ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Mieko Ueno (2003). Event-Related Brain Potentials in the Processing of Japanese Wh-Questions.

URL: http://www.psych.uiuc.edu/~ueno/UenoDiss.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3898&langcode=jpn (2018-06-18).

 

Example #1:

    Calvin-ga             pizza-o               mottekita-ndesu-ka.
    Calvin-NOM(inative)   pizza-ACC(usative)    brought-POLITE-Q(uestion)
    `Did Calvin bring pizza?'
Example #2:

    Calvin-ga             nani-o                mottekita-ndesu-ka.
    Calvin-NOM            what-ACC              brought-POLITE-Q
    `What did Calvin bring?'
Example #3:

    a.     pizza-o               Calvin-ga             ___     mottekita-ndesu-ka.
    pizza-ACC             Calvin-NOM                    brought-POLITE-Q
    `Did Calvin bring pizza?'
Example #4:

    b.     nani-o                Calvin-ga             ___     mottekita-ndesu-ka.
    what-ACCUSATIVE       Calvin-NOM                    brought-POLITE-Q
    `What did Calvin bring?'
Example #5:

    [Hobbes-wa [Calvin-ga           nani-o        mottekita-ka] itta-ndesu-ka]?
    Hobbes-TOPIC Calvin-NOM         what-ACC      brought-Q      said-POLITE-Q
    `Did Hobbes say what Calvin brought?'
Example #6:

    [Hobbes-wa [Calvin-ga           nani-o        mottekita-to] itta-ndesu-ka]?
    Hobbes-TOPIC Calvin-NOM         what-ACC      brought-that   said-POLITE-Q
    `What did Hobbes say Calvin brought?'
Example #7:

    [Hobbes-wa [Calvin-ga                 nani-o            mottekita-to] itta-ndesu-ka]?
    Hobbes-TOPIC Calvin-NOM               what-ACC          brought-that   said-POLITE-Q
    `What did Hobbes say Calvin brought?'
Example #8:

    Calvin-ga                 pizza-o                    mottekita.
    Calvin-NOM(INATIVE)       pizza-ACC(USATIVE)         brought
    `Calvin brought pizza'
Example #9:

    Pizza-o                   Calvin-ga                  mottekita.
    pizza-ACC                 Calvin-NOM                 brought
    `Calvin brought pizza'
Example #10:

    sono       inochishirazuno bokenka-ga toto nani-o mitsuketa-ndesu-ka.
    the/that   reckless              adventurer-NOM finally         what-ACC discovered-    POL- Q
    `According to the local newspaper, what did that reckless adventurer finally dis
Example #11:

    sono       inochishirazuno bokenka-ga toto sore-o mitsuketa-ndesu-ka.
    the/that   reckless              adventurer-NOM finally         that-ACC discovered-   POL-   Q
    `According to the local newspaper, did that reckless adventurer finally discover
Example #12:

    nani-o sono           inochishirazuno bokenka-ga toto __ mitsuketa-ndesu-ka.
    what-ACC the/that     reckless               adventurer-NOM finally      discovered-   POL-   Q
    `According to the local newspaper, what did that reckless adventurer finally dis
Example #13:

    sore-o sono           inochishirazuno bokenka-ga toto __ mitsuketa-ndesu-ka.
    that-ACC the/that     reckless               adventurer-NOM finally      discovered-   POL- Q
    `According to the local newspaper, did that reckless adventurer finally discover
Example #14:

    sono      hitorigurashi-no rojo-ni                goinni           sore-o uritsuketa-ndesu-ka.
    the       single-living          old-woman-DAT aggressively        that-ACC force-sold- POL-           Q
    `Did the door-to-door salesman aggressively push that (product) on the lonely ol
Example #15:

    sore-o sono           hitorigurashi-no rojo-ni              goinni __ uritsuketa-ndesu-ka.
    that-ACC the          single-living         old-woman-DAT aggressively       force-sold-   POL-    Q
    `Did the door-to-door salesman aggressively push that (product) on the lonely ol
Example #16:

    sono      hitorigurashi-no rojo-ni                 goinni             __     uritsuketa-ndesu-ka.
    the       single-living          old-woman-DAT      aggressively             force-sold-    POL-       Q
    `Did the door-to-door salesman aggressively push that (product) on the lonely ol
Example #17:

    [sono inochishirazuno bokenka-ga toto                     nani-o mitsuketa-ndesu] ka].
    the/that reckless              adventurer-NOM finally     what-ACC discovered-   POL-    Q
    `According to the local newspaper, what did that reckless adventurer finally dis
Example #18:

    Calvin-ga                  pizza-o                    mottekita-ndesu-ka.
    Calvin-NOM(INATIVE)        pizza-ACC(USATIVE)         brought-POLITE-Q(UESTION)
    `Did Calvin bring pizza?'
Example #19:

    Calvin-ga                  nani-o                     mottekita-ndesu-ka.
    Calvin-NOM                 what-ACC                   brought-POLITE-Q
    `What did Calvin bring?'
Example #20:

    [Hobbes-wa [Calvin-ga nani-o            mottekita-ka] itta-ndesu-ka]?
    Hobbes-TOPIC Calvin-NOM    what-ACC    brought-Q        said-POLITE-Q
    `Did Hobbes say what Calvin brought?'
Example #21:

    [Hobbes-wa [Calvin-ga       nani-o      mottekita-to] itta-ndesu-ka]?
    Hobbes-TOPIC Calvin-NOM     what-ACC    brought-that     said-POLITE-Q
    `What did Hobbes say Calvin brought?'
Example #22:

    [Hobbes-wa [Calvin-ga          nani-o           mottekita-to] itta-ndesu-ka]?
    Hobbes-TOPIC Calvin-NOM        what-ACC         brought-that    said-POLITE-Q
    `What did Hobbes say Calvin brought?'
Example #23:

    [Hobbes-wa [nani-o           Calvin-ga      ___      mottekita-ka] itta-ndesu-ka]?
    Hobbes-TOPIC what-ACC Calvin-NOM                     brought-Q       said-POLITE-Q
    `[Did Hobbes say [what Calvin brought __ ]]?'
Example #24:

    [nani-o      Hobbes-wa [Calvin-ga           ___      mottekita-to] itta-ndesu-ka]?
    what-ACC     Hobbes-TOPIC Calvin-NOM                 brought-that    said-POLITE-Q
    `[What did Hobbes say [Calvin brought __ ]]?'
Example #25:

    [Senmu-ga        donna-pasokon-o           tsukatteiru-ka] kakaricho-ga __ kiita-no?
    director-N       what.kind.of-computer-A is-using      Q    supervisor-N         asked-Q
    `Did the supervisor ask what kind of computer the director is using?'
Example #26:

    [Senmu-ga        donna-pasokon-o           tsukatteiru-to] kakaricho-ga __ itta-no?
    director-N       what.kind.of-computer-A is-using      that supervisor-N         said-Q
    `What kind of computer did the supervisor say the director is using?'
Example #27:

    Dono-seito-ni tannin-wa [kocho-ga hon-o yonda-ka] toshoshitsu-de shisho-ni iimashita.
    which-student-D   teacher-T   principal-N book-A read-Q      library-at   librarian-D said
    read a book'
Example #28:

    Dono-seito-ni tannin-wa [kocho-ga hon-o yonda-to] toshoshitsu-de shisho-ni iimashita-ka.
    which-student-D teacher-T     principal-N book-A read-that   library-at   librarian-D said-Q
    principal read a book?'
Example #29:

    Calvin-ga        nani-o         mottekita-ndesu-ka
    Calvin-NOM       what-ACC       brought-   POLITE-Q
    `What did Calvin bring?'
Example #30:

    Calvin-ga       nani-o       mottekita-ndesu-ka
    Calvin-NOM      what-ACC      brought-    POLITE-Q
    'What did Calvin bring?'
Example #31:

    sono       inochishirazuno bokenka-ga toto nani-o mitsuketa-ndesu-ka.
    the/that   reckless              adventurer-NOM finally         what-ACC discovered-    POL- Q
    `According to the local newspaper, what did that reckless adventurer finally dis
Example #32:

    sono       inochishirazuno bokenka-ga toto sore-o mitsuketa-ndesu-ka.
    the/that   reckless              adventurer-NOM finally         that-ACC discovered-   POL-   Q
    `According to the local newspaper, did that reckless adventurer finally discover
Example #33:

    nani-o sono           inochishirazuno bokenka-ga toto __ mitsuketa-ndesu-ka.
    what-ACC the/that     reckless               adventurer-NOM finally      discovered-   POL-   Q
    `According to the local newspaper, what did that reckless adventurer finally dis
Example #34:

    sore-o sono           inochishirazuno bokenka-ga toto __ mitsuketa-ndesu-ka.
    that-ACC the/that     reckless               adventurer-NOM finally      discovered-   POL- Q
    `According to the local newspaper, did that reckless adventurer finally discover
Example #35:

    sono      hitorigurashi-no rojo-ni                goinni           sore-o uritsuketa-ndesu-ka.
    the       single-living          old-woman-DAT aggressively        that-ACC force-sold- POL-           Q
    `Did the door-to-door salesman aggressively push that (product) on the lonely ol
Example #36:

    sore-o sono           hitorigurashi-no rojo-ni              goinni __ uritsuketa-ndesu-ka.
    that-ACC the          single-living         old-woman-DAT aggressively       force-sold-   POL-    Q
    `Did the door-to-door salesman aggressively push that (product) on the lonely ol
Example #37:

    sono      hitorigurashi-no rojo-ni                 goinni             __     uritsuketa-ndesu-ka.
    the       single-living          old-woman-DAT      aggressively             force-sold-    POL-       Q
    `Did the door-to-door salesman aggressively push that (product) on the lonely ol
Example #38:

    [sono inochishirazuno bokenka-ga toto                      nani-o mitsuketa-ndesu] ka].
    the/that reckless              adventurer-NOM finally      what-ACC discovered-   POL-    Q
    `According to the local newspaper, what did that reckless adventurer finally dis
Example #39:

    Calvin-ga        nani-o         mottekita-ndesu-ka
    Calvin-NOM       what-ACC       brought-   POLITE-Q
    `What did Calvin bring?'
Example #40:

    Calvin-ga      nani-o      mottekita-ndesu-ka
    Calvin-NOM     what-ACC     brought-   POLITE-Q
    `What did Calvin bring?'
Example #41:

    Calvin-ga               nani-o                mottekita-ndesu-ka
    Calvin-NOM(INATIVE)     what-ACC(USATIVE)     brought-   POLITE-Q(UESTION)
    `What did Calvin bring?'
Example #42:

    [senmu-ga donna       pasokon-o katta-ka]     keiri-no    kakaricho-ga__kikimashita-ka?
    director-N what.kind.of PC-A    bought-Q      accounting-of manager-N   asked.POL-Q
    `Did the accounting manager ask what kind of computer the director bought?'
Example #43:

    [senmu-ga donna       pasokon-o katta-to]     keiri-no     kakaricho-ga__iimashita-ka?
    director-N what.kind.of PC-A    bought-that   accounting-of manager-N    said.POL-Q
    `What kind of computer did the accounting manager say the director bought?'
Example #44:

    [senmu-ga atarashii pasokon-o katta-ka]      keiri-no    kakaricho-ga__kikimashita-ka?
    director-N new       PC-A      bought-Q      accounting-of manager-N      asked.POL-Q
    `Did the accounting manager ask if the director bought a new computer?'
Example #45:

    [senmu-ga atarashii pasokon-o katta-to]      keiri-no     kakaricho-ga__iimashita-ka?
    director-N new       PC-A      bought-that   accounting-of manager-N       said.POL-Q
    `Did the accounting manager say the director bought a new computer?'
Example #46:

    [senmu-ga donna       pasokon-o katta-ka]      keiri-no    kakaricho-ga__kikimashita-ka?
    director-N what.kind.of PC-A     bought-Q      accounting-of manager-N     asked.POL-Q
    `Did the accounting manager ask what kind of computer the director bought?'
Example #47:

    [senmu-ga donna       pasokon-o katta-to]      keiri-no     kakaricho-ga__iimashita-ka?
    director-N what.kind.of PC-A     bought-that   accounting-of manager-N      said.POL-Q
    `What kind of computer did the accounting manger say the director bought?'
Example #48:

    [senmu-ga donna      pasokon-o katta-ka] keiri-no        kakaricho-ga__kikimashita-ka.
    director-N what.kind.of PC-A      bought-Q   accounting-of manager-N    asked.POL-Q
    `Did the accounting manager ask what kind of computer the director bought?'
Example #49:

    [senmu-ga donna      pasokon-o katta-to] keiri-no         kakaricho-ga__iimashita-ka.
    director-N what.kind.of PC-A      bought-that accounting-of manager-N   said.POL-Q
    `What kind of computer did the accounting manager say the director bought?'
Example #50:

    [senmu-ga atarashii pasokon-o katta-ka] keiri-no          kakaricho-ga__kikimashita-ka.
    director-N new       PC-A         bought-Q   accounting-of manager-N     asked.POL-Q
    `Did the accounting manager ask if the director bought a new computer?'
Example #51:

    [senmu-ga atarashii pasokon-o katta-to] keiri-no           kakaricho-ga__iimashita-ka.
    director-N new       PC-A         bought-that accounting-of manager-N    said.POL-Q
    `Did the accounting manager say the director bought a new computer?'
Example #52:

    bijutsukan-no kancho-ga shisanka-ga tasu-no kaiga-o kifushita-to nobe-mashi-ta.
    museum-of      director-N millionaire-N many-of picture-A donated-that   state-POL-PAST
    `The director of the museum said that the millionaire donated many pictures'
Example #53:

    hanaya-no      tenin-ga onen-no         daijoyu-ni       hanataba-o      todoke-mashi-ta.
    flower.shop-of clerk-N   past.year-of   big.actress-D    bouquet-A       deliver-POL-PAST
    `The clerk of the flower shop delivered a bouquet to the former movie star actre
Example #54:

    beteran-no hodouin-wa         seifuku-no        shojo-o hogosha-ni watashi-mashi-ta-ka.
    veteran-of school.counselor-T school.uniform-of girl-A   guardian-D hand-POL-PAST-Q
    `Did the veteran school counselor hand over a girl in her school uniform to her
Example #55:

    zeitakuna shachou.fujin-wa nan-chaku-no doresu-o kokyuten-ni chumonshi-mashi-ta-ka.
    high-end president.wife-T what-piece-of dress-A boutique-D order-POL-PAST-Q
    `How many dresses did the high-end wife of the president place an order of to th
Example #56:

    [senmu-ga donna       pasokon-o katta-ka] keiri-no          kakaricho-ga__kikimashita-ka?
    director-N what.kind.of PC-A         bought-Q accounting-of manager-N          asked.POL-Q
    `Did the accounting manager ask what kind of computer the director bought?'
Example #57:

    Dono-seito-ni tannin-wa [kocho-ga hon-o yonda-ka] toshoshitsu-de shisho-ni iimashita
    which-student-D   teacher-T   principal-N book-A read-Q      library-at   librarian-D said
    read a book'
Example #58:

    Dono-seito-ni tannin-wa [kocho-ga hon-o yonda-to] toshoshitsu-de shisho-ni iimashita-ka.
    which-student-D teacher-T     principal-N book-A read-that   library-at   librarian-D said-Q
    principal read a book?'
Example #59:

    Dono-seito-ga tannin-ni [kocho-ga toshoshitsu-de shisho-ni hon-o yonda-to] iimashita-ka
    which-student-N teacher-T   principal-N library-at    librarian-at book-A read-that   said-Q
    library?'
Example #60:

    Dono-seito-ni tannin-wa [kocho-ga toshoshitsu-de shisho-ni hon-o yonda-to] iimashita-ka
    which-student-D teacher-T   principal-N library-at    librarian-at book-A read-that   told-Q
    librarian at the library?'
Example #61:

    [Senmu-ga      donna-pasokon-o         tsukatteiru-ka] kakaricho-ga __ kiita-no.
    director-N     what.kind.of-computer-A is-using   Q   supervisor-N      asked-Q
    `Did the supervisor ask what kind of computer the director is using?'
Example #62:

    [Senmu-ga      donna-pasokon-o         tsukatteiru-to] kakaricho-ga __ itta-no.
    director-N     what.kind.of-computer-A is-using   that supervisor-N     said-Q
    `What kind of computer did the supervisor say the director is using?'
Example #63:

    [Senmu-ga       atarashii-pasokon-o    tsukatteiru-ka] kakaricho-ga __ kiita.
    director-N      new-computer-A         is-using      Q   supervisor-N     asked
    `The supervisor asked whether the director is using the new computer'
Example #64:

    [Senmu-ga       atarashii-pasokon-o    tsukatteiru-to] kakaricho-ga __ itta.
    director-N      new-computer-A         is-using      that supervisor-N    said
    `The supervisor said that the director is using the new computer'
Example #65:

    [senmu-ga donna       pasokon-o katta-ka] keiri-no       kakaricho-ga__kikimashita-ka.
    director-N what.kind.of PC-A      bought-Q accounting-of manager-N      asked.POL-Q
    `Did the accounting manager ask what kind of computer the director bought?'
Example #66:

    [senmu-ga donna       pasokon-o katta-to] keiri-no       kakaricho-ga__iimashita-ka.
    director-N what.kind.of PC-A    bought-that accounting-of manager-N     said.POL-Q
    `What kind of computer did the accounting manager say the director bought?'
Example #67:

    [senmu-ga atarashii pasokon-o katta-ka] keiri-no         kakaricho-ga__kikimashita-ka.
    director-N new        PC-A        bought-Q   accounting-of manager-N     asked.POL-Q
    `Did the accounting manager ask if the director bought a new computer?'
Example #68:

    [senmu-ga atarashii pasokon-o katta-to] keiri-no          kakaricho-ga__iimashita-ka.
    director-N new        PC-A        bought-that accounting-of manager-N    said.POL-Q
    `Did the accounting manager say the director bought a new computer?'
Example #69:

    bijutsukan-no kancho-ga shisanka-ga tasu-no kaiga-o kifushita-to nobe-mashi-ta.
    museum-of      director-N millionaire-N many-of picture-A donated-that   state-POL-PAST
    `The director of the museum said that the millionaire donated many pictures'
Example #70:

    hanaya-no      tenin-ga onen-no           daijoyu-ni      hanataba-o     todoke-mashi-ta.
    flower.shop-of clerk-N   past.year-of     big.actress-D   bouquet-A      deliver-POL-PAST
    `The clerk of the flower shop delivered a former star actress a bouquet'
Example #71:

    beteran-no hodouin-wa        seifuku-no          shojo-o hogosha-ni watashi-mashi-ta-ka.
    veteran-of school.counselor-T school.uniform-of girl-A    guardian-D hand-POL-PAST-Q
    `Did the veteran school counselor hand a girl in her school uniform to her guard
Example #72:

    zeitakuna shachou.fujin-wa nan-chaku-no doresu-o kokyuten-ni chumonshi-mashi-ta-ka.
    luxury president.wife-T what-piece-of dress-A boutique-D order-POL-PAST-Q
    `How many dresses did the luxury wife of the president place an order of to the
Example #73:

    [senmu-ga donna        pasokon-o katta-ka] keiri-no      kakaricho-ga__kikimashita-ka?
    director-N what.kind.of PC-A       bought-Q accounting-of manager-N      asked.POL-Q
    `Did the accounting manager ask what kind of computer the director bought?'