ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Kyung-Sook Chung (2005). Space in Tense.

URL: http://www.sfu.ca/linguistics/graduate/theses/Chung_PhD_Thesis_2005.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3851&langcode=kor (2019-07-20).

 

Example #1:

    (12)    a. mina-nun       ttokttokha-ta.
    Mina-TOP       intelligent-DEC
    `Mina is intelligent.'
Example #2:

    b. nolay-lul     pwulu-nu-n             sonye
    song-ACC sing-PRES.IMPF-ATT girl
    `a/the girl who sings/is singing a song'
Example #3:

    b. hakkyo-ey ka-te-n           mina-nun olaksil-lo cikhayngha-yss-ta.
    school-LOC go-S.PAST-ATT Mina-TOP arcade-to head.straight-PFCT-                     DEC
    `Mina, who was going to school, headed straight to the arcade.'
Example #4:

    (3)     a. ney os-ey          hulk-i       mwut-ess-ta.
    your clothes-LOC mud-NOM stain-PFCT-DEC
    `Mud has stained your clothes.'
Example #5:

    b. chelswu-nun      cip-ey                    o-ass-ta.
    Chelswu-TOP      house-to go-PFCT-TRANS come-PFCT-DEC
    `Chelswu came/has come back after he went home.'     (Nam 1996:265)
Example #6:

    (37)         a. ku-ka      umsik-ul      mek-essess-ta.
    he-NOM food-ACC          eat-PAST-DEC
    `He ate dinner.'
Example #7:

    b. ku-ka      umsik-ul      mek-ess-ta.
    he-NOM food-ACC          eat-PFCT-DEC
    `He ate dinner.'                               (N.-K. Kim 1975:529530)
Example #8:

    (39)    a. ku-ka     pusan-ey     ka-ssess-ta.
    he-NOM Pusan-to        go-PAST-DEC
    `He went to Pusan (but he is back here).'
Example #9:

    b. ku-ka     pusan-ey     ka-ess-ta.
    he-NOM Pusan-to        go-PFCT-DEC
    `He has gone to Pusan (so he is in Pusan).'                        (Nam 1996:475
Example #10:

    b. ku-ka      ppalkan os-ul             ip-ess-ta.
    he-NOM red            clothes-ACC put.on-PFCT-DEC
    `He has put on red clothes (so he is dressed in red).'             (Nam 1996:477
Example #11:

    kyeysokhayse salangha-yssess-ta.
    continuously love-PAST-DEC
    `I loved my wife continuously from five years ago until now.' (C. Lee 1985:437)
Example #12:

    (44)   a.??cikum      nay-ka kakey-ey          ka-ssess-ta.
    now        I-NOM       store-to     go-PAST-DEC
    `*I went to the store now.'
Example #13:

    b. pangkum                     nay-ka       kakey-ey   ka-ssess-ta.
    just.now/a.moment.ago I-NOM              store-to   go-PAST-DEC
    `I went to the store just now.'
Example #14:

    b. changmwun-i yel-i-essess-ta.
    window-NOM open-PASS-PAST-DEC
    `The window opened/was opened.'
Example #15:

    b. ne    ku censihoy        po-assess-ni?
    you that exhibition see-PAST-INT
    `Did you see the exhibition?'
Example #16:

    b. ??jwun-un cikum-kkaci ku          chayk-ul sey-pen             ilk-essess-ta.
    Joon-TOP now-until        that book-ACC three-time           read-PAST-DEC
    `Joon read the book three times so far.'
Example #17:

    b. jwun-un      1990-nyen-ilay cwulkot       vancouver-ey sa-n-ta.
    Joon-NOM 1990-year-since all.the.time Vancouver-LOC live-PRES.             IMPF-DEC
    `Joon has lived in Vancouver ever since 1990.'
Example #18:

    (23)   a. cikum-to yakha-ciman.
    now-also be.weak-though
    `She is still weak now.'
Example #19:

    b. cikum-un an-yakha-ciman.
    now-TOP      NEG-be.weak-though
    `She is not weak now though.'
Example #20:

    (30)    a. ?einstein-un     princeton-ul       pangmwunha-yss-ta.
    Einstein-TOP Princeton-ACC visit-PFCT-DEC
    `*Einstein has visited Princeton.'
Example #21:

    (32)    einstein-i        princeton-ul         pangmwuha-yss-ta.
    Einstein-NOM      Princeton-ACC        visit-PFCT-DEC
    `Einstein has visited Princeton.'
Example #22:

    (42)    A: nay-ka     sutobu-lul an-kku-n               kes      kath-ay.
    I-NOM      stove-ACC not-turn.off-ATT thing seem-DEC
    `It seems that I did not turn/have not turned off the stove.' (The stove is on.)
Example #23:

    (43)    B: mina-ka      kk-ess-ta/            ??kk-essess-ta.
    Mina-NOM turn.off-PFCT-DEC/ ?? turn.off-PAST-                   DEC
    `Mina turned/has turned it off.' (The stove is off.)
Example #24:

    (46)    A: nay-ka sutobu-lul an-kku-n                   kes      kath-ay.
    I-NOM stove-ACC not-turn.off-ATT thing seem-DEC
    `It seems that I did not turn off the stove.' (The stove is on.)
Example #25:

    tasi     nwu-ka          sutobu-lul khy-ess-nunci         molu-ciman.
    again someone-NOM stove-ACC turn.on-PFCT-whether not.know-but
    `I don't know if somebody has turned it on again though.'
Example #26:

    (49)   A: onul-nun    pang-i        kkaykkusha-ney.
    today-TOP room-NOM be.clean-S.PRES
    `Today, your room is very clean.'
Example #27:

    (50)   B: ecey         chengso-lul    com ha-yss/yssess-e.
    yesterday cleaning-ACC little do-PFCT/PAST-DEC
    `*I have cleaned the room yesterday.'
Example #28:

    (i)     pakk-ey-nun          cikum pi-ka         o-te-la.
    outside-LOC-TOP now           rain-NOM come-S.PAST-DEC
    `[I noticed] it is raining outside now.'
Example #29:

    (12)    a. ku-ttay(-nun)       nay-ka/na-nun oylop-te-la.
    that-time(-TOP) I-NOM/I-TOP be.lonely-S.         PAST-DEC
    `[I noticed] I was lonely at that time.'
Example #30:

    b. ??ku-ttay(-nun)    mina-ka/nun       oylop-te-la.
    that-time(-TOP) Mina-NOM/TOP be.lonely-S.         PAST-DEC
    `[I noticed] Mina was lonely at that time.'
Example #31:

    (14)    a. mina-ka/nun      yeyppu-te-la.
    Mina-NOM/TOP be.pretty-S.PAST-          DEC
    `[I saw] Mina was pretty.'
Example #32:

    b. ??nay-ka/na-nun yeyppu-te-la.
    I-NOM/I-TOP      be.pretty-S.PAST-    DEC
    `[I saw] I was pretty.'
Example #33:

    (17)    a. ku-ttay-nun        nay-ka       m ops i     oylow-eha-yssess-ta.
    that-time-TOP I-NOM             awfully     be.lonely-do-PAST-DEC
    `I felt terribly lonely at that time.'
Example #34:

    (20)    a. nay-ka      nwunmwul-i nao-te-la.
    I-NOM       tear-NOM        come.out-S.PAST-DEC
    `[I noticed] I had tears coming to/out of my eyes.'
Example #35:

    b. ??nay-ka       wul-te-la.
    I-NOM        cry-S.PAST-DEC
    `[I noticed] I was crying.'
Example #36:

    (i)    ??nay-ka nwunmuwl-i twu-sikan-tongan-ul nao-assess-ta.
    I-NOM      tear-NOM      two-hour-for-ACC       come.out-PAST-DEC
    `I had tears coming to/out of my eyes for two hours.'
Example #37:

    (ii)    nay-ka twu-sikan-tongan-ul        wul-essess-ta.
    I-NOM       two-hour-for-ACC      cry-PAST-DEC
    `I cried for two hours.'
Example #38:

    (21)    a. nay-ka/na-nun ku-ttay       heskes-i                   po-i-te-la.
    I-NOM/I-TOP       that-time phantom-NOM                see-PASS-S.   PAST-DEC
    `[I noticed] I saw a phantom at that time.'
Example #39:

    b. ??nay-ka/na-nun ku-ttay        heskes-ul                po-te-la.
    I-NOM/I-TOP       that-time phantom-ACC               see-S.PAST-   DEC
    `[I noticed] I saw a phantom at that time.'
Example #40:

    (19)    a. ku-ttay-nun       nay-ka       oylop-te-la.
    that-time-TOP I-NOM            be.lonely-S.   PAST-DEC
    `[I noticed] I was lonely at that time.'
Example #41:

    (15)    a. ??ku-ttay-nun      nay-ka        m ops i     oylow-eha-te-la.
    that-time-TOP I-NOM            awfully be.lonely-do-S.PAST-      DEC
    `[I noticed] I was feeling/felt terribly lonely at that time.'
Example #42:

    (14)    b. ??nay-ka/na-nun yeyppu-te-la.
    I-NOM/I-TOP be.pretty-S.PAST-    DEC
    `[I saw] I was pretty.'
Example #43:

    (24)    na-to molu-key           (nay-ka) ku-uy      cip-ulo        kele-ka-te-la.
    I-even not.know-ADV I-NOM          he-GEN house-toward walk-go-S.PAST-DEC
    `[I noticed] I was walking toward his house without knowing it/unconsciously.'
Example #44:

    (i)     mina-ka       kkwum-eyse      kaswu-ka      toy-te-la.
    Mina-NOM dream-LOC            singer-NOM become-S.PAST-DEC
    `[I saw] Mina became a singer in my dream.'
Example #45:

    (42)   a. nay-ka       nwunmwul-i nao-ney.
    I-NOM        tear-NOM       come.out-S.PRES
    `[I see] I have tears coming to/out of my eyes.'
Example #46:

    b. ??nay-ka      wu-ney.
    I-NOM       cry-S.PRES
    `[I see] I am crying.'
Example #47:

    (i)     mina-ka       ttena-ss-te-la/ ??ttena-ssess-te-la.
    Mina-NOM leave-PFCT-S.PAST-DEC/ leave-PAST-S.PAST-DEC
    `[I noticed] Mina had left.'
Example #48:

    (ii)    mina-ka       pwusan-ey ka-ess-te-la.
    Mina-NOM Pusan-to         leave-PFCT-S.PAST-DEC
    `[I noticed] Mina had gone.'
Example #49:

    (iii)   ?mina-ka      pwusan-ey     ka-ssess-te-la.
    Mina-NOM Pusan-to           ka-PAST-S.PAST-DEC
    `[I noticed] Mina went.'
Example #50:

    (4)    b. mina-ka        kewul-ul     kkay-ss-te-la.
    Mina-NOM mirror-ACC break-PFCT-S.PAST-DEC
    `[I found out] Mina had broken/broke the mirror.'
Example #51:

    (7)     mina-ka        (ku-ttay-nun) ca-ko iss-keyss-te-la.
    Mina-NOM that-time-TOP sleep-PROG-MOD-S.PAST-            DEC
    `[I infer] Mina was sleeping at that time.'
Example #52:

    (11)       a. nay-ka       ka-keyss-ta.
    I-NOM         go-MOD-DEC
    `I will go'. Or `[I infer] I will go.'
Example #53:

    (i)     A: mina-ka       ywulichang-ul kkay-ss-te-la.
    Mina-NOM window-ACC            break-PFCT-S.PAST-DEC
    `[I found out] Mina broke the window.'
Example #54:

    B: ettehkey al-ass-ni?
    How       know-ESS-INT
    `How did you know?'
Example #55:

    A: jwun-i        malha-yss-ta.
    Joon-NOM say-ESS-DEC
    `Joon said so.'
Example #56:

    c. cwungtong-eyse cencayng-i ilena-ss-ta-n-ta.
    Middle.East-LOC war-NOM           rise-PFCT-DEC-PRES.    IMPF-DEC
    `[They say] a war broke out in the Middle East.'
Example #57:

    (41)   a. ?jwun-i        mina-ka       ttena-ss-tatela.
    Joon-NOM      Mina-NOM leave-PFCT-REP
    `Joon said that Mina left/had left.'
Example #58:

    b. ?jwun-i        mina-ka       aphu-tatela.
    Joon-NOM Mina-NOM           be.sick-REP
    `Joon said that Mina is/was sick.'
Example #59:

    (42)   A: mina-ka       yocuum          way       an-po-i-ni?
    Mina-NOM these.days           why       not-see-PASS-   INT
    `Why hasn't Mina shown       up these   days?'
Example #60:

    (43)   B: jwun-i      kyay aphu-tatela/ ??/*aphu-tanta.
    Joon-NOM (s)he be.sick-REP/       aphu-HEAR
    `Joon said that she is sick.'
Example #61:

    b. mina-ka      ttena-keyss-tanta.
    Mina-NOM     leave-MOD-HEAR
    `[They say] Mina will leave.'
Example #62:

    (46)       a. mina-ka      pwusan-ey sa-n-tanta.
    Mina-NOM     Pusan-LOC live-PRES.IMPF-             HEAR
    `[They say] Mina lives in Pusan.'
Example #63:

    b. mina-ka       pwusan-ey sal-assess-tanta.
    Mina-NOM      Pusan-LOC live-PAST-HEAR
    `[They say] Mina lived in Pusan.'
Example #64:

    (i)        mina-ka        aphu-ta-ney.
    Mina-NOM       be.sick-TA-S.PRES
    `[They say] Mina is sick.
Example #65:

    (i)    ??nay-ka tolao-ass-ul          ttay mina-ka             syawe-lul  ha-yss-essess-ta.
    I-NOM return-PFCT-IR.ATT time Mina-NOM                shower-ACC do-PFCT-PAST-DEC
    `Mina took a shower when I came back.'
Example #66:

    (ii)    nay-ka tolao-ass-ul          t t ay mina-ka             syawe-lul       ha-yssess-ta.
    I-NOM return-PFCT-IR.ATT time       Mina-NOM            shower-ACC      do-PAST-DEC
    `Mina took a shower when I came back.'
Example #67:

    (7)     a. mina-ka      pwusan-ey sa-n-tanta.
    Mina-NOM     Pusan-LOC live-PRES.IMPF-              HEAR
    `[They say] Mina lives in Pusan.'
Example #68:

    b. mina-ka       pwusan-ey sal-assess-tanta.
    Mina-NOM      Pusan-LOC live-PAST-HEAR
    `[They say] Mina lived in Pusan.'
Example #69:

    (16)    a. mina-ka       mwun-ul       ye-n-ta.
    Mina-NOM      door-ACC      open-PRES.      IMPF-DEC
    `Mina is opening the door.'
Example #70:

    (i)     a. *(Ne)     com kippu-ela!
    (You) little glad-IMP
    `(You) please be happy!'
Example #71:

    b. (Ne)    c om    kippu-ha-yla!
    (You) little glad-do-IMP
    `(You) please be happy!'
Example #72:

    (i)      mina-ka      jwun-i     hakkyo-ey ka-ssess-ta-ko malha-yssess-ta.
    Mina-NOM Joon-NOM school-LOC go-PAST-DEC-COMP say-PAST-DEC
    `Mina said that Joon went to school (then).'