    '(this) is a good occasion to think over.'
Example #28:

    A: Nn ano Oakland-ni sun-de-ta toki ne, --#1
    Hmm that Oakland-DAT live-TE-PAST time PRT
    'Yeah (it happened) when (I) lived in Oakland,
Example #29:

    Oakland-no kowai tokoro-ni sun-de-ta no; sorede --#2
    Oakland-GEN dangerous place-DAT live-TE-PAST PRT so
    '(I) used to live in Oakland's dangerous areas; so ...'
Example #30:

    B: Nanka obake-ga deru to ka. --#3
    somewhat ghost-NOM haunt COMP Q
    'Did ghosts haunt?'
Example #31:

    A: Tigau, --#4
    wrong
    'No,
Example #32:

    ki-ta bakari-da-kara --#6
    come-PAST just-PRED-KARA
    'it was right after (I) came here, so
Example #33:

    sira-nai -de --#7
    know-NEG-TE
    '(I) didn't know (that).
Example #34:

    anoo reiku-no soto-da-kara --#8
    well lake-GEN outside-PRED-KARA
    'Well, (it) was near the Lake, so
Example #35:

    ii-na-to omot-te --#9
    nice-PRT-COMP think-TE
    '(I) thought (it) would be nice, and
Example #36:

    kari-ta-n.da-kedo.mo. --#10
    rent-PAST-PRED-but
    '(I) rented (a room) there.'
Example #37:

    (91)    Doitu-wa hitotu-de.ari, bunka-mo hitotu-da.
    Germany-TOP one-PRED/LINK, culture-also one-PRED
    'There is one Germany, and there is one culture.'
Example #38:

    (92)    Doitu-wa hitotu-de.are, seekatu-wa hutatu-da.
    Germany-TOP one-PRED/PERF, life-TOP two-PRED
    'There is one Germany, but there are two lives.'
Example #39:

    (93)    Doitu-wa hitotu-de.at-te, bunka-mo hitotu-da.
    Germany-TOP one-PRED/LINK-TE, culture-also one-PRED
    'There is one Germany, and there is one culture.'
Example #40:

    (94)   [Dooryoo-ga i kai-ta] honi-o syohyoo.si-ta.
    colleague-NOM write-PAST book-ACC review-PAST
    '(I) reviewed the book which (my) colleague wrote.'
Example #41:

    (95)   [Eki-ni tui-ta] toki(-ni) wasuremono-ni kizui-ta.
    station-DAT arrive-PAST time-DAT forgotten.thing-DAT realize-PAST
    had forgotten something.'
Example #42:

    (97)   [Sigoto-ga aru] kuse-ni terebi bakari mi-te.iru.
    work-NOM have bad.habit-DAT TV only watch-STAT
    'Even though (I) have work to do, (I) am only watching TV.'
Example #43:

    (100) Kane-ga nai-nimokakawarazu, hataraka-nai.
    money-NOM have.not-NIMOKAKAWARAZU work-NEG
    '(I) have no money, but (I) don't work.'
Example #44:

    (101) Kane-ga nai. Nimokakawarazu, hataraka-nai.
    money-NOM have.not NIMOKAKAWARAZU work-NEG
    '(I) have no money. But (I) don't work.'
Example #45:

    (a) Yasukere-ba, kau yo.
    cheap-BA buy PRT
    'If (it) is cheap, (I)'ll buy (it).'
Example #46:

    (b) Taroo-wa asi-mo hayakere-ba, kata-mo tuyoi.
    Taroo-TOP foot-also fast-BA shoulder-also strong
    'Taroo runs fast and has a strong throwing arm as well.'
Example #47:

    (c) Mado-o akere-ba, soto-wa ame.
    window-ACC open-BA outside-TOP rain
    '(I) opened the window to find (it)'s raining outside.'
Example #48:

    (a) Daigaku-ni hait-ta-ga, benkyoo-bakari-si-te.iru.
    college-DAT enter-PAST-GA study-only-do-STAT
    '(I) entered a college, but (I) have not quit studying.'
Example #49:

    (b) Ani-wa sizin-da-ga, otooto-wa ongakuka-da.
    PRED
    'The elder brother is a poet and/??but the younger brother is a
Example #50:

    (c) Kotosi sotugyoo-da-ga, singaku-o kangae-te.iru.
    STAT
    '(I) am graduating this year, and/but (I) am considering whether to
Example #51:

    (a) Yasui-kara, kau.
    cheap-KARA buy
    'Because (it)'s cheap, (I)'ll buy that.'
Example #52:

    (b) Yasui-kara, warui.
    cheap-KARA bad
    'Because (it)'s cheap, (it)'s bad.'
Example #53:

    (a) Razio-o kiki-nagara, benkyoo.suru.
    radio-ACC listen-NAGARA study
    '(I) study while (I) listen to the radio.'
Example #54:

    (b) ??Kazoku-ga terebi-o mi-nagara, watasi-wa benkyoo.suru.
    family-NOM TV-ACC watch-NAGARA 1sg-TOP study
    '(I) study while my family watch TV.'
Example #55:

    (c) Nihon-ni i-nagara, eego-o itumo hanasu.
    Japan-DAT stay-NAGARA English-ACC always speak
    'Though (I) am in Japan, (I) always speak English.'
Example #56:

    (d) Kazoku-ga Nihon-ni i-nagara, watasi-wa au-koto.ga.deki-nai.
    family-NOM Japan-DAT stay-NAGARA 1sg-TOP see-MOD-NEG
    'Though (my) family is in Japan, I cannot see (them).'
Example #57:

    (a) Omosiroi-nara, kau/ureru yo.
    entertaining-NARA buy/sell PRT
    'If (it)'s entertaining, (I)'ll buy (it)/(it)'ll sell.'
Example #58:

    (b) Omae-ga Keio-nara, ore-wa Waseda-da.
    2sg-NOM Keio-NARA 1sg-TOP Waseda-PRED
    Waseda.'
Example #59:

    (c) Natu-ga kure-ba/*kuru-nara/ki-tara, omoi.dasu.
    summer-NOM come-BA/come-NARA/come-TARA remember
    'When the summer comes, (I)'ll remember (it).'
Example #60:

    (d) Sensee-ni ??ae-ba/au-nara/at-tara, yorosiku.
    teacher-DAT see-BA/see-NARA/see-TARA say.hello
    'If/when (you) see the teacher, please say hello.'
Example #61:

    okuri-masu.
    send-POL
    'If (it) reaches there today, (I)'ll send it (or else I won't).'
Example #62:

    (a) Ippuku.si-ni syokudoo-ni it- ta.
    have.a.break-NI cafeteria-DAT go-PAST
    '(I) went to the cafeteria to have a break.'
Example #63:

    (c) Ryuugaku.suru-tame-ni, eego-o benkyoo.si-te.iru.
    study.abroad-TAME-NI English-ACC learn-STAT
    '(I)'m learning English to study abroad.' (also translatable with so
Example #64:

    (b) A: Zinkoo-ga antee.suru-to keezai-ga hattatu.suru.
    population-NOM get.stable-TO economy-NOM make.progress
    takes off.'
Example #65:

    hanasu.
    speak
    'Even though (I) am in Japan, (I) always speak English.'
Example #66:

    ?ugoi-te.i-temo, Garireo-wa kokuhatu.sa-re-ta.
    TOP condemn-PASS-PAST
    'Even though the earth is moving, Gallileo was condemned.'
Example #67:

    (a) Ani-wa isya-da-si, otooto-wa bengosi-da.
    PRED
    'The elder brother is a doctor and the younger brother is a lawyer.'
Example #68:

    (b) Kanozyo-wa kasikoi-si, utukusii.
    she-TOP smart-SI beautiful
    'She is smart and beautiful.'
Example #69:

    (a) Benkyoo.si-tara, ii daigaku-ni hai-reru.
    study-TARA good college-DAT enter-MOD
    'If (you) study (hard), (you) can enter a good college.'
Example #70:

    (b) Benkyoo.si-tara, ii daigaku-ni hai-re-ta.
    study-TARA good college-DAT enter-MOD-PAST
    '(I) studied (hard), and (I) could enter a good college.'
Example #71:

    (c) Zya, soo si-tara/sure-ba(-ii).
    Interj. so do-TARA/do-BA-fine
    'Well then, (you) can do so.', lit. 'To do so will be fine.'
Example #72:

    (a) Tosyokan-ni it-te hon-o kari-ta.
    library-DAT go-TE book-ACC borrow-PAST
    '(I) went to the l ibrary and borrowed a book.'
Example #73:

    (b) Nesugosi-te maniawa-nakat-ta.
    wake.up.late-TE come.on.time-NEG-PAST
    '(I) woke up late, so (I) couldn't come on time.'
Example #74:

    (c) Warat-te aisatu.si-ta.
    smile-TE say.hello-PAST
    '(I) said hello with a smile.'
Example #75:

    (d) Kimi-o nakusi-te iki-te-ike-nai.
    2sg-ACC lose-TE live-TE-go-NEG
    'If you're gone, (I) cannot live.'
Example #76:

    (e) Aredake benkyoo.si-te siken-ni oti-ta.
    that.much study-TE exam-DAT fail-PAST
    'Though (I) studied that much, (I) failed in the exam.'
Example #77:

    (f) Ano musume-wa wakaku-te kiree-da.
    that girl-TOP young-TE pretty-PRED
    'That girl is young and pretty.'
Example #78:

    (b) Haru-ga ki-temo, kibun-wa saiaku.
    spring-NOM come-TEMO feeling-TOP rotten
    'Even *if/though the spring has come, I feel rotten.'
Example #79:

    (a) Zisyo-o hiki-tutu/nagara, sono hon-o yon-da.
    PAST
    '(I) read that book looking (it) up in the dictionary.'
Example #80:

    (b) Zisyo-o hiki-?tutu/nagara, sono hon-o yomi-tigat-ta.
    mistake-PAST
    '(I) misread that book though (I) looked (it) up in the dictionary.'
Example #81:

    (a) Hikooki-ni nori Sapporo-made it-ta.
    airplane-DAT ride/LINK Sapporo-to go-PAST
    '(I) went to Sapporo by taking an airplane.'
Example #82:

    (b) ??Warai aisatu.si-ta.
    smile/LINK say.hello-PAST
    '(I) said hello with a smile.'
Example #83:

    kekkon 20 nen-ni nari-masu.
    marriage 20 year-PRT become-POL
    years since we got married.'
Example #84:

    (a) Roohi.si-ta ageku(-ni) hasan.si-ta.
    waste.money-PAST AGEKU(-DAT) bankrupt-PAST
    'After wasting a lot of money, (I) went bankrupt.'
Example #85:

    (a) Ki-ga kuruu hodo(-ni) benkyoo.si-ta.
    mind-NOM go.crazy HODO(-DAT) study-PAST
    crazy.'
Example #86:

    (b) Isogasikere-ba isogasii hodo sake-no ryoo-ga hueru.
    busy-BA busy HODO alcohol-GEN quantity-NOM increase
    increases).'
Example #87:

    (a) Himitu-o sit-ta izyoo, saigo-made tukiau-n.desu na.
    secret-ACC know-PAST IZYOO end-till come.with-PRED PRT
    end.'
Example #88:

    (a) Daigaku-ni i-ta koro(-ni), takusan ason-da.
    college-DAT be-PAST KORO(-DAT), a.lot play-PAST
    'While (I) was in college, (I) played around a lot.'
Example #89:

    (a) Ason-da kuse-ni, siken-ni ukat-ta.
    play-PAST KUSE-DAT, exam-DAT pass-PAST
    'Though (I) played around (a lot), (I) passed the exam.'
Example #90:

    (a) Yasumi-ga owaru made nyuuin.suru.
    vacation-NOM end MADE stay.in.hospital
    '(I) will stay in the hospital until the vacation is over.'
Example #91:

    (b) Yasumi-ga owaru made-ni genkoo-o siageru.
    vacation-NOM end MADE-DAT draft-ACC finish
    '(I) will finish the draft by the time the vacation is over.'
Example #92:

    (a) Puroguramu-o hasira-se-ta mama(-de) debaggu.si-ta.
    program-ACC run-CAUS-PAST MAMA(-LOC?) debug-PAST
    '(I) debugged while (I) was running the program,' or '(I) debugged
Example #93:

    (b) Puroguramu-ga hasit-ta mama(-de) debaggu.si-ta.
    program-NOM run-PAST MAMA(-LOC?) debug-PAST
    '(I) debugged while the program was running,' or '(I) debugged with
Example #94:

    (a) Sensee-ni at-ta ori(-ni) kono hon-o itadai-ta.
    teacher-DAT see-PAST ORI(-DAT) this book-ACC receive-PAST
    'When (I) saw my teacher, (s/he) kindly gave (me) this book.'
Example #95:

    (a) Ason-da see-de siken-ni oti-ta.
    play-PAST SEE-INST(?) exam-DAT fail-PAST
    'Because (I) played around (too much), (I) failed in the exam.'
Example #96:

    (a) Kono kyoku-o kiku tabi(-ni) mukasi-o omoidasu.
    this song-ACC listen TABI-DAT old.time-ACC recall
    'Every time (I) listen to this song, (I) recall old times.'
Example #97:

    (a) Asobu tame(-ni), daigaku-ni hait-ta.
    play TAME(-DAT), college-DAT enter-PAST
    'In order to play around, (I) entered college.'
Example #98:

    (b) Ason-da tame(-ni), siken-ni oti-ta.
    play-PAST TAME(-DAT), exam-DAT fail-PAST
    'Because (I) played around (too much), (I) failed in the exam.'
Example #99:

    (a) Mita-ni kaigi-de iku toki kopii-o tori-masu.
    Mita-DAT meeting-on go TOKI copy-ACC take-POL
    'When (I) go to Mita for a meeting, (I)'ll make a copy (of it).'
Example #100:

    (a) Benkyoo.si-ta tokoro-de siken-ni ukara-nai.
    study-PAST TOKORO-LOC exam-DAT pass-NEG
    'Even if/though (you) study hard, (you) won't pass the exam.'
Example #101:

    (a) Ason-da ue(-ni), takusan syakkin-o si-ta.
    play-PAST UE(-DAT), a.lot debt-ACC do-PAST
    'In addition to playing (a lot), (I) built a great debt.'
Example #102:

    (a) Wakai uti-ni issyokenmee benkyoo.si-yoo.
    Young UTI-DAT hard study-VOL
    '(I) will study hard as long as (=while) (I) am young.'
Example #103:

    (b) Kyoo-wa kuraku nara-nai uti-ni kaero-o.
    today-TOP dark become-NEG UTI-DAT go.home-VOL
    while it is not yet dark.'
Example #104:

    (c) ?Kinoo-wa kuraku nara-nai uti-ni kaet-ta.
    yesterday-TOP dark become-NEG UTI-DAT go.home-PAST
    home as long as it did not get dark.'
Example #105:

    (a) Soto-ga mieru yoo(-ni) mado-o ake-ta.
    outside-NOM seeable YOO(-DAT) window-ACC open-PAST
    '(I) opened the window so that (I) could see the outside.'
Example #106:

    (a) Ason-da yue(-ni), siken-ni oti-ta.
    play-PAST YUE(-DAT), exam-DAT fail-PAST
    'Because (I) played (a lot), (I) failed in the exam.'
Example #107:

    (a) [Hon-o kari]-TE [yon-da].
    book-ACC borrow-TE read-PAST
    '(I) borrowed a book and read (it).'
Example #108:

    (b) [Hon-o kari]-TE [yoma-se-ta].
    book-ACC borrow-TE read-CAUS-PAST
    book and made (somebody) read it.'
Example #109:

    (a) [Mondai-ga wakara-naku]-TE [komat-ta].
    question-NOM see-NEG-TE troubled-PAST
    troubled because (I) couldn't understand the question.'
Example #110:

    (b) [Mondai-ga wakara-naku]-TE...
    question-NOM see-NEG-TE
    'Because (I) couldn't understand the question...' but can be uttered
Example #111:

    (a) Taroo-wa [sono hon-o kari]-TE [yon-da].
    Taroo-TOP that book-ACC borrow-TE read-PAST
    'Taroo borrowed that book to rea d (it).'
Example #112:

    (b) [[Sono hon-o kari]-TE [yon-da]] hito-wa i-masu-ka?
    that book-ACC borrow-TE read-PAST person-TOP be-POL-Q
    'Is there anybody who borrowed that book to read (it)?'
Example #113:

    (110) Musuko-ga kinoo kaet-te-ki-te musume-mo asita kisee.suru.
    come.home
    home tomorrow.'
Example #114:

    (111) Musuko-ga kaet-te-ki-te musume-mo kisee.suru.
    son-NOM return-TE-come-TE daughter-also come.home
    home.'
Example #115:

    (N-1) Nomi-ni it-ta. (the citation form of nomi is nomu)
    drink-NI go-PAST
    '(I) went out to drink.'
Example #116:

    (N-2) Syokuzi-ni it-ta.
    meal-DAT go-PAST
    '(I) went out for a meal.'
Example #117:

    (N-3) Kimi-ga i-ta-kara/*node koso sigoto-o oera-re-ta.
    2sg-NOM be-PAST-KARA/NODE PRT work-ACC finish-MOD-PAST
    'Precisely because you have been (with me), I could finish the work.'
Example #118:

    (N-4) Yamato-wa senzyoo-no hana-to tit-ta.
    Yamato-TOP battlefield-GEN blossom-TO scatter-PAST
    battlefield's blossoms, Yamato scattered.'
Example #119:

    (N-5) Sensee-wa Taroo-ni de-te-ike-to it-ta.
    teacher-TOP Taroo-DAT move.out-TE-go-TO say-PAST
    'The teacher told Taroo to get out.'
Example #120:

    (N-6) Kono hodo ryuugaku-suru koto-ga kimari-masi-ta.
    this HODO study.abroad-do thing-NOM decide-POL-PAST
    'Now it has been decided that (I) study abroad.'
Example #121:

    (N-7) Sore hodo it-temo wakara-nakat-ta no ka.
    it HODO say-TEMO understand-NEG-PAST PRT Q
    'Didn't (s/he) understand even though (you) explained that much?'
Example #122:

    (N-8) Musuko-ga kaet-te-ki-te musume-mo kisee.si-ta.
    son-NOM return-TE-come-TE daughter-also come.home-PAST
    '(Our) son returned home, and (our) daughter also came home.'
Example #123:

    kakaa-mo yakimoti-ha-yaka-zu ka
    wife-also jealous-TOP-become-NEG PRT
    (about your fooling around)'
Example #124:

    yo-ga akuru-to kaka.sama kaka.sama-to iu-te tazune
    night-NOM break-TO mom mom-COMP say-TE look.around
    'the night broke, and (she) looked around (for her mother), saying
Example #125:

    ima.ni o-sakana-ga kuru-to hito kuti ageru yo
    now PRE-appetizer-NOM come-TO one bite give PRT
    'now when the appentizer is brought here, (I)'ll give a bite (to you)'
Example #126:

    dya-to iu-te kuni-wo tikusitu.si
    stepchild-PRED-COMP say-TE home.country escape
    was (after all) a stepchild, escaped from his home country'
Example #127:

    (184) Sigoto-ga aru kuse-ni, terebi bakari mi-te.iru
    work-NOM be KUSE-DAT TV only watch-STAT
    'Though (I) have work to do, (I)'m only watching TV.'
Example #128:

    (185) [Taroo-ga suwaru] no-o tukamae-ta.
    Taroo-NOM sit NO-ACC catch-PAST
    would sit down.'
Example #129:

    (186) [Taroo-ga suwaru] tokoro-o soozi.si-ta.
    Taroo-NOM sit-PAST TOKORO-ACC clean-PAST
    '(I) cleaned the place where Taroo would sit down.'
Example #130:

    (187) [Taroo-ga suwaru] tokoro-o tukamae-ta.
    Taroo-NOM sit-PAST TOKORO-ACC catch-PAST
    would sit down.'
Example #131:

    (N-1) [Taroo i-ga suwaru] tokoro-o i tukamae-ta.
    Taroo-NOM sit-PAST TOKORO-ACC catch-PAST
    '(I) caught Taroo as (he) would sit down.'
Example #132:

    (N-2) [Neko-ga nezumi-o oikake-te.iru] tokoro-o tukamae-ta.
    cat-NOM rat-ACC chase-STAT TOKORO-ACC catch-PAST
    '(I) caught Taroo as (he) would sit down.'
Example #133:

    (N-4) Anata-ga warat-te.iru tokoro-ga mi-tai.
    2sg-NOM smile-STAT TOKORO-NOM see-wis h
    occasion that you are smiling.'
Example #134:

    (217) Asita kopii-si-te-oi-te-age-masu yo.
    tomorrow copy-do-TE-put-TE-give-POL PRT
    '(I)'ll make a copy (of it) (for you) tomorrow.'
Example #135:

    Taroo-wa Hanako-o sasi-korosi-ta.
    Taroo-TOP Hanako-ACC stab/LINK-kill-PAST
    'Taroo stabbed Hanako to death,' lit. 'Taroo stab-killed Hanako.'
Example #136:

    Taroo-wa miti-ni kuruma-o tome-te-oi-ta.
    Taroo-TOP street-DAT car-ACC park-TE-put-PAST
    the street.'
Example #137:

    (220) Heya-ni iru
    room-DAT stay
    '(I) am in the room.'
Example #138:

    (221) Isu-ni suwat-te-iru
    chair-DAT sit-TE-stay
    '(I) am sitting on a chair.'
Example #139:

    (222) Sake-o yame-te.iru
    alcohol-ACC stop-STAT
    '(I) am abstaining from alcohol.'
Example #140:

    (a) Taroo-to Hanako-wa daki-at-ta.
    Taroo-AND Hanako-TOP hold-meet-PAST
    'Taroo and Hanako held (=embraced) each other.'
Example #141:

    (224) Ki-no eda-ga nobi-kit-ta.
    tree-GEN branch-NOM grow-cut-PAST
    'The tree's branches have fully grown out.'
Example #142:

    (225) (a) Taroo-ga hon-o yomi-*kakaru/kakeru-to, ... [Vt-*Vi/Vt]
    Taroo-NOM book-ACC read-hang.over-TO
    'Taroo (had) barely started to read the book, and then ...'
Example #143:

    (b) Hune-ga sizumi-kakaru/kakeru-to, ... [Vi-Vi/Vt]
    ship-NOM sink-hang.over-TO
    'The ship (had) barely started to sink, and then ...'
Example #144:

    (N-1) Kono giron-wa wakari-yasui.
    this argument-TOP understand-easy
    'This argument is easy to understand (=follow).'
Example #145:

    (N-2) Nimotu-o tori-matome-ta.
    baggage-ACC take-put.together-PAST
    '(I) packed (my) baggage.'
Example #146:

    (N-3) Itidoo sikiten-o tori-okonat-ta.
    all ceremony-ACC take-perform-PAST
    '(They) performed/participated in a ceremony together.'
Example #147:

    (N-4) Yoota-to Ai-wa hohoemi-at-ta.
    Yoota-and Ai-TOP smile-meet-PAST
    'Yoota and Ai smiled at each other.'
Example #148:

    (N-5) Gakusee-tati-wa kyoozyu-no taiman-o nageki-at-ta.
    student-PL-TOP professor-GEN laziness-ACC complain-meet-PAST
    or simply 'the students all complained about the professor's laziness.'
Example #149:

    (243) Kane-ga nai-nimokakawarazu, hataraka-nai.
    money-NOM have.not-NIMOKAKAWARAZU work-NEG
    '(I) have no money, but (s/he) doesn't work.'
Example #150:

    (244) Kane-ga nai. Nimokakawarazu, hataraka-nai.
    money-NOM have.not NIMOKAKAWARAZU work-NEG
    '(I) have no money. But (s/he) doesn't work.'
Example #151:

    (248) Sore-demo, daitai deki-te.iru-n.des.yo?
    it-DEMO almost done-STAT-PRED
    'Being so [=yet], (it)'s almost done, isn't (it)?'
Example #152:

    (249) Tuuka, tada.no baka-zya-nai?
    TUUKA mere fool-PRED-NEG
    'Rather, (s/he) is a mere fool, isn't (s/he)?' (in Kansai dial ect, tuuka is
Example #153:

    (250) Dasii, o-kyuuryoo-mo ii-si.
    DASI PRE-salary-also good-SI
    'Right, and the salary is good too.'
Example #154:

    (253) A, kore 10CC-no raibu /da/yo.
    Oh, this 10CC-GEN live /PRED/PRT
    'Oh, this is 10CC's live performance.'
Example #155:

    (257) [Neko-ga sinobi.kon-de-ki-ta] no-o tukamae-ta.
    cat-NOM sneak.in-TE-come-PAST NO-ACC catch-PAST
    '(I) caught a cat which sneaked in.'