ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Chungmin Lee, Daeho Chung, Seungho Nam (2000). The Semantics of amwu N-to/-irato/-ina in Korean-Arbitrary Choice and Concession.

URL: http://ling.snu.ac.kr/nam/papers/LangInfo-2000.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3857&langcode=kor (2019-04-26).

 

Example #1:

    (4) a. amwu-to o-ci.anh-ass-ta
    any-TO come-not-Past-Dec
    'Noone came.'
Example #2:

    b. han/twu saram-i      o-ci.anh-ass-ta
    one/two person-Nom come-not-Past-Dec
    'One/Two person didn't come.'
Example #3:

    (5) a. amwu-(saram)-irato o-myen Jini-nun pankin-ta
    any-(person)-RATO come-if Jini-Top welcome-Dec
    'If anyone comes, Jini welcomes him.'
Example #4:

    b. etten saram-i       o-myen Jini-nun pankin-ta
    some person-Nom come-if Jini-Top welcome-Dec
    'If a person comes, Jini welcomes him.'
Example #5:

    (6) ku amwu-to o-ci anh-ass-ta
    that anyone come-not-Past-Dec
    'Noone came, who-so-ever.'
Example #6:

    b. amwu-rato o-myen       na-eykey cenhwaha-e
    anyone      come-if I-Dat        call-Imp
    'If anyone comes, give me a call.'
Example #7:

    (8) a. *amwu haksayng-i        o-ass-ta
    any     student-Nom came
    `(Lit.) *Any student came.'
Example #8:

    b. *Jini-nun amwu haksayng-ul cohaha-nta
    Jini-Top any     student-Acc likes
    `Jini likes any student.'
Example #9:

    c. amuw haksayng-i        o-ato,       sensayngnim-un hwanyengha-ess-ta
    any      student-Nom come-though teacher-Top       welcome-Past-Dec
    'If any student came, the teacher welcomed him.'
Example #10:

    nwukwu-i-nci al-ass-ta
    who-be        knew
    'Before some person came, Jini already knew who he would be.'
Example #11:

    b. *amwu-to o-ki.cen.ey Jini-nun ku saram-i         nwukwu-i-nci al-ass-ta
    any-TO come-before Jini-Top that person-Nom who-be           knew
    'Before anyone came, Jini knew who he was.'
Example #12:

    (10) a. (i)    etten saram-un    ku il-ul      ha-ul.swu.iss-ta
    some person-Top that work-Acc do-can-Dec
    'Someone can do that.'
Example #13:

    (ii)   haciman na-nun ku salam-i           nwukwu-i-nci molu-nta
    but       I-Top   that person-Nom who-be-Compl not.know-Dec
    'But I don't know who he is.'
Example #14:

    b. (i)    amwu-rato       ku il-ul      ha-ul.swu.iss-ta
    anyone-RATO that work-Acc do-can-Dec
    'Anyone can do that'
Example #15:

    (ii)   #na-nun ku-ka nwukwu-i-nci al-nta
    I-Top he-Nom who-be-Compl know-Dec
    `I know who he is.'
Example #16:

    (11)    amwu haksayng-to        o-ci.anh.ass-ta
    any     student-Conc. come-not-Past-Dec
    'No matter what student x it may be, it is not the case that x came.'
Example #17:

    (12) a. amwu-na         ta hapkyekha-ass-e
    anyone-NA all passed
    `Everyone passes (the exam).'
Example #18:

    b. amwu-na           hapkyekha-ci.anh-ass-e
    anyone-NA pass-not-Past-Dec
    'It is not the case that every one passed (the exam).'
Example #19:

    c. amwu-to          hapkyekha-ci.anh-ass-e
    anyone-TO passed-not-Past-Dec
    'No one passed (the exam).'
Example #20:

    (13) a. Nwuka hapkyekha-ess-ni?
    who     pass-Past-Q
    'Who passed (the exam)?'
Example #21:

    b. amwu-to/*amwu-rato/*amwu-na hapkyekha-ci.anh-ass-e
    Anyone-TO/-RATO/-NA         passed-not-Dec
    'No one passed (the exam).'
Example #22:

    (14) a. pi-ka       o-ato,       kyengki-nun kyeysoktoy-ess-ta
    rain-Nom come-though game-Top         continued
    `Even though it rained, the game continued.'
Example #23:

    (15) Jini-to/-rato/-na     kuren il-ul ha-ul.swu.iss-e
    Jini-TO/-RATO/-NA such thing-Acc do-can-Dec
    `Even Jini can do such a thing.'
Example #24:

    (16) sey saram-to an o-ass-ta
    three person-TO not came
    `Less than three people came.'
Example #25:

    (17) sey saram-ina o-ass-ta
    three person-NA came
    `As many as three people came.'
Example #26:

    (18) a. amwu-haksayng-i o-a.to/-te.rato manna-ci.anh-ulke-ya
    any-student-Nom come-though meet-not-Fut-Dec
    `No matter what student comes, I will not see him.'
Example #27:

    b. nwuka/amwu-ka ka-na          sensayngnim-ul mos manna-ulke-ya
    who/anyone-Nom go-though teacher-Acc          not meet-Fut-Dec
    `No matter who goes, he would not be able to see the teacher.'
Example #28:

    (19) a. Jini-malko    tto nwuka hapkyekha-ess-ni?
    Jini-besides also who     pass-Past-Q
    `Who passed (the exam) besides Jini?'
Example #29:

    b. Koni-to     hapkyekha-ess-e.
    Koni-TO passed
    `Koni also passed (the exam).'
Example #30:

    c. simcie        Koni-to hapkyekha-ess-e.
    what.is.more Koni-TO passed
    `What is more, even Koni passed (the exam).'
Example #31:

    amwu haksayng-irato ku il-un         ha-ul.swu.iss-e
    any      student-IRATO that work-Top do-can-Dec
    it is possible that x does it'
Example #32:

    a. amwu haksayng-to phathi-ey o-ci.ani-ha-ess-ta
    any     student-TO party-to come-not-do-Past-Dec
    b. `No matter what student x it may be, x did not come to the party'
Example #33:

    amwu-rato/-na   teylyeo-a
    any-RATO/-NA bring-Imp
    you take f(MAN) to me.'
Example #34:

    amwu-hako-rato/-na     kyelhonha-ul.ke-ya.
    any-with-RATO/-NA marry-Fut-Dec
    = `for some arbitrary choice function f, (I/he) WILL marry f(MAN).'
Example #35:

    amwu-rato/-na       chayyongha-n hoysa-nun       motwu ssuleci-ess-ta.
    any-RATO/-NA       hire-Adn        company-Top all     fall-Pst-Dec
    'Every company     that hired any number of/just any employee collapsed.'
Example #36:

    chayyongha-n-ta-myen, ssuleci-ko.mal-ul.ke-ya.
    hire-Pres-Dec-if          fall-end.up-Fut-Dec
    it will end up collapsing.'
Example #37:

    Jini-nun ca-ki.ceney amwu chayk-irato/-na          ilk-nun supkwan-i iss-ta.
    J.-Top sleep-before any book-IRATO/-NA read-Adn habit-Nom exist-Dec
    'Jini is in the habit of reading any books before she goes to bed.'
Example #38:

    Jini-hanteyse amwu sosik-irato/*-ina        iss-ess-ni?
    Jini-from     any    news-IRATO/-INA        exisit-Past-Q
    'Has there been any news from Jini?'
Example #39:

    Pise-nun     amwu-rato/??-na o-myen sacang-eykey yenlakhaycwu-ess-ta.
    secretary-Top any-RATO/-NA come-if boss-to            let;know-Past-Dec
    'If anyone comes, the secretary let the boss know it.
Example #40:

    amwu-rato/??-na salanghaypo-n salam-un ipyel-uy       kothong-ul al-n-ta
    any-RATO/-NA love-Adn man-Top separation-Gen pain-Acc know-Pres-Dec
    'Everyone who has ever loved anyone knows the pains of separation.'
Example #41:

    b. amwu-na o-ass-ta
    anyone-NA come-Past-Dec
    `Anyone came.' (intended: `Anyone was allowed to come.')
Example #42:

    c. ?*amwu-na nemeci-ess-ta
    anyone-NA fall-Past-Dec
    `Anyone fell down.'
Example #43:

    b. amwu-rato/-na chayyongha-n hoysa-nun          motwu ssuleci-ess-ta.
    any-RATO/-NA hire-Adn          company-Top all      fall-Pst-Dec
    'Every company that hired any number of/just any employee collapsed.'
Example #44:

    b. ku-nun ca-ki.ceney amwu chayk-irato/-ina ilk-nun pelus-i                iss-ta
    he-Top sleep-before any book-RATO/-NA read-Rel. habit-Nom exists
    `He is in the habit of reading any book before he goes to sleep.'
Example #45:

    b. ?amwu-rato manna-nun kes-pota cip-ey iss-nun kes-i                   nas-ta
    anyone-RATO meet-Rel         thing-than home-at exist-Rel thing-Nom better-Dec
    `I'd better stay home rather than meeting anyone (outside).'
Example #46:

    c. amwu-na manna-nun kes-pota cip-ey iss-nun kes-i                  nas-ta
    anyone-NA meet-Rel thing-than home-at exist-Rel thing-Nom better-Dec
    `I'd better stay home rather than meeting anyone (outside).'
Example #47:

    b. amwu-rato/-na ku il-ul          ha-ul.swu.iss-ta
    anyone-RATO/-NA that work-Acc do-can-Dec
    `Anyone can do that.'
Example #48:

    b. amwu chayk-irato/-ina ilke-la
    any-book-IRATO/-INA read-Imp.
    `Read any book!'
Example #49:

    b. amwu-rato/-na         o-ul.ke-ya
    anyone-RATO/-NA come-will-Dec
    `Anybody will come.'
Example #50:

    b. amwu-say-rato/-na nal-n-ta
    any-bird-RATO/-NA fly-Pres.-Dec
    `Any bird flies.'
Example #51:

    b. amwu-hako-lato       dayithha-e.pon saram-i kikkeshaeya sey myeng iss-ess-ta
    existed
    `There were at most three people who have ever dated with anybody.'
Example #52:

    b. amwu-rato          o-kess-e?
    anyone-RATO come-will-Q
    `Will anybody come?' = `No body will come.'
Example #53:

    c. amwu-na o-kess-e?
    anyone-NA come-will-Q
    = `It is not the case that just anybody will come.'
Example #54:

    b. Jini-hanteyse amwu sosik-irato iss-ess-ni?
    Jini-from       any news-RATO exist-Past-Q?
    `Have you got any news from Jini?'
Example #55:

    b. amwu-rato          o-myen na-eykey alli-e.cwu-e
    anyone-RATO come-if I-Dat.              inform-give-Dec
    `If anyone comes, please let me know.'
Example #56:

    c. ??amwu-na o-myen na-eykey alli-e.cwu-e
    anyone-NA come-if I-Dat.              inform-give-Dec
    `If anyone comes, please let me know.'
Example #57:

    a. (?)amwu-to manna-ki-ka elyep-ta
    anyone-TO meet-to-Nom hard-Dec
    `It was hard to see anyone.'
Example #58:

    a. Koni-nun amwu-to chacao-ki.ceney cip-ul                nase-ess-ta
    Koni-Top anyone-TO visit-before             house-Acc leave-Past-Dec
    `Koni left home before anybody came to his house.'
Example #59:

    a. amwu-to eps-ta
    anyone-TO not.exist-Dec
    `No body exists.'
Example #60:

    b. *amwu-rato/-na eps-ta
    anyone-TO not.exist-Dec
    `No body exists.'
Example #61:

    c. ku il-un amwu-na molu-n-ta
    that work-Top anyone-NA not.know-Pres.-Dec
    `It is not the case that every one knows that work.'
Example #62:

    a. amwu-to an o-ass-ta
    anyone-TO not came
    `No body came.'
Example #63:

    b. *amwu-rato/-na         an o-ass-ta
    anyone-RATO/-NA not came
    `Anyone didn't come.'
Example #64:

    c. amwu-na mos ha-e
    anyone-NA cannot do-Dec
    `It is not the case that anyone can do that.'