ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Harold Torrence (2005). Chapter 4.

URL: http://www.people.ku.edu/~torrence/academic/dissertation-files/torrence-dis-chapter-4-clefts.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3850&langcode=wol (2019-05-25).

 

Example #1:

    f. n.u gaaw-e l-a-u lekk-e gato bi                               non-subject cleft
    cl.u fast-mann xpl-a-3pl eat-mann cake the
    "quickly is how they ate the cake"
Example #2:

    (2) a. xale yi      nppkat-a                               a-copula
    child the.pl fisherman-a
    "the children are fishermen"
Example #3:

    (3) a. scc-na-u cin li                                            neutral na-clause
    steal-na-3pl pot the
    "they stole the pot"
Example #4:

    b. an    (u) o scc cin li                                    subject cleft
    who.pl 3pl a steal pot the
    "who(pl) is it that stole the pot?"
Example #5:

    e. cin li      l-a-u      scc (d-u tr bi)                  non-subject cleft
    pot the     xpl-a-3pl steal di-neg book the
    "the pot     is what they stole"
Example #6:

    f. ceebujn mu a saf             kaani!                         subject cleft
    fish.rice 3sg a taste.like pepper
    "fishrice indeed is hot"
Example #7:

    c. suub simis bi l-a-a       *(def)                               VP
    dye shirt the xpl-a-1sg do
    "dye the shirt is what I did"
Example #8:

    d. suub l-a-a     *(def) simis bi                                 VP (remnant)
    dye xpl-a-1sg do shirt the
    "dying is what I did to the shirt"
Example #9:

    c. [PP (ca) kr g              ] l-a-a     gis- Isaa
    P.dist house the.dist xpl-a-1sg see-loc isaa
    "it is at the house that I saw Isaa"
Example #10:

    (i) fecc l-a-a           d-aan                  Gambia (WEC International 1992)
    dance xpl-a-1sg di-hab.past               *St. Louis
    "dance is what I used to do"
Example #11:

    (6) a. wax-na-a *(ak) Isaa                                         P
    speak-na-1sg P isaa
    "I spoke to Isaa"
Example #12:

    b. togg-na-a ceebujn *(ak) kuddu g.                          instrumental P
    cook-na-1sg rice.fish     P spoon the.dist
    "I cooked fishrice with the spoon there"
Example #13:

    (8) a. [CP lan l-a-u         jnd]i l-a Bint foog ti                     CP pied piping
    what xpl-a-3pl buy xpl-a binta think
    (lit. "what is it that they bought that it is that Binta thinks?"
Example #14:

    b. lani l-a Bint foog [CP ne            ti l-a-u        jnd ti ] CP stranding
    what xpl-a binta think          ne         xpl-a-3pl buy
    (lit. "what is it that Binta thinks that it is that they bought?"
Example #15:

    (10) a. ftte-na-u ndax      Abdu dem-na
    forget-na-3pl whether abdu leave-na
    "they have forgotten whether Abdu left"
Example #16:

    b. ndax        [ Abdu dem-na]k l-a-u ftte tk
    whether/Q abdu leave-na xpl-a-3pl forget
    "have they forgotten THAT ABDU LEFT?"                           matrix construal
Example #17:

    c. [ndax    [Abdu dem-na ] ]k l-a-u        ftte tk
    whether abdu leave-na         xpl-a-3pl forget
    "whether Abdu left is what they have forgotten"               embedded construal
Example #18:

    d. [[Abdu dem-na] l-a-u        ftte tk ] ndax
    abdu leave-na xpl-a-3pl forget         Q
    *"whether Abdu left is what they have forgotten"             *embedded construal
Example #19:

    (11) a. Isaa foog-na (ne) [suub-na-nu simis bi ]                neutral na-CP
    isaa think-na ne dye-na-1pl shirt the
    "Isaa thinks that we dyed the shirt"
Example #20:

    b. [suub-na-nu simis bi] l-a Isaa foog                     CP clefting
    dye-na-1pl shirt the xpl-a isaa think
    "that we dyed the shirt is what Isaa thinks"
Example #21:

    c. [k-u lekk gato bi] l-a-u      foog                     silent wh + CP pied piping
    cl-u eat cake the xpl-a-3pl think
    "who ate the cake, do they think?"
Example #22:

    e. [DP simisi b.i nga foog ne ti l-a-a          suub ti] relative clause
    shirt cl.i 2sg think ne        xpl-a-1sg dye
    "the shirt that you think I dyed"
Example #23:

    b. *[ymbaa u gr] g.i u scc
    marijuana u man cl.i 3pl steal
    "the man whose marijuana they stole"
Example #24:

    c.[gri ] g.i u scc ymba-ami
    man     cl.i 3pl steal marijuana-3sg
    "the man whose marijuana they stole"
Example #25:

    (13) *suub l-a-a         suub simis bi                             *predicate cleft
    dye xpl-a-1sg dye shirt the
    "dying is what I did to the shirt"
Example #26:

    (14) a. [sant b.i ma sant Isaa] mu a leen jaaxal
    praise cl.i 1sg praise isaa 3sg a 3pl surprise
    "the way I prasied Isaa surprised them"
Example #27:

    b. [cant l.i ma sant Isaa ] mu a leen jaaxal
    praise cl.i 1sg praise isaa 3sg a 3pl surprise
    "the way I praised Isaa surprised them"
Example #28:

    ti l-a sa yaay gm ne                   ti l-a-u      bgg ti
    xpl-a your mother believe ne           xpl-a-3pl love
    (lit. "who is it that the student thinks that it is that I said that it is that
Example #29:

    (17) a. xale bi dem-na          [laata Bint togg-al Mdu lax]
    child the leave-neutral before bint cook-ben moodu laax
    "the child left before Binta cooked Moodu laax"
Example #30:

    b. *l.ani l-a xale b-i       dem [laata Bint togg-al    Mdu ti]
    cl.an l-a child cl-def go      before binte cook-ben moodu
    "what did the child go before Binte cooked Moodu?"
Example #31:

    (18) a.gis-na-a    [gr g.i dr xale bi]
    see-na-1sg man cl.i hit child the
    "I saw the man who hit the child"
Example #32:

    (19) a. *l.ani l-a-u    jend a-y     nen ak t                 i
    cl.an xpl-a-3pl buy indef-cl egg and
    "what did they buy eggs and?"
Example #33:

    (20) a. *l.ani l-a Dudu xam ndax      ti l-a-a jnd
    cl.an l-a dudu know whether      l-a-1sg buy
    "what does Dudu know whether I bought?"
Example #34:

    b. xam-na-a    l.an l-a-u     jox jign ji
    know-na-1sg cl.an xpl-a-3pl give woman the
    "I know what they gave the woman"
Example #35:

    (22) k.an l-a    jngalekat yi daje-*(el)
    cl.an xpl-a teacher      the meet-appl
    "who is it that the teachers met?"
Example #36:

    (23) *kani l-a-i      bgg                                                    SCO
    who xpl-a-3sg love
    "whoi does hei love?"
Example #37:

    (24) a. lekk-nga guro                              neutral clause
    eat-na.2sg kola.nut
    "you ate a kola nut"
Example #38:

    b. lekk-nga lan                              neutral clause
    eat-na.2sg what
    "you ate what?"                           echo question only
Example #39:

    c. lan l-a Smba wax ne [ xale yi                scc-na-u-*(ko) ]
    what xpl-a samba say that child the.pl steal-na-3pl-3sg
    "what is it that Samba said that the children stole it?"         real question
Example #40:

    *lani l-a Smba wax ne [Bint foog-na-(ko) ne [ti l-a xale yi scc ti]]
    what xpl-a samba say that binta think-na-3sg that xpl-a child the steal
    "what did Samba say that Binta thinks that the children stole?"
Example #41:

    lani l-a Smba wax ne [ti l-a Bint foog ne [ ti l-a xal e yi scc ti]]
    what xpl-a samba say that xpl-a binta think that xpl-a child the steal
    "what did Samba say that Binta thinks that the children stole?"
Example #42:

    (27) a. s-a jaan mu o wcc                                                  subject cleft
    P-2sg snake 3sg a descend
    (lit. "it is your snake that has descended")
Example #43:

    b. tr l-a-a           def Senegaal                                  non-subject cleft
    book xpl-a-1sg        do senegal
    "I do believe in     Senegal"
Example #44:

    (28) a.*togg-na-a    dara
    cook-na-1sg anything
    "I cooked anything"
Example #45:

    b. togg-u-ma     dara
    cook-neg-1sg anything
    "I did not cook anything"
Example #46:

    c.togg-na-a l-enn
    cook-na-1sg cl-1
    "I cooked something"
Example #47:

    (30) dr-na-a sa-ma bopp
    hit-na-1sg P-1sg head
    "I hit my head"                                literal
Example #48:

    (31) *sa-ma bopp-a dr Mdu
    P-1sg head-a hit moodu
    *"(I) myself hit Moodu"
Example #49:

    (34) bgg-n-u Gllaay jng taalif bi
    want-na-3pl gallaay read poem the
    "they want Gallaay to read the poem"
Example #50:

    (35) a. bgg-*(n)-n-u Gllaay jng-oon taalif bi10
    want-past-na-3pl gallaay read-past poem the
    "they had wanted Gallaay to read the poem"
Example #51:

    b. bgg-n-n-u Gllaay jng taalif bi
    want-past-na-3pl gallaay read poem the
    "they had wanted Gallaay to read the poem"
Example #52:

    (36) [Gllaay jng-oon taalif bi] l-a-u       bgg-*(n)
    gallaay read-past poem the xpl-a-3pl want-past
    "that Gallay read the poem is what they wanted"
Example #53:

    (37) [Gllaay jng-oon taalif bi ] l-a-u     wax-(oon)
    gallaay read-past poem the xpl-a-3pl say-past
    "that Gallaay read the poem is what they said"
Example #54:

    (38) [Gllaay jng taalif bi ] l-a-u bgg-(n)
    gallaay read poem the xpl-a-3pl want-past
    "that Gallaay read the poem is what they want/ed"
Example #55:

    (39) a. [VP suub simis] l-a-a-y       def                   [V + ndef DP] clefted
    dye shirt xpl-a-1sg-di do
    "dye shirts is what I do"
Example #56:

    b. *[VP suub ti ] l-a-a-y       def simis              *ndef DP stranded by itself
    dye        xpl-a-1sg-di do shirt
    "dye is what I do to shirts"
Example #57:

    (40) a. [VP suub-ln ] l-a-a      def
    dye-3pl      xpl-a-1sg do
    "dye them is what I did"
Example #58:

    b. [suub-ln] l-a-a      door a *(def)
    dye-3pl    xpl-a-1sg begin a do
    "dye them is what I began to do"
Example #59:

    c. [door-leen suub] l-a-a       *(def)
    begin-3pl dye xpl-a-1sg do
    "begin to dye them is what I did"
Example #60:

    b. door l-a-a        *(def)
    begin xpl-a-1sg do
    "begin is what I did"
Example #61:

    (44) a. [ xale bi]-a lekk lan dmb                                subject cleft
    child the-a eat what yesterday
    "what did THE CHILD eat yesterday?"
Example #62:

    c.. *lan l-a [+foc xale bi ] lekk dmb                       non-subject cleft
    what xpl-a       child the eat yesterday
    "what is it that THE CHILD ate yesterday?"
Example #63:

    (45) kani l-a yaay-ami            bgg ti
    who xpl-a mother-3sg         love
    ("which person is such that the mother of that person loves that person?")
Example #64:

    (47) a. tr b.i
    book cl.def
    "the book"
Example #65:

    b. tr b.n
    book cl.which
    "which book?"
Example #66:

    (49) a. tr bii l-a k.an             foog ne ti l-a-a                jnd ti
    book the xpl-a cl.which        think ne         xpl-a-1sg      buy
    (i.e. "which one is it that    thinks that I bought THE      BOOK?")
Example #67:

    b. l.ani      l-a      k.an     foog ne ti l-a-a         jnd ti
    cl.which xpl-a cl.which think ne           xpl-a-1sg buy
    (i.e. which is it that which one thinks that I bought?"
Example #68:

    (i) ya-angi-i di lekk ypp                        Subject Focus Progressive
    2sg-prog-? di eat meat
    "YOU are eating the meat"
Example #69:

    (ii) ypp-angi-i nga-y lekk                       Non-Subject Focus Progressive
    meat-prog-? 2sg-di eat
    "you are eating MEAT"
Example #70:

    (i) lekk-na-u ypp wi
    eat-na-3pl meat the
    "they have eaten the meat"
Example #71:

    (55) a. Maryam jngalekat-a                                         a-copula
    maryam teacher-a
    "Maryam is a teacher"
Example #72:

    b. Maryam jngalekat l-a                                       l-copula
    maryam teacher    l-a
    "Maryam is a teacher"
Example #73:

    (57) l-ii l-an l-a?
    cl-this cl-an xpl-a
    "what is this?"
Example #74:

    (59) [l.i mu dem ] bett-na-ma
    cl.i 3sg leave surprise-na-1sg
    "that he left surprised me"
Example #75:

    (67) xale yi      oom an-a lan l-a-*(u)-fa togg-al Isaa
    child the.pl 3pl wh-? what xpl-a-3pl-loc cook-ben isaa
    "the children, them, what is it that they cooked for Isaa there?"
Example #76:

    (i) dmb         l-a-a-ko       gis moom-xale bi
    yesterday xpl-a-1sg-3sg see 3sgind-child the
    "it is yesterday that I saw him he the child"
Example #77:

    (ii) dmb        l--u gis Isaa oom (epp)
    yesterday xpl-a-3pl see isaa 3plind all
    "it is yesterday that they saw Isaa, they (all)"
Example #78:

    (69) a. an    u a foog ne lan l-a-a              togg               matrix wh-question
    who.pl 3sg a think ne what xpl-a-1sg cook
    "who(pl) is it that think that I cooked what?"
Example #79:

    (78) a. Mdu mu-ng-i        ca ja     ba
    moodu 3sg-prog-det prep market the
    "Moodu is at the market"
Example #80:

    (i) Mdu mu-ng-i          woon ca ja        ba
    moodu 3sg-prog-det past P market the
    "Moodu was at the market"
Example #81:

    b. Mdu mer-na                                         Adjectival Predicate
    moodu angry-neutral
    "Moodu is angry"
Example #82:

    c. Mdu mu a y jngalekat                              Nominal Predicate
    moodu 3sg a di teacher
    "Moodu is a teacher"
Example #83:

    d. Mdu mu a y jngalekat bi                           Nominal Predicate
    moodu 3sg a di teacher  the
    "Moodu is the teacher"
Example #84:

    f. k.u y jngalekat?                                    Nominal Predicate
    cl.u di teacher
    "who is a teacher?"
Example #85:

    c. Gllaay mu a (y) kccoor                  NP/DP SA-a (di) Pred
    gallaay 3sg a di rascal
    "a rascal is what Gallaay is"
Example #86:

    d. Gllaay daf-a *(y) jngalekat             NP/DP daf-a-di Pred
    gallaay do-a di teacher
    "a teacher is what Gallaay is"
Example #87:

    e. Gllaay d-u jngalekat                    NP/DP di-neg Pred
    gallaay di-neg teacher
    "Gallaay is not a teacher"
Example #88:

    f. jngalekat bi a *(y) Gllaay              Pred-a-di NP/DP
    teacher    the a di gallaay
    "the teacher is Gallaay"
Example #89:

    g. Gllaay di jngalekat                NP/DP di Pred
    gallaay di teacher
    "Gallaay is a TEACHER (not something else)"
Example #90:

    c. Maryam jngalekat-a                         Predicative a-copula
    maryam teacher-a
    "Maryam is a teacher"
Example #91:

    d. Maryam jngalekat l-a                       Predicative l-copula
    maryam teacher     xpl-a
    "Maryam is a teacher"
Example #92:

    (81) a. kan a lekk gato bi                                           question
    who a eat cake the
    "who is it that ate the cake?"
Example #93:

    (82) a. kan-a23
    who-a
    "who is it?"
Example #94:

    b. kan l-a
    who xpl-a
    "who is it?"
Example #95:

    (83) a. Gllaay jngalekat l-a                                       Top Foc l-a
    gallaay teacher      xpl-a
    "Gallaay, a teacher is what he is"
Example #96:

    b. Gllaay jngalekat bi l-a                                    Top Foc l-a
    gallaay teacher       the xpl-a
    "Gallaay, the teacher is who he is"
Example #97:

    c. jngalekat bi Gllaay l-a
    teacher     the gallaay xpl-a
    "the teacher, Gallaay is who it is"
Example #98:

    (84) a. Gllaay jngalekat-a                               S ndef-a           = Top Foc-a
    gallaay teacher-a
    "as for Gallaay he is a TEACHER"
Example #99:

    b. *jangalekat Gallay-a                                *ndef S-a          = *Topndef Foc-a
    teacher    gallay-a
    "a teacher is Gllaay"
Example #100:

    (i) k.u mu *(di)/(*y)
    cl.u 3sg di/di
    "who is it?"
Example #101:

    (i) jngalekat Gllaay *(moom) l-a
    teacher gallaay         3sgstrong xpl-a
    "as for being a teacher, Gallaay, that is what he is"
Example #102:

    c. jangalekat bi Gllaay-a                       def S-a         = Topdef Foc-a
    teacher     the Gllaay-a
    "as for the teacher is GLLAAY"
Example #103:

    (85) a. *an-a kan-a
    wh-? who-a
    "who is it?"
Example #104:

    b. *an-a kan l-a
    wh-? who xpl-a
    "who is it?"
Example #105:

    (86) a. oom xale yi         l-a-u
    3plstr child the.pl xpl-a-3pl
    "as for them, the children is who they are"
Example #106:

    c. nappkat oom-a                                    Foc Toppron a
    fisherman 3plstr-a
    "fishermen they are"
Example #107:

    (95) a. Gllaay-a kon                                             a-copula + conditional
    gallaay-a cond
    "it must be Gallaay"
Example #108:

    (ii) gis-na-u xale eti
    see-na-3pl child again
    "they saw the a child again"
Example #109:

    (iii) [VP woy-ati ] l-a-a           *(def)
    sing-again xpl-a-1sg do
    "sing again is what I did"
Example #110:

    (iv) [VP woy] l-a-a          *(def-ati)
    sing xpl-a-1sg do-again
    "sing again is what I did"
Example #111:

    b. Gllaay l-a kon                                         l-copula + conditional
    gallaay xpl-a cond
    "it must be Gallaay"
Example #112:

    (96) a. Sidi a woon
    sidi a past
    "it was Sidi"
Example #113:

    b. Sidi l-a woon                                              l-copula + past
    sidi xpl-a past
    it was Sidi"
Example #114:

    b. jngalekat l-a Gllaay d-oon-ul                             l-copula + ul-negative
    teacher xpl-a gallaay di-past-neg
    "Gallaay is not a teacher"
Example #115:

    b. *jngalekat u-a                                    a-copula
    teacher 3plClt-a
    "they are teachers"
Example #116:

    c. jngalekat l-a-u                                   l-copula
    teacher    xpl-a-3pl
    "(them) they are teachers"
Example #117:

    (100) a. Senegaal [rw [m.u ma neex         lool]] l-a  l-copula + RC pied piping
    senegal country cl.u 1sg be.pleasing very xpl-a
    "Senegal is a country I like a lot"
Example #118:

    b. Senegaal [rw [m.u ma neex          lool]]-               a-copula + RC pied piping
    senegal country cl.u 1sg be.pleasing very-a
    "Senegal is a country I like a lot"
Example #119:

    c. Senegaal [rwi ] l-a     [m.u ma neex     lool]            l-copula + RC stranding
    senegal country xpl-a cl.u 1sg be.pleasing very
    "Senegal is a country I like a lot"
Example #120:

    d. *Senegaal [rw ]-      [m.u ma neex   lool]               *a-copula + RC stranding
    senegal country-a cl.u 1sg be.pleasing very
    "Senegal is a country I like a lot"
Example #121:

    (107) a. Gllaay a woon                                   a-copula
    gallaay a past
    "it was Gallaay"
Example #122:

    b. golo   l-a-u     d-oon-ul                                           l-copula
    monkey xpl-a-3pl di-past-neg
    "a monkey is not what they are"
Example #123:

    (116) a. whi k.u ti lekk gato bi
    cl.u    eat cake the
    "who ate the cake?"
Example #124:

    (121) a. gis-n-u Joob                              neutral clause
    see-na-3pl joob
    "they saw Joob"
Example #125:

    c. waaw, gis-n-u-k                         expected answer to (121)b
    yes     see-na-3pl-3sg
    "yes, they saw him"
Example #126:

    c. d-u xaj bi, ya-a-ko            gis                      du TOP
    di-neg dog the 2sg-a-3sg       see
    "as for the dog, you saw      it, right?"