ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Päivi Koskinen (1998). FEATURES AND CATEGORIES.

URL: http://r1.chass.utoronto.ca/twpl/pdfs/dissertations/Koskinen.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3903&langcode=fin (2018-12-19).

 

Example #1:

    (1)     a. Howard aiko-o [maala-ta keittiö-n].
    H.NOM plan-3SG paint-TA kitchen-ACC
    'Howard plans to paint the kitchen'
Example #2:

    c. Minä epäile-n      [Greta-n unohta-nee-n tapaamise-mme].
    I.NOM suspect-1SG G-GEN forget-NUT -ACC meeting-1PL.POS
    'I suspect (that) Greta (has) forgotten our meeting'
Example #3:

    d. Sofia tanss-i          villisti [rymisyttä-e-n tamburiini-a-an].
    S.NOM dance-PA ST.3SG wildly bang-DE -INS tambourine-PAR -3P            OS
    'Sofia danced wildly, banging her tambourine'
Example #4:

    e. Elaine käv-i        [tarkista-ma-ssa sähköposti-nsa].
    E.NOM go-PA ST.3SG check-MA -INE      e-mail-3POS
    'Elaine went and checked her e-mail'
Example #5:

    (1)    a. että kirja-a   ei      ol-isi    oste-ttu
    that book-PAR N EG.3SG be-COND buy-PA SS.     NUT
    'that the book would not have been bought'
Example #6:

    b. että minä e-n         ol-isi   osta-nut kirja-a
    that I.NOM N EG-1SG be-COND buy-NUT book-P        AR
    'that I would not have bought the book'
Example #7:

    että kirja-aO eiN tN ol-isiA     tA oste-ttuV tV      tV      tO
    that book-PAR N EG be-COND          buy-PA SS.NUT
    'that the book would not have been bought'
Example #8:

    (5)     a. Eeva hankk-i               ilmeisesti yllättäen      uude-n auto-n.
    E.NOM procure-PA ST.3SG apparently all.of.a.sudden new-ACC car-ACC
    'Apparently, all of a sudden, Eeva procured (herself) a new car'
Example #9:

    (6)     a. Kirjo-j-a     luke-nut hän          on.
    book-PL-PAR   read-NUT 3SG.NOM be.3SG
    *'Read many   books, she has'
Example #10:

    b. Hän       on     luke-nut kirjo-j-a.
    3SG.NOM be.3SG read-NUT book-PL-PAR
    'She has read books'
Example #11:

    (9)     a. *Ja puhu-a politiikka-a hän         ?.
    and talk-TA politics-PAR 3SG.NOM ?
    'And talk about politics she did!'           (Vilkuna 1989:251, fn.3, (iii))
Example #12:

    b. Ja politiikka-a hän         puhu-i!
    and politics-PAR 3SG.NOM talk-PA ST.3    SG
    'And talk about politics she did!'
Example #13:

    (10)    a. Sofia halus-i         omenatortu-n, ja niin Zoe-kin.
    S.NOM want-PA ST.3SG apple.tart-ACC and so Z.NOM -also
    'Sofia wanted an apple tart and so did Zoe'
Example #14:

    b. Omenatortu-n Sofia halus-i,              ja niin suklaalevy-n-kin.
    apple.tart-ACC S.NOM want-PA ST.3SG and so chocolate.bar-ACC -also
    'It was an apple tart that Sofia wanted, and also a chocolate bar'
Example #15:

    c. Kokoukse-ssa hän           puhu-u     paljon vaikka niin kotona-kin.
    meeting-INE 3SG.NOM speak-3SG much although so home-also
    'He talks a lot at the meeting, although so also at home'
Example #16:

    (11)   a. Auni ei         ole vielä oppi-nut ui-ma-an.
    A.NOM N EG.3SG be still learn-NUT swim-MA -ILL
    'Auni has not learned to swim yet'
Example #17:

    b. *Auni ole ei         vielä oppi-nut ui-ma-an.
    A.NOM be N EG.3SG still learn-NUT swim-MA -      ILL
    'Auni has not learned to swim yet'
Example #18:

    c. *Auni ei           oppi-nut ole vielä ui-ma-an.
    A.NOM N EG.3SG learn-NUT be still swim-MA -ILL
    'Auni has not learned to swim yet'
Example #19:

    d. *Auni oppi-nut ei           ole vielä ui-ma-an.
    A.NOM learn-NUT N EG.3SG be still swim-MA -      ILL
    'Auni has not learned to swim yet'
Example #20:

    (12)   a. Auli ihmettele-e että mitä      Solmu taas mutusta-a.
    A.NOM wonder-3SG that what.PAR S.NOM again munch-3SG
    'Auli wonders what Solmu is munching (on) again'
Example #21:

    b. *Auli ihmettele-e mitä        että Solmu taas mutusta-a.
    A.NOM wonder-3SG what.PAR that S.NOM again munch-3SG
    'Auli wonders what Solmu is munching (on) again'
Example #22:

    (13)    a. Eeva luk-i             sanomalehte-ä.
    E.NOM read-PA ST.3SG newspaper-PAR
    'Eeva was reading a newspaper'
Example #23:

    b. Eeva luk-i              sanomalehde-n.
    E.NOM read-PA ST.3SG newspaper-ACC
    'Eeva read (all of) the newspaper'
Example #24:

    (14)    a. Lapsi      pelkä-ä ukkost-a     /*ukkose-n.
    child.NOM fear-3SG thunder-PAR / thunder-ACC
    'The child is afraid of thunder'
Example #25:

    b. Lapsi      odott-i        joulu-a      /*joulu-n.
    child.NOM wait-PA ST.3SG Christmas-PAR / Christmas-       ACC
    'The child was waiting for Christmas'
Example #26:

    (15)   a. Jusu i ylist-i          Kati-lle j itse-ä-än i /*j.
    J.NOM praise-PA ST.3SG K-A LL self-PAR -3POS
    'Jusu praised himself/*herself to Kati'
Example #27:

    b. Jusu i ylist-i          Kati-a j itse-lle-eni /*j.
    J.NOM praise-PA ST.3SG K-PAR self-A LL-3POS
    'Jusu praised Kati to himself/*herself'
Example #28:

    d. Uusi      sohva j on         aikomus osta-a itse-lle-en i /*j Kati-lla i.
    new.ACC sofa.ACC be.3SG plan         buy-TA self-A LL-3POS K-ADE
    'Kati plans to buy herself a new sofa'
Example #29:

    c. Antti i puhu-i           Kaarina-lle j häne-stä itse-stä-än *i /j.
    A.NOM speak-PA ST.3SG K-A LL           3SG-ELA self-ELA -3POS
    'Antti spoke to Kaarina about herself/*himself'
Example #30:

    (19)    a. Jussi ilmeisesti on        aina pitä-nyt Tuija-sta.
    J.NOM apparently be.3SG always like-NUT T-ELA
    'Jussi has apparently always liked Tuija'
Example #31:

    (i) a. Riitta vuokra-a pian ehkä /ehkä pian uude-n asunno-n.
    R.NOM rent-3SG soon maybe /maybe soon new-ACC apartment-A    CC
    'Riitta will perhaps rent a new apartment soon'
Example #32:

    b. Jaakko ei        koskaan varmaan /varmaan koskaan osta auto-a.
    J.NOM NEG .3SG never      probably /probably never buy car-P AR
    'Jaakko will probably never buy a car'
Example #33:

    b. *Jussi aina on ilmeisesti pitä-nyt Tuija-sta.
    J.NOM always is apparently like-NUT T-ELA
    'Jussi has apparently always liked Tuija'
Example #34:

    c. Jaakko varmaan ei           koskaan osta uut-ta paita-a.
    J.NOM probably N EG.3SG never        buy new-PAR shirt-PAR
    'Jaakko will probably never buy a new shirt.
Example #35:

    d. *Jaakko koskaan ei         varmaan osta uut-ta paita-a.
    J.NOM never N EG.3SG probably buy new-PAR shirt-PAR
    'Jaakko will probably never buy a new shirt.
Example #36:

    (20)    a. Koskaan/*Koskaan Elina ei             ol-isi viheltä-nyt.
    never    / never     E.NOM N EG.3SG be-COND whistle-NUT
    'Elina would never have whistled'
Example #37:

    (21)   a. Aina /*Aina Elina viheltä-isi         jotakin laulu-a.
    always/ always E.NOM whistle-COND some.PAR song-PAR
    'Elina would always whistle some song'
Example #38:

    b. Elina (*aina) viheltä-isi         (aina) jotakin laulu-a..
    E.NOM always complain-COND always some.PAR song-PAR
    'Elina would always (be) whistl(ing) some song'
Example #39:

    (22)   a. Aina sinä       ole-t myöhä-ssä.
    always you.NOM be-2SG late-INE
    'You are always late'
Example #40:

    b.*Nykyään aina sinä           ole-t myöhä-ssä.
    these.days always you.NOM be-2SG late-INE
    'These days you are always late'
Example #41:

    c. Nykyään sinä        ole-t aina myöhä-ssä.
    these.days you.NOM be-2SG always late-INE
    'These days you are always late'
Example #42:

    d. Siinä tapauksessa ehkä Elina ei            ol-isi  viheltä-nyt.
    in.that.case         maybe E.NOM N EG.3SG be-COND whistle-NUT
    'In that case Elina maybe would not have whistled'
Example #43:

    b. Kukk-i-a         osta-a aina tiistai-na      Tuija.
    flower-PL-PAR buy-3SG always Tuesday-ESS T.NOM
    'It is Tuija who always buys flowers on Tuesday'
Example #44:

    d. Liisa-lle osta-a aina Tuija kukk-i-a              tiistai-na.
    L-A LL buy-3SG always T.NOM flower-PL-PAR Tuesday-ESS
    'It is Tuija who always buys flowers for Liisa on Tuesday'
Example #45:

    (25)   a. Kipling ei       vapaaehtoisesti sö-isi     koskaan kesäkurpitsa-a.
    K.NOM N EG.3SG voluntarily        eat-COND never zucchini-PAR
    'Kipling would never voluntarily eat zucchini'
Example #46:

    (27)    a. Jarko-n täyty-y     aina luke-a sanomalehti ensimmäisenä.
    J-GEN must-3SG always read-TA newpaper.NOM first
    'Jarkko always has to be the first to read the newspaper'
Example #47:

    b. Minulla särke-e usein pää-tä.
    I.ADE ache-3SG often head-PAR
    'I often have a headache'
Example #48:

    c. Minusta tule-e        vielä kuuluisa  tutkimusmatkailija
    I.ELA       come-3SG yet famous.NOM explorer.NOM
    'I will yet become a famous explorer'
Example #49:

    d. Minua laula-tta-a         aina aamu-lla.
    I.PAR sing-CAUS-3SG always morning-A          BL
    'I always feel like singing in the morning'
Example #50:

    (28)    a. Kuka-t           voi-n /*voi-vat aina tiistai-na   osta-a minä.
    flower-PL.ACC can-1SG/ can-3PL always Tuesday-ESS buy-TA I.NOM
    'I can buy the flowers always on Tuesday'
Example #51:

    (29)    a. Uude-n sohva-n i ost-i           itse-lle-en *i /j Katij (eikä Pirkko).
    new-ACC sofa-ACC buy-PA ST.3SG self-A LL-3POS K.NOM (not P.NOM )
    'It was Kati (not Pirkko) who bought herself a new sofa'
Example #52:

    (30)   a. Kari-n i luul-i        [ti lähte-nee-n]      Panu.
    K-GEN think-PA ST.3SG      leave-NUT-ACC P.NOM
    'It was Panu who thought that Kari had left'
Example #53:

    b. Pirko-lle i väittä-ä   [Mati-n soitta-nee-n viulu-a        ti] Kalle.
    P-ILL         claim-3SG M-GEN play-NUT-ACC violin-PAR K.NOM
    'It is Kalle who claims that Matti played the violin for Pirkko'
Example #54:

    (31)   a. Kuka-t           osta-a tänään Tuija.
    flower-PL.ACC buy-3SG today T.NOM
    'Tuija will buy the flowers today'
Example #55:

    b. Tiistais-i-n     osta-a kuka-t          aina Tuija.
    Tuesday-PL-INS buy-3SG flower-PL.ACC always T.NOM
    'On Tuesdays it is always Tuija who buys the flowers'
Example #56:

    c. Orkesterilais-i-lle       osta-a kuka-t           tänään Tuijai.
    orchestra.member-PL-ILL buy-3SG flower-PL.ACC today T.NOM
    'Tuija will buy the flowers for the orchestra members today'
Example #57:

    d. Tytö-t        osta-vat tänään kaku-n orkesterilais-i-lle.
    girl-PL.NOM buy-3PL today cake-ACC orchestra.member-PL-         ILL
    'The girls will buy a cake for the orchestra members today'
Example #58:

    e. Orkesterinjohtaja-lle    osta-vat tänään kaku-n tytö-t.
    orchestra.conductor-ILL buy-3PL today cake-ACC girl-PL.NOM
    'The girls will buy a cake for the orchestra conductor today'
Example #59:

    f. Namuhiir-i-llä        särke-e usein hampa-i-ta.
    candy.mouse-PL-ADE ache-3SG often tooth-PL-PAR
    'Candy eaters often have tooth aches'
Example #60:

    g. Meistä tule-e      iso-i-na kuuluis-i-a     kielitieteilijö-i-tä.
    we.ELA come-3SG big-PL-ESS famous-PL-PAR linguist-PL-PAR
    'We're going to become famous linguists, when we grow up'
Example #61:

    (32)    Tanssi-ta-an-han täällä usein tiistai-na-kin.
    dance-PA SS-A GR here often Tuesday-ESS-EMP
    'Even on Tuesday, (people) often dance here (but on Sundays this hall serves as
Example #62:

    (i) a. Lähde-tään huomenna sinne Turku-un.
    go-1PL       tomorrow there T-ILL
    'Let's go to Turku tomorrow'
Example #63:

    (33)   a. Täällä sata-a.
    here rain-3SG
    'It's raining here'
Example #64:

    b. *Rankasti sata-a.
    hard         rain-3SG
    'It's raining hard'
Example #65:

    c. *Iloisesti osta-a kukk-i-a         Tuija.
    happily buy-3SG flower-PL-PAR T.NOM
    'Tuija is happily buying flowers'
Example #66:

    (35)   Ei       hän       ole saa-nut paljoa aikaan, *mutta matkustel-lut on       hän.
    N EG.3SG 3SG.NOM be get-NUT much time-ILL but         travel-NUT    be.3SG 3SG.NOM
    'She hasn't accomplished much, but she has travelled'       (Vilkuna 1989:26, (9
Example #67:

    (37)    a. On/On sata-nut.
    be.3SG rain-NUT
    'It has rained', 'It has rained'
Example #68:

    b. On/*On täällä       sata-nut.
    be.3SG here.A LL rain-NUT
    'It has rained here'
Example #69:

    c. Täällä on/on sata-nut.
    here.A LL be.3SG rain-NUT
    'It has rained here', 'It has rained here'
Example #70:

    (38)    a. Rankasti(-pa) täällä sata-a.
    hard(-EMP) here rain-3SG
    'It's certainly raining hard here'
Example #71:

    b. Ui-da   minusta on         kiva-a (mutta ei sukelta-a).
    swim-TA I.INE       be.3SG fun-PAR but N EG dive-TA
    'To swim is fun for me, but not to dive''
Example #72:

    c. Vihainen Juuso on.
    angry      J.NOM be.3   SG
    'Juuso is angry'
Example #73:

    (39)    a. Täällä-pä sitä tanssi-ta-an       tango-a!
    here-EMP it.PAR dance-PA SS-A GR tango-PAR
    'What a lot of tango dancing there is going on here!'
Example #74:

    c. Nykyään sitä väsy-y        niin helposti.
    nowadays it.PAR tires-3SG so easily
    'Nowadays, one gets tired so easily'
Example #75:

    d. Kovat ajat sillä on        Miko-lla ede-ssä.
    hard times it-ADE be.3SG M-ADE ahead-INE
    'Mikko sure has hard times ahead of him'
Example #76:

    e. Rankasti-pa se       /si-tä sata-a-kin!
    hard-EMP it.NOM /it-PAR rain-3SG-EMP
    'Is it ever raining hard!'
Example #77:

    (i)        a. *Aikomus on         minu-lla lähte-ä Kuuba-an hiihtoloma-ksi.
    plan.NOM be.3SG 1SG -ADE leave-TA Cuba-ILL spring.break-T R           AN
    'I plan to go to Cuba for the spring break'
Example #78:

    b. *Pakko           on      minun ratkais-ta tämä    ongelma     nyt.
    necessity.NOM be.3SG 1SG -G EN solve-TA this.NOM problem.NOM now
    'I must solve this problem now'
Example #79:

    c. *Lupa             on       minu-lla lähte-ä tänään aikaisin.
    permission.NOM be.3SG 1SG -ADE leave-TA today early
    'I have permission to leave early today'
Example #80:

    (ii)       a. Aikomus-han minu-lla on          lähte-ä Kuuba-an mutta....
    plan.NOM -E MP I-ADE be-3SG leave-TA Cuba-ILL but
    'I did plan to go to Cuba, but (I suspect I'll not have enough money)'
Example #81:

    (iii)      a. Nyt sinu-lla on     se       toivo-ma-si      tilaisuus       laula-a.
    now 2SG -ALL be.3SG that.NOM wish-MA-2POS opportunity.NOM sing-TA
    'Now you have that opportunity to sing that you've wished for'
Example #82:

    (40)    a. Mikko astia-t      pes-i.
    M.NOM dish-PL.ACC wash-PA ST.3SG
    'It was Mikko who washed the dishes'
Example #83:

    b. Astia-t     pes-i         Mikko.
    dish-PL.ACC wash-PA ST.3SG M.NOM
    'It was Mikko who washed the dishes'
Example #84:

    b. *Nyt se       toivo-ma-si     tilaisuus          on     sinu-lla laula-a.
    now that.NOM wish-MA-2POS opportunity.NOM be.3SG 2SG -ALL sing-TA
    'Now you have that opportunity to sing that you've wished for'
Example #85:

    (i) Kukk-i-a        Tuija ost-i           Liisa-lle.
    flower-PL -P AR T.NOM buy-P AST .3SG L-ALL
    'It was flowers that Tuija bought for Liisa'
Example #86:

    (ii) Itse-lle-en     Maija ost-i            tuo-n      puvu-n.
    self-ALL-3POS M.NOM buy-P AST .3SG that-ACC dress-ACC
    'It was for herself that Maija bought that dress'
Example #87:

    (41)    a. *Kukk-i-a        Tuija ost-i           Liisa-lle.
    flower-PL-PAR T.NOM buy-PA ST.3SG L-A LL
    'Flowers, Tuija, bought for Liisa' 20
Example #88:

    d. *Itse-lle-en    Maija ost-i              tuo-n puvu-n.
    self-A LL-3POS M.NOM buy-PA ST.3SG that-ACC dress-ACC
    'For herself, Maija, bought that dress'
Example #89:

    (42)     Q:       Äänest-i-kö       kukaan    Aino-a?
    vote-PA ST.3SG-Q anyone.NOM A-PAR
    'Did anyone vote for Aino?'
Example #90:

    A:       a. Aino-a äänest-i-vät mone-t.
    A-PAR vote-PA ST-3PL many-PL.        NOM
    'Many voted for Aino'
Example #91:

    b. Monet         äänest-i-vät Aino-a.
    many-PL.NOM vote-PA ST-3PL A-PAR
    'Many voted for Aino'
Example #92:

    c. Mone-t       Aino-a äänest-i-vät.
    many-PL.NOM A-PAR vote-PA ST-3PL
    'Many voted for Aino'
Example #93:

    d. *Mone-t         äänest-i-vät   Aino-a.
    many-PL.NOM vote-PA ST-3PL A-PAR
    'It was Aino that many voted for'
Example #94:

    e. *Aino-a mone-t        äänest-i-vät.
    A-PAR many-PL.NOM vote-PA ST-3PL
    'It was Aino that many voted for'
Example #95:

    (43)    a. Minä kerro-n sinu-lle jonkun     tarina-n.
    I.NOM tell-1SG you-A LL some.ACC story-ACC
    'I'll tell you a/some story'
Example #96:

    b. *Jonkun tarina-n kerro-n sinu-lle minä.
    some.ACC story-ACC tell-1SG you-A LL I.NOM
    '(There's) a/some story (that) I'll tell you'
Example #97:

    c. Jonku-n tarina-n minä sinu-lle kerro-n.
    some-ACC story-ACC I.NOM you-A LL tell-1SG
    `(There's) some story (I have a specific one in mind) (that) I'll tell you'
Example #98:

    (44)    a. Huomenna parkkipaika-lla-si            on      varmasti auto.
    tomorrow parking.spot-ADE-2SG.POS be.3SG definitely car.NOM
    'Tomorrow there will definitely be a car in your parking spot'
Example #99:

    b. Huomenna auto      on       varmasti parkkipaika-lla-si.
    tomorrow car.NOM be.3SG definitely parking.spot-ADE-2SG.P        OS
    'Tomorrow the/that car will definitely be in your parking spot'
Example #100:

    b. Sinä       saa-t jälkiruoka-a, jos/kun syö-t lautase-si tyhjä-ksi.
    you.NOM get-2SG dessert-PAR if /when eat-2SG plate-2POS empty-TRAN
    'You'll get dessert, if/when you eat all of your food'
Example #101:

    (47)   a. (Minä nä-i-n)         että Pekka heitt-i               pallo-n.
    I.NOM see-PA ST-1SG that P.NOM throw-     PA ST.3SG   ball-ACC
    '(I saw) that Pekka threw the ball'
Example #102:

    (48)    a. Jaana kysy-y että mitä         sinä      halua-t syntymäpäivälahja-ksi.
    J.NOM ask-3SG that what.PAR you.NOM want-2SG birthday.present-TRAN
    'Jaana asks what you want for a birthday present'
Example #103:

    b. Hilma kummastel-i     että kuka         keittiö-ssä kolistele-e.
    H.NOM wonder-PA ST.3SG that who.NOM kitchen-INE rattle-3SG
    'Hilma wondered who was rattling in the kitchen'
Example #104:

    c. Emmi ihmettel-i        että minne Sofia katos-i.
    E.NOM wonder-PA ST.3SG that what.ILL S.NOM disappear-            PA ST.3SG
    'Emmi wondered where Sofia disappeared to'
Example #105:

    (49)    a. Eerik mietti-i    että kukk-i-a-ko      hän        Elisa-lle osta-isi.
    E.NOM wonder-3SG that flower-PL-PAR -Q 3SG.NOM E-A LL buy-COND
    'Eerik wonders whether he should buy Elisa flowers'
Example #106:

    b. Eerik mietti-i    että Mikael-ko Elisa-lle osta-isi kukk-i-a.
    E.NOM wonder-3SG that M.NOM -Q E-A LL buy-COND flower-PL-                P AR
    'Eerik wonders whether Mikael would buy Elisa flowers'
Example #107:

    c. Eerik mietti-i    että osta-isi-ko hän       Elisa-lle kukk-i-a.
    E.NOM wonder-3SG that buy-COND -Q 3SG.NOM E-A LL flower-PL-              P AR
    'Eerik wonders whether he should buy Elisa flowers'
Example #108:

    d. Eerik mietti-i    että Elisa-lle-ko hän     osta-isi   kukk-i-a.
    E.NOM wonder-3SG that E-A LL-Q       3SG.NOM buy-COND flower-PL-          P AR
    'Eerik wonders whether he should buy flowers for Elisa'
Example #109:

    e. Johtaja sure-e     että huonosti-ko meitä on        palvel-tu.
    boss.NOM worry-3SG that badly-Q      we.PAR be.3SG serve-PA SS.        PA ST
    'The boss worries whether we have been served badly'
Example #110:

    merenneitopuvu-n.
    mermaid.costume-ACC
    'Sofia wonders whether Santa Claus really can make a mermaid costume'
Example #111:

    (i) [FocusPSe-n-kö      kirja-n [TopicPJussi luk-i                        [vPLiisa-lle ]]]?
    that-ACC -Q book-ACC         J.NOM read-        PA ST.3SG         L-A LL
    'Did Jussi read that book to Liisa?'
Example #112:

    d. *Jaana mietti-i    että Liisa-lle-han Tuija-ko kukk-i-a          osta-a.
    J.NOM wonder-3SG that L-A LL-EMP T.NOM -Q flower-PL-PAR buy-3SG
    'Jaana wonders whether it is for Liisa that Tuija buys flowers'
Example #113:

    (56)     a. *Jaana väitti-i että Tuija-han kukk-i-a-han                   Liisa-lle osta-a
    J.NOM claim-3SG that T.NOM -EMP flower-PL-PAR -EMP L-A LL buy-3SG
    'Jaana claims that it is Tuija , it is flowers that she buys for Liisa'
Example #114:

    b. *Jaana mietti-i    että Liisa-lle-ko Tuija-ko kukk-i-a             osta-a.
    J.NOM wonder-3SG that L-A LL-Q          T.NOM -Q flower-PL-PAR buy-3SG
    'Jaana wonders whether it is for Liisa, whether it is Tuija that buys flowers'
Example #115:

    (58)   a. Mitä     kirja-aO Riitta sano-o että hän           kirjasto-sta ets-i                    t O?
    what.PAR book-PAR R.NOM say-3SG that 3SG.NOM library-ELA search-            PA ST.3SG
    'What book does Riitta say that she was looking for in the library?'
Example #116:

    b. *Mitä     kirja-aO Riitta sano-o että kirjasto-sta hän             ets-i                 t O?
    what.PAR book-PAR R.NOM say-3SG that library-ELA 3SG.NOM search-            PA ST.3SG
    'What book does Riitta say that she was looking for in the library?'
Example #117:

    ets-i              eilen      tO .
    search-PA ST.3SG yesterday
    'It was an old Virittäjä that Riitta says that she looked for in the library yes
Example #118:

    ets-i                eilen     tO.
    search-PA ST.3SG yesterday
    'It was an old Virittäjä that Riitta says that she looked for in the library yes
Example #119:

    ets-i               tO .
    search-PA ST.3SG
    'It was an old Virittäjä that Riitta says that she looked for in the library yes
Example #120:

    c. *Puvu-n ost-i                Maija itse-lle-en.
    dress-ACC buy-PA ST.3SG M.NOM self-A LL-3POS
    'It is a dress, it was bought by Maija for herself' (??)
Example #121:

    d. *Maija puvu-n-pas         eilen       ost-i         itse-lle-en.
    M.NOM dress-ACC -EMP yesterday buy-PA ST.3SG self-A LL-3POS
    'It was Maija, it was the dress that she bought yesterday for herself' (??)
Example #122:

    A: Tuija osti           Peka-lle kirja-n.
    T.NOM buy-PA ST.3SG P-A LL book-ACC
    'Tuija bought Pekka a book'
Example #123:

    b. Q: Kene-lle Tuija ost-i           kirja-n?
    who-A LL T.NOM buy-PA ST.3ST book-ACC
    'Who did Tuija buy a book for?'
Example #124:

    A: Tuija ost-i          Peka-lle kirja-n.
    T.NOM buy-PA ST.3SG P-A LL book-ACC
    'Tuija bought Pekka a book'
Example #125:

    b. Jaana sanoi että Kaisa-lle kukk-i-a        osta-a Tuija.
    J.NOM said that K-A LL        flower-PL-PAR buy-3SG T.NOM
    'Jaana said that it is Tuija who buys flowers for Kaisa'
Example #126:

    c. Q: Mistä      tämä      kakku     tähän tul-i?
    where-ELA this.NOM cake.NOM here.ILL come-      PA ST.3SG
    'Where did this cake come here from?'
Example #127:

    b. Sofia katos-i              minne kaksi tuntia sitten?
    S.NOM disappear-PA ST.3SG what.ILL two hours ago
    'Sofia disappeared where two hours ago?'
Example #128:

    (65)   a. Roland kun /jos kosi-i      Elisabeti-ä niin hän        saa      kyllä rukkaset.
    R.NOM when/if propose-3SG E-PAR          then 3SG.NOM get.3SG surely mittens
    'If/When Roland proposes to Elizabeth, he is sure to be rejected'
Example #129:

    d. Tanssi-a jos halua-t niin mene Vähtäri-in.
    dance-TA if want-2SG then go.IMP Vähtäri-ILL
    'If you want to dance, go to Vähtäri'
Example #130:

    b. *Spagetti-a      että halua-n minä sano-i-n!
    spaghetti-PAR that want-1SG I.NOM say-PA ST-1SG
    'I said that I want spaghetti!'
Example #131:

    (67)   a. Minä e-n         kyllä     lähde, vaikka Liisa-han tuolla jo            pakka-a.
    I.NOM N EG-1SG definitely leave-O although L.NOM -EMP there already pack-3SG
    'I'm not going to go, although Liisa is already busy packing over there'
Example #132:

    b. No, jos Liisa-pa       vaikka lähte-e    myös, niin kyllä minä-kin.
    well if L.NOM -EMP ADV leave-3SG also then EMP I.NOM -EMP
    'Well, if Liisa, for example, agrees to leave also, then I('ll come) too'
Example #133:

    tul-la   tohott-i       jos ei             Kaija.
    come-TA rush-PA ST.3SG if N EG.3SG        K.NOM
    'I was all ready to give up when who did I see come rushing in if      not Kaija
Example #134:

    d. Niin luule-n vaikka mitä(-pä)             minä asia-sta    tiedä-n.
    so think-1SG although what.PAR (-EMP) I.NOM matter-ELA know-1SG
    'That's what I think, although I don't know much about the matter'
Example #135:

    aamukuude-lta herättä-ä.
    morning.six-A BL wake-TA
    in the morning!'
Example #136:

    niin kyllä hän huomise-ksi        leppy-y.
    then surely 3SG tomorrow-TRAN reconcile-3SG
    tomorrow'
Example #137:

    iltapäivä-ksi    hän leppy-y        aina.
    afternoon-TRAN 3SG reconcile-3SG always
    afternoon'
Example #138:

    (69)   a. No, Liisa-pa     vaikka lähte-e-kin,          minä e-n taid-a.
    well L.NOM -EMP although leave-3SG-EMP I.NOM N EG-1SG think-TA
    'Well, although Liisa is leaving, I don't think I will'
Example #139:

    b. Jussi kun astio-i-ta       alka-a     heitel-lä, niin ole-mme pula-ssa.
    J.NOM when dish-PL-PAR begin-3SG throw-TA then be-1PL trouble-I           NE
    'When Jussi starts to throw dishes (around), then we're in trouble'
Example #140:

    tul-la   tohott-i       jos ei        Kaija.
    come-TA rush-PA ST.3SG if N EG.3SG K.NOM
    'I was all ready to give up when who did I see come rushing in if not Kaija'
Example #141:

    d. Niin luule-n *mitä(-pä)          vaikka minä asia-sta      tiedä-n.
    so think-1SG what.PAR (-EMP) although I.NOM matter-ELA know-1SG
    'That's what I think, although I don't know much about the matter'
Example #142:

    jo     aamukuude-lta herättä-ä.
    already morning.six-A BL wake-TA
    at six in the morning!'
Example #143:

    (70)   a. Elisabeti-ä Roland huomenna kun /jos kosi-i      niin saa       kyllä rukkaset.
    E-PAR       R.NOM tomorrow when/if propose-3SG then get.3SG surely mittens
    'If/When Roland proposes to Elizabeth tomorrow, he's sure to be rejected'
Example #144:

    hän       voi    silti leikki-ä.
    3SG.NOM can.3SG still play-TA
    'Although Sofia is angry at Taylor, she can still play with Kip'
Example #145:

    (72)   a. Piia on       kutonut mato-n.
    P.NOM be.3SG woven rug-ACC
    'Piia has woven a rug'
Example #146:

    b. Piia ol-i            kutonut mato-n.
    P.NOM be-P A ST .3SG. woven rug-ACC
    'Piia had woven a rug'
Example #147:

    c. Piia ol-isi         kutonut mato-n.
    P.NOM be-COND .3SG. woven rug-ACC
    'Piia would have woven a rug'
Example #148:

    (73)   a. Hely-n täyty-y lähte-ä.
    H-GEN must-3SG leave-TA
    'Hely must (=has to) leave'
Example #149:

    c. Hely-n täyty-ne-e       lähte-ä.
    H-GEN must-POT -3SG leave-TA
    'Hely probably has to leave'
Example #150:

    (74)   a. Liina osa-a     sukelta-a.
    L.NOM can-3SG dive-TA
    'Liina can dive'
Example #151:

    c. Liina osan-ne-e      sukelta-a.
    L.NOM can-POT -3SG dive-TA
    'Liina can probably dive'
Example #152:

    (75)   a. Friida ei        puhu suome-a.
    F.NOM N EG.3SG speak Finnish-PAR
    'Friida doesn't speak Finnish'
Example #153:

    b. *Friida e-i              puhu suome-a.
    F.NOM N EG-P A ST .3SG speak Finnish-PAR
    'Friida didn't speak Finnish'
Example #154:

    c. *Friida e-isi            puhu suome-a.
    F.NOM N EG-COND .3SG speak Finnish-PAR
    'Friida wouldn't speak Finnish'
Example #155:

    ??[mutta e-n      Luxemburi-ssa].
    but N EG-1SG Luxembourg-INE
    Luxembourg' (attempted ellipsis with the sentential negator as a verb that shoul
Example #156:

    b. Minä asu-i-n            ennen Suome-ssa, e-n       Luxemburi-ssa.
    I.NOM live-PA ST-1SG before Finland-INE N EG-1SG Luxembourg-INE
    'I lived in Finland before, not in Luxembourg' (constituent negation)
Example #157:

    c. Minä asu-n       nyt Kanada-ssa, e-n       Luxemburi-ssa.
    I.NOM live-1SG now Canada-INE N EG-1SG Luxembourg-INE
    'I live in Canada now, not in Luxembourg' (constituent negation)
Example #158:

    b. Hän       sanoi [Hely-n täyty-nee-n jo    lähte-ä ].
    3SG.NOM said H-GEN must-NUT-ACC already leave-TA
    'He said (that) Hely already had to leave'
Example #159:

    c. Minä halua-isi-n [Liina-n osa-ta sukelta-a].
    I.NOM want-COND L-GEN can-TA dive-TA
    'I would like Liina to be able to dive'
Example #160:

    d. *Minä muistan [Friida-n ei-vä-n            puhu suome-a].
    I.NOM remember F-GEN N EG-NUT-ACC speak Finnish-PAR
    'I remember (that) Friida doesn't speak Finnish'
Example #161:

    (80)    a. Juulia rimputta-a piano-a.
    J.NOM pound-3SG piano-PAR
    'Juulia is pounding the piano (keys)'
Example #162:

    b. Minä rimputa-n piano-a.
    I.NOM pound-3SG piano-PAR
    'I'm pounding the piano (keys)'
Example #163:

    c. Juulia ei        rimputa-? piano-a.            [colloquially [rimputap]]
    J.NOM N EG.3SG pound-PR ES piano-PAR
    'Juulia doesn't pound the piano (keys)'
Example #164:

    d. Minä e-n         rimputa-? piano-a.                   [colloquially [rimputap]]
    I.NOM N EG-1SG pound-PR ES piano-PAR
    'I don't pound the piano (keys)'
Example #165:

    (82)    a. Juulia rimputt-i      piano-a.
    J.NOM bash-P A ST .3SG piano-PAR
    'Juulia bashed the piano (keys)'
Example #166:

    b. *Juulia ei         rimputt-i       piano-a.
    J.NOM N EG.3SG bash-P A ST .3SG piano-PAR
    'Juulia didn't bash the piano (keys)'
Example #167:

    c. Juulia ei        rimputta-nut (koskaan) piano-a.
    J.NOM N EG.3SG bash-NUT           never     piano-PAR
    'Juulia didn't (ever) bash the piano (keys)'
Example #168:

    d. *Juulia rimputta-nut (koskaan) piano-a.
    J.NOM bash-NUT         never piano-PAR
    'Juulia bashed the piano (keys)'
Example #169:

    b. Ei-päs/hän tätä           kirja-a    usein-kaan Matti lue.
    N EG.3SG-EMP this.P AR book-P AR often-EMP M.NOM read-O    /
    '(It's true that) Matti doesn't often read that book'
Example #170:

    c. Et-kö       sinä      ole vielä-kään valmis?
    N EG.3SG-Q you.NOM be-O still-EMP ready
    'Are you still not ready?'
Example #171:

    [TPkesä-llä    matkusta-isi [vPkoskaan Venetsia-an]]]]]...
    summer-ILL travel-COND ever           Venice-ILL
    'I think that no-one would ever travel to Venice by car in the summer...'
Example #172:

    tNEG [NegP tNEG [TPkesä-llä     matkusta-isi [vPkoskaan Venetsia-an]]]]]]...
    summer-ILL travel-COND        ever    Venice-ILL
    'I wonder whether not anyone ever travel to Venice by car in the summer'
Example #173:

    tNEG [NegP tNEG [TPusko-isi     [vPaina sinu-sta]]]].
    believe-COND always you-ELA
    'Don't lie, although there isn't much that Taru wouldn't always believe from you
Example #174:

    [TPkesäaika-an [TPmatkusta-isi [vPkoskaan Venetsia-an ]]]]]]...
    summer-ILL travel-COND           ever   Venice-ILL
    one can take a train)'
Example #175:

    [TPkesäaika-an [TPmatkusta-isi [vPkoskaan Venetsia-an ]]]]]]...
    summer-ILL     travel-COND ever         Venice-ILL
    one can take a train)'
Example #176:

    [TopicPkukaan   [TPmatkusta-isi [vPkoskaan Venetsia-an ]]]]]].
    nobody.NOM travel-COND ever            Venice-ILL
    'I think that no-one would ever travel to Venice by car in the summer time'
Example #177:

    [TPauto-lla [TPmatkusta-isi [vPkoskaan Venetsia-an ]]]]]]...
    car-ADE travel-COND ever              Venice-ILL
    one can take a train)'
Example #178:

    (90)    a. Q: Mitä     Tuija teke-e viikonloppu-na?
    what.PAR T.NOM do-3SG weekend-ESS
    'What's Tuija doing on the weekend?'
Example #179:

    A: Silloin Tuija osta-a aina Peka-lle kirjo-j-a.
    then T.NOM buy-3SG always P-A LL book-PL-P              AR
    'Tuija always buys books for Pekka then'
Example #180:

    b. Q: Mitä      Tuija Peka-lle osta-a?
    what.PAR T.NOM P-A LL buy-3SG
    'What will Tuija buy for Pekka?'
Example #181:

    A: Tuija osta-a Peka-lle usein kirjo-j-a.
    T.NOM buy-3SG P-A LL often book-PL-P          AR
    'Tuija often buys Pekka books'
Example #182:

    c. Q: Kene-lle Tuija osta-a kirja-n?
    who-A LL T.NOM buy-3SG book-ACC
    'Who will Tuija buy a book for?'
Example #183:

    A: Tuija osta-a kirjo-j-a        aina Peka-lle.
    T.NOM buy-3SG book-PL-PAR always P-A LL
    'Tuija always buys books for Pekka'
Example #184:

    d. Q: Kuka     kirjo-j-a   Peka-lle aina osta-a?
    who.NOM book-PL-PAR P-A LL always buy-3SG
    'Who's always buying books for Pekka?'
Example #185:

    A: Kirjo-j-a     osta-a Peka-lle aina Tuija.
    book-PL-PAR buy-3SG P-A LL always T.NOM
    'Tuija always buys books for Pekka'
Example #186:

    b. Q: Koska Tuija osta-a Peka-lle kirja-n?
    when T.NOM buy-3SG P-A LL book-ACC
    'When will Tuija buy Pekka a book?'
Example #187:

    c. Q: Koska Tuija osta-a kukk-i-a?
    when T.NOM buy-3SG flower-PL-      P AR
    'When does Tuija buy flowers?'
Example #188:

    d. Q: Mitä     Tuija Peka-lle perjantais-i-n osta-a?
    what.PAR T.NOM P-A LL Friday-PL-INS buy-3SG
    'What does Tuija buy for Pekka on Fridays?'
Example #189:

    A1: Perjantais-i-n osta-a Tuija Peka-lle usein uude-n kirja-n.
    Friday-PL-INS buy-3SG T.NOM P-A LL often new-ACC book-ACC
    'On Friday Tuija often buys Pekka a new book'
Example #190:

    A2: Tuija osta-a perjantais-i-n Peka-lle usein uude-n kirja-n.
    T.NOM buy-3SG Friday-PL-INS P-A LL        often new-ACC book-ACC
    'Tuija often buys herself a new book on Friday '
Example #191:

    ooppera-an hän          ei       kykene).
    opera-ILL 3SG.NOM N EG.3SG be.capable.of
    'Hannu always sings pop tunes well, (but he isn't capable of opera)'
Example #192:

    b. Q: Miksi Elaine on     noin iloinen?
    why E.NOM be.3SG so happy
    'Why is Elaine so happy?'
Example #193:

    c. Q: Kuka     täältä  halua-a lähte-ä Brasilia-an?
    who.NOM here.A BL want-3SG leave-TA Brazil-ILL
    'From here, who wants to go to Brazil?'
Example #194:

    (95)   a. Eeva osta-a Aimo-lle kukk-i-a         luottokort-i-lla aina tiistai-na.
    E.NOM buy-3SG A-A LL flower-PL-PAR credit.card-ADE always Tues-ESS
    'Eeva always buys Aimo flowers with a credit card on Tuesday'
Example #195:

    b. Tuija osta-a kirjo-j-a        aina Peka-lle.
    T.NOM buy-3SG book-PL-PAR always P-A LL
    'Tuija always buys books for Pekka'
Example #196:

    (97)   Q: Koska Eeva Aimo-lle kukk-i-a        luottokorti-lla osta-a?
    when E.NOM A-A LL flower-PL-PAR credit.card-ADE buy-3SG
    'When does Eeva buy flowers for Aimo with a credit card?'
Example #197:

    (ja käteise-llä perjantai-na.)
    and cash-ADE Friday-ESS
    on Friday)'
Example #198:

    b. Minulta puuttu-u kynä.
    I.ABL lack-3SG pencil
    'I don't have a pencil'
Example #199:

    c. Minusta tule-e    iso-na tutkimusmatkailija.
    I.ELA come-3SG big-ESS explorer.NOM
    'I'm going to become an explorer when I grow up'
Example #200:

    (107) Q: Kuka     osta-a aina kukk-i-a?
    who.NOM buy-3SG always flower-PL-             PAR
    'Who always buys flowers?'
Example #201:

    c. Sinä      e-t       jaksa-nut-kaan              juost-a mäke-ä ylös.
    you.NOM N EG-2SG have.energy.to-NUT-EMP run-TA hill-PAR up
    'You didn't have the energy to run up the hill, after all'
Example #202:

    (111) a. Me       aloi-mme syö-dä illallis-ta takapiha-lla.
    we.NOM start-1PL eat-TA supper-PAR back.yard-ADE
    'We started to eat supper in the back yard'
Example #203:

    b. Illallis-ta aloi-mme syö-dä takapiha-lla me.
    supper-PAR start-1PL eat-TA back.yard-ADE we.            NOM
    'We started to eat supper in the back yard'
Example #204:

    c. Takapiha-lla aloi-mme syö-dä illallis-ta me.
    back.yard-ADE start-1PL eat-TA supper-PAR we.           NOM
    'We started to eat supper in the back yard'
Example #205:

    (112) a. Minun täyty-y kirjoitta-a väitöskirja-a.
    I.GEN must-3SG write-TA dissertation-P          AR
    'I must write a dissertation'
Example #206:

    b. Meidän onnistu-i            löytä-ä lopulta perille.
    we.GEN succeed-PA ST.3SG find-TA finally there
    'We finally succeeded in finding our destination'
Example #207:

    (113) a. Huomenna täyty-y        sata-a /ol-la kaunis-ta.
    tomorrow must-3SG rain-TA /be-TA beautiful-PAR
    'It has to rain/be beautiful tomorrow'         (Laitinen and Vilkuna 1993:31, (5
Example #208:

    b. Sinusta sopi-i            tul-la       vaikka meribiologi.
    you.ELA be.suitable-3SG become-TA ADV ocean.biologist
    'You're suited for an ocean biologist, for example'
Example #209:

    c. Sinua       kelpa-a      laula-tta-a.
    you.PAR be.fine-3SG sing-CAUS-TA
    'It's fine for you to feel like singing'
Example #210:

    (115) a. Minusta voi      tul-la  iso-na tutkimusmatkailija.
    I.ELA can.3SG come-TA big-ESS explorer
    'I can/might become an explorer when I grow up'
Example #211:

    c. Minua alka-a         aivast-utta-a     /pelo-tta-a     /laula-tta-a.
    I.PAR begin-3SG sneeze-CAUS-TA /fear-CAUS-TA /sing-CAUS-TA
    'I begin to feel like sneezing/frightened/like singing'
Example #212:

    (116) a. Minä näe-n [DPsinun        pese-vä-n auto-a].
    I.NOM see-1SG 2SG.GEN wash-VA -ACC car-PAR
    'I see you washing the car'
Example #213:

    (117) a. Sinun täyty-y pes-tä     auto-a.
    you.GEN must-3SG wash-TA car-PAR
    'You must wash the car'
Example #214:

    b. SinunS näyttä-ä [tS täyty-vä-n     pes-tä auto-a ].
    You.GEN seem-3SG       must-VA -ACC wash-TA car-PAR
    'You seem to have to wash the car'
Example #215:

    (118) a. Sinä     osaa-t pes-tä auto-a.
    you.NOM can-2SG wash-TA car-PAR
    'You can wash the car'
Example #216:

    b. SinäS    näytä-t    [tS osaa-va-n    pes-tä auto-a ].
    You.NOM seem-3SG         can-VA -ACC wash-TA car-PAR
    'You seem to be able to wash the car'
Example #217:

    (i) Työ       on     kestä-vä kolme vuotta.
    work.NOM be.3SG last-VA three years
    'The work will take three years'
Example #218:

    (ii) Lapse-t       ei-vät    heittä-nee-t pallo-a.
    child-PL.NOM N EG-3PL throw-NUT -PL ball-PAR
    'The children didn't throw the ball'
Example #219:

    (i) [elokuva-a katsele-v-i-lle]    laps-i-lle
    movie-PAR watch-VA -PL-A LL child-PL-A LL
    'for/to the children who are watching the movie'
Example #220:

    (ii) [pallo-n heittä-nyt] lapsi
    ball-ACC throw-NUT child
    'the child who threw the ball'
Example #221:

    (i) Minä luule-n [Eevi-n katsele-va-n Leijonakuningas-ta].
    I.NOM think-1SG E-GEN watch-VA -ACC Lion.King-PAR
    'I think (that) Eevi (is) watching the Lion King'
Example #222:

    (ii) Auni epäile-e       [heittä-nee-nsä    pallo-n].
    A.NOM suspect-3SG throw-NUT -3POS ball-ACC
    'Auni suspects (that) she threw the ball'
Example #223:

    (2)     a. Vahtimestari-a on      pelä-tty        vuosikausia.
    caretaker-PAR be.3SG fear-P A SS.NUT years
    'The caretaker has been feared for years'
Example #224:

    b. [hallitukse-lta     saa-ta-va-t]               selonteo-t
    government-A BL receive-P A SS-VA -PL.NOM report-PL.NOM
    'the reports that will be received from the government'
Example #225:

    c. Minä huomaa-n [patsa-sta siirret-tä-vä-n             uute-en paikka-an].
    I.NOM notice-1SG statue-ELA move-P A SS-VA -ACC new-ILL place-ILL
    'I notice (that) the statue (is being) moved into a new place'
Example #226:

    (3)     a. pallo-n heittä-nyt lapsi
    ball-ACC throw-NUT child
    'the child who threw the ball'
Example #227:

    b. pallo-a heittä-nyt lapsi
    ball-PAR throw-NUT child
    'the child who threw ball'
Example #228:

    c. pallo-i-sta pitä-vä lapsi
    ball-PL-ELA like-VA child
    'the child who likes balls'
Example #229:

    (4)     a. Viivi sö-i            taas sana-nsa.
    V.NOM eat-PA ST.3SG again word-3POS
    'Viivi broke her promise (lit. ate her words) again'
Example #230:

    b. Viivi sö-i             taas *ylpeyte-nsä/*viisaute-nsa /*rakkaute-nsa.
    V.NOM eat-PA ST.3SG again pride-3POS / wisdom-3POS/ love-3POS
    *'Viivi ate her pride/wisdom/love again'
Example #231:

    c. Minä kuule-n [Viivi-n syö-nee-n           taas sana-nsa].
    I.NOM hear-1SG V-GEN eat-NUT-ACC again word-3POS
    'I hear (that) Viivi broke her promise (lit. ate her words) again'
Example #232:

    /*rakkaute-nsa].
    / love-3POS
    *'I heard (that) Viivi ate her pride/wisdom/love again'
Example #233:

    [AdjPsen       uskomattoma-n suure-n] pallo-n järve-en]
    that.ACC incredible-GEN large-ACC ball-ACC lake-ILL
    'I saw Kati throw, incredibly, that incredibly large ball into the lake'
Example #234:

    järve-en heittä-nyt Kati
    lake-ILL throw-NUT K.NOM
    [lit. 'that-large-ball-into-the-lake-incredibly-thrown Kati']
Example #235:

    (7)       a. Minä tiedä-n       tarina-n.
    I.NOM know-1SG story-ACC
    'I know the story'
Example #236:

    b. Minä tiedä-n [hänen lähte-nee-n].
    I.NOM know-1SG 3SG.GEN leave-NUT-ACC
    'I know (that) s/he (has) left'
Example #237:

    c. Minä huomas-i-n        Mauri-n.
    I.NOM notice-PA ST-1SG M-ACC
    'I noticed Mauri'
Example #238:

    d. Minä huomas-i-n           [hänen   lähte-nee-n].
    I.NOM notice-PA ST-1SG 3SG.GEN leave-NUT-ACC
    'I noticed (that) s/he (had) left'
Example #239:

    e. Minä sano-i-n           totuude-n.
    I.NOM say-PA ST-1SG truth-ACC
    'I said (=told) the truth'
Example #240:

    g. Minä unohd-i-n          sen.
    I.NOM forget-PA ST-1SG 3SG.ACC
    'I forgot it'
Example #241:

    h. Minä unohd-i-n          [sinun   luvan-nee-n       kirja-n Anna-lle].
    I.NOM forget-PA ST-1SG you.GEN promise-NUT-ACC book-ACC A-A LL
    'I forgot (that) you (had) promised the book to Anna'
Example #242:

    (8)   a. Minä tiedä-n [las-te-n           syö-nee-n     popkorni-n].
    I.NOM know-1SG child-PL-GEN eat-NUT-ACC popcorn-ACC
    'I know (that) the children ate (all) the popcorn' [telic]
Example #243:

    b. Minä tiedä-n [las-te-n           syö-nee-n   popkorni-a].
    I.NOM know-1SG child-PL-GEN eat-NUT-ACC popcorn-PAR
    'I know (that) the children ate (some) popcorn' [atelic]
Example #244:

    c. Minä tiedä-n [las-te-n            pitä-nee-n   popkorni-sta].
    I.NOM know-1SG child-PL-GEN like-NUT-ACC popcorn-ELA
    'I know (that) the children liked the popcorn'
Example #245:

    c. Soolo-osa-n vaikuta-t ansain-nee-n       sinä.
    solo-part-ACC seem-2SG deserve-NUT-ACC you.NOM
    'You seem to have deserved the solo part'
Example #246:

    (10)   a. Minä luule-n [näh-nee-ni              Leijonakuninkaa-n].
    I.NOM think-1SG see-NUT-1SG .POS Lion.King-ACC
    'I think (that) I (have) seen the Lion King'
Example #247:

    b. Pekka sano-o [heittä-nee-nsä pallo-n sieppari-lle].
    P.NOM say-3SG throw-NUT-3POS ball-ACC catcher-A LL
    'Pekka says (that) he threw the ball to the catcher'
Example #248:

    (11)    a. Minä arvele-n [las-te-n           näh-nee-n elokuva-n].
    I.NOM think-1SG child-PL-GEN see-NUT-ACC movie-ACC
    'I think (that) the children saw the movie'
Example #249:

    (13)     a. Emili-nS tiedä-n [tS pelan-nee-n usein tennis-tä] minä.
    Emil-GEN know-1SG        play-NUT-ACC often tennis-PAR I.NOM
    'I know (that) Emil (has) often played tennis'
Example #250:

    b. Tennis-täO tiedä-n     [Emili-n pelan-nee-n usein t O ] minä.
    tennis-PAR know-1SG Emil-GEN play-NUT-ACC often        I.NOM
    'I know (that) Emil (has) often played tennis'
Example #251:

    c. *Pelan-nee-nNUT tiedä-n [Emili-n tNUT usein tennis-tä] minä.
    play-NUT-ACC know-1SG Emil-GEN              often tennis-PAR I.NOM
    'I know (that) Emil (has) oftel played tennis'
Example #252:

    d. *[Emili-n pelan-nee-n usein tennis-tä]XP tiedä-n   minä tXP.
    Emil-GEN play-NUT-ACC often tennis-PAR know-1SG I.NOM
    'I know (that) Emil (has) often played tennis'
Example #253:

    (15)   a. Minä kuul-i-n         uutise-n Liisa-lta.
    I.NOM hear-PA ST-1SG news-ACC L-A BL
    'I heard the news from Liisa'
Example #254:

    b. Minä kuul-i-n        Liisa-lta uutise-n.
    I.NOM hear-PA ST-1SG L-A BL news-ACC
    'I heard the news from Liisa'
Example #255:

    (16)    a. Hänen      jatkuva popkorni-n syö-mise-nsä suututta-a minua!
    3SG.GEN continuous popcorn-GEN eat-DEVN -3POS anger-3SG I.PAR
    'His continuous popcorn eating makes me angry!'
Example #256:

    b. Minä tiedä-n [hänen         syö-nee-n jatkuvasti popkorni-a].
    I.NOM know-1SG 3SG.GEN eat-NUT -ACC continuously popcorn-PAR
    'I know (that) he ate popcorn continuously'
Example #257:

    (17)   a. Pallo-n heittä-minen viihdyttä-ä laps-i-a.
    ball-GEN throw-DEVN entertain-3SG child-PL-      P AR
    'Ball-throwing entertains children'
Example #258:

    b. Minä pidä-n elokuv-ie-n katsele-mise-sta.
    I.NOM like-1SG movie-PL-GEN watch-DEVN -ELA
    'I like watching movies'
Example #259:

    d. Minun lempiharrastukse-ni      on      kirjoitusvirhe-ide-n etsi-minen.
    I.GEN favorite.hobby-1SG.POS be.3SG typo-PL-GEN             search-DEVN
    'My favorite hobby is searching for typos'
Example #260:

    (18)   a. *[Las-te-n       heittä-nyt pallo-a] suututt-i       herra Grossi-n.
    child-PL-GEN throw-NUT ball-PAR anger-PA ST.3SG Mr. G-ACC
    'Children (to have) thrown ball angered Mr. Gross' (??)
Example #261:

    d. Minä o-len [etsi-nyt kirjoitusvirhe-i-tä koko päivän].
    I.GEN be-1SG search-NUT typo-PL-PAR      all day
    'I've looked for typos all day'
Example #262:

    b. Minä pidä-n elokuv-ie-n /*elokuv-i-a       katsele-mise-sta.
    I.NOM like-1SG movie-PL-GEN / movie-PL-PAR watch-DEVN -ELA
    'I like watching movies'
Example #263:

    e. Unohda Anne-sta/*Anne-n/*Anne-a tykkää-minen!
    forget.IMP A-INE / A-ACC / A-PAR like-DEVN
    'Forget (about) liking Anne!'
Example #264:

    b. Selonteo-n saa(*-ta)-minen      ajoissa on      epätodennäköis-tä.
    report-GEN receive-P A SS-DEVN on.time be.3SG unlikely-PAR
    'The report being received on time is unlikely'
Example #265:

    c. Patsaa-n siirtä(*-tä)-minen aiheutta-ne-e kohu-n.
    statue-GEN move-P A SS-DEVN cause-POT-3SG sensation-ACC
    'The statue being moved will probably cause a sensation'
Example #266:

    (21)    a. [Elokuv-ie-n       katsele-mise-sta] pidä-n minä.
    watch-DEVN -ELA movie-PL-GEN       like-1SG I.NOM
    'I like watching movies'
Example #267:

    c. [Keittiö-n     siivoa-mise-n] jätti-vät lapse-t            äidi-lle.
    kitchen-GEN clean-DEVN -ACC leave-3PL child-PL.NOM mother-ILL
    'The cleaning of the kitchen the children left to the mother'
Example #268:

    (22)   a. Lasse kerto-i        minulle [Johanna-n juokse-mise-sta].
    L.NOM tell-PA ST.3SG I.A LL    J-GEN     run-DEVN -ELA
    'Lasse told me about Johanna's running'
Example #269:

    b. Lasse kerto-i       [Johanna-n juokse-mise-sta] minulle.
    L.NOM tell-PA ST.3SG J-GEN       run-DEVN -ELA I.A LL
    'Lasse told me about Johanna's running in the races'
Example #270:

    c. Lapse-t       jätti-vät [keittiö-n       siivoa-mise-n] äidi-lle.
    child-PL.NOM leave-3PL kitchen-GEN clean-DEVN -ACC mother-ILL
    'The children left the cleaning of the kitchen to the mother'
Example #271:

    d. Lapse-t       jätti-vät äidi-lle [keittiö-n         siivoa-mise-n].
    child-PL.NOM leave-3PL mother-ILL kitchen-GEN clean-DEVN -ACC
    'The children left the cleaning of the kitchen to the mother'
Example #272:

    (24)    a. (Minä usko-n)          [Kaisa-n luke-nee-n      kirja-n].
    I.NOM believe-1SG K-GEN read-NUT-ACC book-ACC
    '(I believe) (that) Kaisa (has) read the book'
Example #273:

    (25)   a. Hän       sano-o katsel-lee-nsa    Pinokkio-n
    3SG.NOM say-3SG watch-NUT-3POS Pinocchio-ACC
    'She says (that) she watched Pinocchio'
Example #274:

    (i) a. Minä epäilen [Howardi-n usein katsel-lee-n       myöhäisleffo-j-a].
    I.NOM suspect H-G EN       often watch-NUT -ACC late.movie-PL -P AR
    'I suspect that Howard often watched late movies'
Example #275:

    b. Minä tiedän [Heiki-n aina halun-nee-n         käy-dä Turki-ssa].
    I.NOM know H-G EN always want-NUT -ACC visit-TA Turkey-IN E
    'I know (that) Heikki has always wanted to visit Turkey'
Example #276:

    (26)    a. Minä epäilen [Howardi-n katsel-lee-n       usein myöhäisleffo-j-a].
    I.NOM suspect H-GEN         watch-NUT-ACC often late.movie-PL-PAR
    'I suspect (that) Howard often watched late movies'
Example #277:

    b. Minä e-n           usko [Heiki-n halun-nee-n koskaan käy-dä Turki-ssa].
    I.NOM N EG-1SG believe H-GEN want-NUT-ACC ever             visit-TA Turkey-INE
    'I don't believe (that) Heikki ever wanted to visit Turkey'
Example #278:

    d. Minä pelkään [Greta-n unohta-nee-n kokonaan tapaamise-mme].
    I.NOM fear        G-GEN forget-NUT-ACC entirely         meeting-1PL.POS
    'I fear (that) Greta (has) entirely forgotten our meeting'
Example #279:

    (27)    a. Emil väittää joka aamu [pelan-nee-nsa edellisilta-na           tennis-tä].
    Emil claims every morning play-NUT-3POS night.before-ESS tennis-PAR
    'Emil claims every morning (that) he played tennis the night before'
Example #280:

    c. Minä arvaan [Kaija-n (??kokonaan) unohta-nee-n          tapaamise-mme].
    I.NOM guess K-G EN          completely forget-NUT -ACC meeting-1PL .POS
    'I guess (that) Kaija forgot completely (about) our meeting'
Example #281:

    b. Hitay kertoi eilen      [sammutta-nee-nsa        lauantai-na tulipalo-n].
    H.NOM told yesterday extinguish-NUT-3POS Saturday-ESS fire-ACC
    'Hitay said yesterday (that) she put out the fire on Saturday'
Example #282:

    ostokse-t].
    shopping-PL.ACC
    forgotten the shopping (when they were) leaving'
Example #283:

    (28)   a. Emil ei          kertonut minu-lle [pelan-nee-nsa eilen        tennis-tä].
    Emil N EG.3SG told          I.A LL    play-NUT-3POS yesterday tennis-PAR
    'Emil didn't tell me (that) he played tennis yesterday (although he played)'
Example #284:

    b. Päivi ei          uskonut [Sofia-n hypän-nee-n naru-a 10 kerta-a].
    P.NOM N EG.3SG believed S-GEN jump-NUT              rope-PAR 10 time-PAR
    'Päivi didn't believe (that) Sofia jumped rope 10 times (although she did jump)'
Example #285:

    koskaan ilmesty-nyt uimahalli-lle.
    ever     appear-NUT swimming.pool-A LL
    'I heard (that) you'd gone swimming but you never appeared at the swimming pool'
Example #286:

    (30)    a. Minä muista-n       [Eero-n soitta-nee-n usein haitaria-a].
    I.NOM remember-1SG E-GEN play-NUT-ACC often accordion-PAR
    'I remember (that) Eero often played accordion'
Example #287:

    b. Minä muista-n        [Aku-serku-n muistutta-nee-n Otto-eno-a].
    I.NOM remember-1SG A-cousin-G EN resemble-NUT -ACC O-uncle-P AR
    'I remember (that) Cousin Aku resembled Uncle Otto'
Example #288:

    b. Minä nä-i-n         [(*että/kun) Sofia-n kaata-nee-n mehu-n].
    I.NOM see-PA ST-1SG that/when S-GEN spill-NUT-ACC juice-ACC
    'I saw (that/when) Sofia spilled the juice'
Example #289:

    (32)       a. Minä tiedä-n [las-te-n          (*ei)         kaata-nee-n mehu-a].
    I.NOM know-1SG child-PL-GEN N EG.3SG spill-NUT-ACC juice-PAR
    'I know (that) the children didn't spill the juice'
Example #290:

    b. Minä nä-i-n          [Kari-n (*ei)        heittä-nee-n pallo-a].
    I.NOM see-PA ST-1SG K-GEN N EG.3SG throw-NUT-ACC ball-PAR
    'I saw (that) Kari didn't throw the ball'
Example #291:

    c. Minä epäile-n        [(*e-n)      anta-nee-ni      kirja-n pois].
    I.NOM suspect-1SG N EG-1SG give-NUT-1SG.POS book-ACC away
    'I suspect (that) I didn't give/gave the book away'
Example #292:

    (i)       ne    Sadduceuse-t     iotca         sano-vat, Ei    ole-ua-n    Ylesnousemis-ta
    those Sadduces-PL .NOM who.PL .NOM say-3PL NEG .3SG be-NUT -ACC resurrection-P AR
    'Those Sadduces who say there is no resurrection'     (Mikael Agricola 1542)
Example #293:

    b. Minä luulin [kukk-i-a           osta-nee-n   aina    tiistai-na  Tuija-n].
    I.NOM thought flower-PL-PAR buy-NUT-ACC always Tuesday-ESS T-GEN
    'I thought (that) it was Tuija who always bought flowers on Tuesday'
Example #294:

    d. Minä pelkäsin [siitä       tul-lee-n       kokonaan käyttökelvoton-ta].
    I.NOM feared 3SG.ELA come-NUT-ACC entirely unusable-PAR
    'I feared (that) it had become entirely unusable'
Example #295:

    (34)   a. Minä luulen [täällä        / *rankasti sata-nee-n].
    I.NOM think here.ADE / heavily rain-NUT-ACC
    'I think (that) it (has) rained here/*heavily'
Example #296:

    d. *Minä luul-i-n           [vihainen ol-lee-n    Jussi-n].
    I.NOM think-PA ST-1SG angry        be-NUT-ACC J-GEN
    'I thought (that) it was Jussi who was angry'
Example #297:

    (35)    a. Minä uskoin hölmöyde-ssä-ni                [Liisa-n kaivan-nee-n Lauri-a].
    I.NOM believed foolishness-INE-1SG.POS L-GEN miss-NUT-ACC L-PAR
    'I believed, in my foolishness, (that) Liisa (had) missed Lauri'
Example #298:

    c. Minä uskon Matti-in hölmöyde-ssä-ni                aina kyllä.
    I.NOM believe M-ILL foolishness-INE-1SG.POS always certainly
    'In my foolishness, I certainly always believe in Matti'
Example #299:

    (36)   a Minä pelkään ehkä /varmasti/typerästi [Kalle-n ol-lee-n            sairaa-na].
    I.NOM fear        maybe/certainly /stupidly K.GEN be-NUT-ACC sick-ESS
    vs. *'I fear (that) Kalle (has) maybe/certainly/stupidly been sick'
Example #300:

    b. Minä      pelkään [Kalle-n ehkä /varmasti/typerästi ol-lee-n          sairaa-na].
    I.NOM      fear     K.GEN maybe/certainly /stupidly be-NUT-ACC sick-ESS
    vs. *'I   maybe/certainly/stupidly fear (that) Kalle (has) been sick'
Example #301:

    c. Minä pelkäsin Kalle-a ehkä /varmasti/typerästi joskus kauan sitten.
    I.NOM feared K-PAR maybe/certainly /stupidly once long ago
    'I maybe/certainly/stupidly feared Kalle once long ago'
Example #302:

    (37)   a. Jaana unohti [että mitäO    sinä     halus-i-t  tO lahja-ksi].
    J.NOM forgot that what.PAR you.NOM want-PA ST-2SG present-TRAN
    'Jaana forgot what you wanted for a present'
Example #303:

    c. MitäO     Jaana unohti [sinun     halun-nee-n     tO lahja-ksi].
    what.PAR J.NOM forgot you.GEN want-NUT-ACC            present-TRAN
    'What did Jaana forget (that) you wanted for a present?'
Example #304:

    b. *[Jussi-n ol-lee-n       vihainen] usko-n       minä.
    J.GEN be-NUT-ACC angry           believe-1SG I.NOM
    'I believe (that) Jussi was angry'
Example #305:

    (i) *Lähte-nyt on     Jari.
    leave-NUT be.3SG J.NOM
    'Jari has left'
Example #306:

    (ii) *[Maalan-nut talo-nsa      keltaise-ksi] on  Jaakko.
    paint-NUT house-3POS yellow-T R AN be.3SG J.NOM
    'Jaakko has painted his house yellow'
Example #307:

    d. *[Kari-n maalan-nee-n talo-nsa           keltaise-ksi] väittä-ä Tiina.
    K-GEN paint-NUT-ACC house-3POS yellow-TRAN claim-3SG T.NOM
    'Tiina claims (that) Kari painted his house yellow'
Example #308:

    (42)    a. Liisa maalas-i          talo-nsa keltaise-ksi.
    L.NOM paint-PA ST.3SG house-3POS yellow-TRAN
    'Liisa painted her house yellow'
Example #309:

    b. Liisa maalas-i          talo-nsa      [silmä-ä häikäise-vä-ksi].
    L.NOM paint-3SG.PA ST house-3POS eye-PAR dazzle-VA -TRAN
    'Liisa painted her house (so that it became) eye-dazzling'
Example #310:

    d. Liisa maalas-i          talo-nsa [silmä-ä häikäise-vä-n] keltaise-ksi.
    L.NOM paint-3SG.PA ST house-3POS eye-PAR dazzle-VA -GEN yellow-TRAN
    'Liisa painted her house eye-dazzlingly yellow'
Example #311:

    (43)   a. Emmi on        iloinen.
    E.NOM be.3SG happy
    'Emmi is happy'
Example #312:

    b. Emmi on      juos-sut ulos.
    E.NOM be.3SG run-NUT out
    'Emmi has run out'
Example #313:

    c. Lapse-t        o-vat iloise-t.
    child-PL.NOM be-3PL happy-PL.    NOM
    'The children are happy'
Example #314:

    (44)    a. Tuo       äiti         ylpeile-e aina tyttäre-stä-än.
    that.NOM mother.NOM pride-3SG always daughter-ELA -3P         OS
    'That mother always prides (herself) on her daughter'
Example #315:

    c. Tuo      äiti          on     aina ylpeä tyttäre-stä-än.
    that.NOM mother.NOM be.3SG always proud daughter-ELA -3P           OS
    'That mother is always proud of her daughter'
Example #316:

    b. Minä epäilen [heidän syyllisty-nee-n          varkaute-en].
    I.NOM suspect 3PL.GEN be.guilty.of-NUT-ACC theft-ILL
    'I suspect (that) they were guilty of (=took part in) a theft'
Example #317:

    (46)   a. Antero on       perso /nirso    /allerginen työ-lle.
    A.NOM be.3SG eager /choosey /allergic work-ALL
    'Antero is eager to/ choosey about/ allergic to work'
Example #318:

    b. Minä kiitä-n       sinua /*sinulle /*sinun avu-sta.
    I.NOM thank-1SG you.PAR / you.A LL / you.ACC help-INE
    'I thank you for (your) help'
Example #319:

    (48)   a. Into on         perso /nirso /allerginen työ-lle /*työ-n /*työ-tä.
    I.NOM be.3SG eager/choosey/allergic work-ALL / work-ACC / work-PAR
    'Into is eager to/ choosey about/ allergic to work'
Example #320:

    b. Minä luulin [Sofia-lle lähettä-nee-n kortte-j-a          aina mummu-n].
    I.NOM thought S-A LL send-NUT-ACC postcard-PL-PAR always granny-GEN
    'I thought (that) Granny (had) always sent Sofia postcards'
Example #321:

    c. *Minä oletin [lähte-nee-n        mukaan Inkeri-n].
    I.NOM assumed leave-NUT-ACC along        I-GEN
    'I assumed (that) Inkeri (would have) gone along'
Example #322:

    b. Minä en           usko [Heiki-n Turki-ssa halun-nee-n         käy-dä] vaan...
    I.NOM N EG.1SG believe H-GEN Turkey-INE want-NUT-ACC visit-TA but
    'I don't think (that) Heikki wanted to visit Turkey but (Albania)'
Example #323:

    c. Minä en           usko [Turki-ssa Heiki-n halun-nee-n käy-dä] vaan...
    I.NOM N EG.1SG believe Turkey-INE H-GEN want-NUT-ACC visit-TA but
    'I don't think (that) Heikki wanted to visit Turkey but (Liisa did)'
Example #324:

    kerän-nee-n      aina Juka-n].
    gather-NUT-ACC always J-GEN
    Lea'
Example #325:

    kerän-nee-n      aina Juka-n].
    gather-NUT-ACC always J-GEN
    Lea'
Example #326:

    (53)   a. Epäilet-kö sinä    [Howardi-n myöhäisleffo-j-a katsel-lee-n            koko yön]?
    suspect-Q you.NOM H-GEN         late.movie-PL-PAR watch-NUT-         ACC all  night
    'Do you suspect that Howard watched late movies all night?'
Example #327:

    b. Minä en          usko [Heiki-n Turki-ssa halun-nee-n käy-dä] vaan...
    I.NOM N EG.1SG believe H-GEN Turkey-INE want-NUT-ACC visit-TA but
    'I don't think (that) Heikki wanted to visit Turkey but (Liisa)'
Example #328:

    c. Minä en          usko [Turki-ssa Heiki-n halun-nee-n käy-dä] vaan...
    I.NOM N EG.1SG believe Turkey-INE H-GEN want-NUT-ACC visit-TA but
    'I don't think (that) Heikki wanted to visit Turkey but (Albania)'
Example #329:

    kerän-nee-n      aina Juka-n].
    gather-NUT-ACC always J-GEN
    Lea'
Example #330:

    b. Aino väittä-ä [Topic/DPNyyti-n tahallaan [T/APrikko-nee-n       äsken paperinuke-n].
    A.NOM claim-3SG         N-GEN on.purpose        break-NUT-ACC just paper.doll-ACC
    'Aino claims (that) Nyytti just broke the paper doll on purpose'
Example #331:

    b. Minä luulin [Tuija-n kukk-i-a          osta-nee-n     usein Peka-lle].
    I.NOM thought T-GEN flower-PL-PAR buy-NUT-ACC often P-A LL
    'I thought (that) Tuija (had) often bought flowers for Pekka'
Example #332:

    c. Minä luulin [kukk-i-a           Tuija-n osta-nee-n    usein Peka-lle].
    I.NOM thought flower-PL-PAR T-GEN buy-NUT-ACC often P-A LL
    'I thought (that) Tuija (had) often bought flowers for Pekka'
Example #333:

    (58)   a. Minä tiedä-n      tarina-n.
    I.NOM know-1SG story-ACC
    'I know the story'
Example #334:

    b. Minä tiedä-n [heidän lähte-nee-n].
    I.NOM know-1SG 3PL.GEN leave-NUT-ACC
    'I know (that) they (have) left'
Example #335:

    c. Minä huomas-i-n       Mauri-n.
    I.NOM notice-PA ST-1SG M-ACC
    'I noticed Mauri'
Example #336:

    d. Minä huomas-i-n           [hänen   lähte-nee-n].
    I.NOM notice-PA ST-1SG 3SG.GEN leave-NUT-ACC
    'I noticed (that) s/he (had) left'
Example #337:

    e. Minä sano-n totuude-n.
    I.NOM say-1SG truth-ACC
    'I said (=told) the truth'
Example #338:

    f. Minä sano-n [Kati-n puhu-nee-n      tot-ta].
    I.NOM say-1SG K-GEN speak-NUT-ACC truth-PAR
    'I say (that) Kati spoke the truth'
Example #339:

    g. Minä unohd-i-n         sen.
    I.NOM forget-PA ST-1SG 3SG.   ACC
    'I forgot it'
Example #340:

    h. Minä unohd-i-n          [sinun   luvan-nee-n        kirja-n Penti-lle].
    I.NOM forget-PA ST-1SG you.GEN promise-NUT-ACC book-ACC P-A LL
    'I forgot (that) you (had) promised the book to Pentti'
Example #341:

    b. Minä e-n        muista [sinun sano-nee-n /*sano-nee-ta niin].
    I.NOM N EG-1SG remember you.GEN say-NUT-ACC / say-NUT-PAR so
    'I don't remember you saying so'
Example #342:

    b. Minä uneksi-n [Heiki-n lähte-nee-n           /*lähte-nee-stä Turkki-in].
    I.NOM dream-1SG H-GEN leave-NUT-ACC / leave-NUT-ELA Turkey-ILL
    'I dream (that) Heikki (has) left for Turkey'
Example #343:

    (61)   a. Minä pelkää-n ukkos-ta    /*ukkose-n.
    I.NOM fear-1SG thunder-PAR / thunder-ACC
    'I fear thunder'
Example #344:

    b. Minä pelkää-n [Jouko-n palan-nee-n        /*palan-nee-ta].
    I.NOM fear-1SG J-GEN return-NUT-       ACC / return-NUT-PAR
    'I fear (that) Jouko (has) returned'
Example #345:

    (62)    a. Kumiko luk-i          kirja-t /*kirjo-je-n.
    K.NOM read-PA ST.3SG book-PL / book-PL-ACC
    'Kumiko read the books'
Example #346:

    b. Ingo osta-a ne             vanha-t lampu-t /*lamppu-je-n.
    I.NOM buy-3SG 3PL.NOM old-PL lamp-PL / lamp-PL-ACC
    'Ingo is buying those old lamps'
Example #347:

    (64)    a. Minä tiedä-n [heidän luke-nee-n     /*luke-nee-i(de)-n kirja-t].
    I.NOM know-1SG 3PL.GEN read-NUT-ACC / read-NUT-PL -ACC book-PL.                ACC
    'I know (that) they read the books'
Example #348:

    b. Minä usko-n          [heidän osta-nee-n /*osta-nee-i(de)-n lampu-t].
    I.NOM believe-1SG 3PL.GEN buy-NUT-ACC / buy-NUT-PL -ACC lamp-PL.ACC
    'I believe (that) they bought the lamps'
Example #349:

    lähte-ä aikaisin koti-in.
    leave-TA early home-ILL
    'Students who had read the books were allowed to leave home early'
Example #350:

    a. Maija luke-e      pro i kirja-nsa i.
    M.NOM read-3SG          book-3POS
    'Maija reads her book'
Example #351:

    b. Saku sano-o [pro i osta-nee-nsa i kirja-n].
    S.NOM say-3SG         buy-NUT-3POS book-ACC
    'Saku says (that) he bought the book'
Example #352:

    c. Maija i luke-e Peka-n j kirja-n /*kirja-nsa*i /*j /*k.
    M.NOM read-3SG P-GEN book-ACC / book-3POS
    'Maija reads Pekka's book'
Example #353:

    b. Väitä-t-kö sinä      [pro katsel-lee-si     koko yön myöhäisleffo-j-a]?
    claim-2SG-Q you.NOM       watch-PP-2SG.POS all night late.movie-PL-PAR
    'Do you claim (that you) watched late movies all night?'
Example #354:

    Sirka-lle].
    S-A LL
    'I said (that I) always gathered flowers for Sirkka from the garden in the morni
Example #355:

    (72)    a. Maija i luk-i              hänen j kirja-nsa*i /j /*kirja-n.
    M.NOM read-PA ST.3SG 3SG.GEN book-3POS / book-ACC
    'Maijai read his/her*i /j book'
Example #356:

    b. Emili sano-o hänen*i /j näh-nee-n /*näh-nee-nsä Bambi-n.
    E.NOM say-3SG 3SG.GEN see-NUT-ACC / see-NUT-3POS B-ACC
    'Emili says (that) s/he*i /j saw Bambi'
Example #357:

    (73)    a. Minä huomas-i-n        [Howardi-n maalan-nee-n keittiö-n].
    I.NOM notice-PA ST-1SG H-GEN       paint-NUT-ACC kitchen-ACC
    'I noticed (that) Howard (had) painted the kitchen'
Example #358:

    b. Howard sano-i         [maalan-nee(-*n)-nsa keittiö-n].
    H.NOM say-PA ST.3SG paint-NUT-ACC -3POS kitchen-ACC
    'Howard said (that he had) painted the kitchen'
Example #359:

    (74)    a. Minä lu-i-n          kirja-n.
    I.NOM read-PA ST-1SG book-ACC
    'I read a/the book'
Example #360:

    b. Minä lu-i-n          kirja(-*n)-ni.
    I.NOM read-PA ST-1SG book-ACC -1SG .POS
    'I read my book'
Example #361:

    c. kirja-n     kansi
    book-GEN cover.NOM
    '(the) cover of (the) book'
Example #362:

    d. minun kirja(-*n)-ni      kansi
    I.GEN book-ACC -1SG .POS cover
    '(the) cover of my book'
Example #363:

    (75)    a. Minä lu-i-n        *kirja-n-ni.
    I.NOM read-PA ST-1SG book-ACC -1SG .POS
    'I read my book'
Example #364:

    b. Minä lu-i-n            kirja-nne.
    I.NOM read-PA ST-1SG book-2PL .POS
    'I read your(pl) book'
Example #365:

    c. sinun *kirja-n-si          kansi
    you.GEN book-ACC -2SG .POS cover
    '(the) cover of your book'
Example #366:

    d. hänen kirja-nsa kansi
    3SG.GEN book-3POS cover
    '(the) cover of her book'
Example #367:

    (80)    a. Kipling näyttä-ä [kadotta-nee-n taas yhde-n hampaa-n lisää].
    K.NOM seem-3SG lose-NUT-ACC again one-ACC tooth-ACC more
    'Kipling seems (to have) lost yet another tooth'
Example #368:

    b. Tämä         valkosipulileipä tuntu-u [ol-lee-n        uuni-ssa liian kauan].
    this.NOM garlic.bread.NOM feel-3SG be-NUT-ACC oven-INE too long
    '(It) feels (like) this garlic bread (has) been in the oven too long'
Example #369:

    c. Jila kuulu-u [saa-nee-n          uude-n työpaika-n].
    J.NOM sound-3SG get-NUT-ACC new-ACC job-ACC
    '(One) hears (that) Jila (has) got a new job'
Example #370:

    d. Sarah vaikutta-a [nautti-nee-n    matka-sta-an Grand Canyoni-in].
    S.NOM seem         enjoy-NUT-ACC trip-INE-3POS G.       C-ILL
    'Sarah seems (to have) enjoyed her trip to the Grand Canyon'
Example #371:

    (81)   a. Väke-ä       näyttä-ä [tul-lee-n         sali-n täydeltä].
    people-PAR seem-3SG come-NUT-ACC hall-GEN full
    'A hall-full of people seem (to have) arrived'
Example #372:

    b. Venla-a kuulu-u [aivastutta-nee-n           koko konserti-n ajan].
    V-PAR sound-3SG sneeze-CAUS-NUT-ACC whole concert-GEN time
    '(One) hears (that) Venla sneezed through the whole concert'
Example #373:

    d. Reeta-sta kuulu-u [tul-lee-n         astronautti].
    R-ELA     sound-3SG come-NUT-ACC astronaut.NOM
    '(One) hears (that) Reeta (has) become an astronaut'
Example #374:

    (82)   a. Päree-t       näyttä-vät [pala-nee-n      vihdoin Elviira-lta-kin].
    wood.chip-PL seem-3PL burn-NUT-ACC finally E-A LL-EMP
    'Elvira seems to have finally lost her temper'
Example #375:

    b. Jauho-t kuulu-vat [men-nee-n Iita-lla suu-hun] (kun Tilda kysy-i tuota).
    flour-PL sound-3PL go-NUT-ACC I-A BL mouth-ILL when T.NOM asked that
    'Iita seems to have gone speechless (when Tilda asked her that)'
Example #376:

    c. Rima tuntu-u [ol-lee-n        Lempi-llä liian korkea-lla].
    bar.NOM feel-3SG be-NUT-ACC L-ADE         too high-ADE
    'Lempi's standards seem to have been too high'
Example #377:

    (83)    a. Täällä /Yö-llä         näyttä-ä [sata-nee-n].
    here.ADE /night-ADE seem-3SG rain-NUT-ACC
    'It seems (to have) rained here/at night'
Example #378:

    b. Sitä      näyttä-ä [sata-nee-n].
    3SG.PAR seem-3SG rain-NUT-ACC
    'It seems (to have) rained'
Example #379:

    (84)    *Lapse-t         näyttä-ä [heittä-nee-n    pallo-a takapiha-lla].
    child-PL .NOM seem-3SG throw-NUT-ACC ball-PAR back.yard-A LL
    'The children seem (to have) been throwing ball in the back yard'
Example #380:

    (85)    Elviira-lta-kin näyttä-vät [pala-nee-n      vihdoin päree-t].
    E-A LL-EMP      seem-3PL burn-NUT-ACC finally wood.chip-          PL
    'Elvira seems to have finally lost her temper'
Example #381:

    (87)    Takapihalla näyttä-ä [heite-ty-n                 pallo-a].
    back.yard.in seem-3SG throw-PA SS.NUT-ACC ball-PAR
    '(It) seems (that) ball (has been) thrown in the back yard'
Example #382:

    (88)    a. Lapse-t       näyttä-vät ilois-i-lta /*iloise-t.
    child-PL.NOM seem-3PL happy-PL-ABL / happy-PL.         NOM
    'The children seem happy'
Example #383:

    b. Tuo      mies       näyttä-ä aivan Hitchcocki-lta/*Hitchcock.
    that.NOM man.NOM seem-3SG exactly H-ABL          / H.NOM
    'That man looks exactly like Hitchcock'
Example #384:

    c. Näyttä-ä siltä          että pian sataa.
    seem-3SG 3SG.ABL that soon rains
    'It seems like it'll rain soon'
Example #385:

    (90)    a. Lapse-t       katsel-i-vat    Leijonakuningas-ta.
    child-PL.NOM watch-P A ST -3PL Lion.King-PAR
    'The children watched Lion King'
Example #386:

    b. Lapse-t       ei-vät    katsel-lee-t /*katsel-lee-vat Leijonakuningas-ta.
    child-PL.NOM N EG-3PL watch-NUT -PL / watch-NUT-3PL Lion.King-PAR
    'The children didn't watch Lion King'
Example #387:

    (91)    a. Lapsi      ei       katsel-lut Leijonakuningas-ta.
    child.NOM N EG.3SG watch-NUT Lion.King-PAR
    'The child didn't watch Lion King'
Example #388:

    b. Lapse-t       ei-vät    katsel-lee-t Leijonakuningas-ta.
    child-PL.NOM N EG-3PL watch-NUT -PL Lion.King-PAR
    'The children didn't watch Lion King'
Example #389:

    c. Lapsi       ei     *katsel-lee-n   /*katsel-lee-nsa Leijonakuningas-ta.
    child.NOM N EG.3SG watch-NUT-ACC / watch-NUT-3POS Lion.King-PAR
    'The child didn't watch Lion King'
Example #390:

    (92)   a. Lapse-t       o-vat katsel-lee-t   /*katsel-lee-vat Leijonakuningas-ta.
    child-PL.NOM be-3PL watch-NUT -PL / watch-NUT-3PL Lion.King-PAR
    'The children have watched Lion King'
Example #391:

    b. Lapse-t       o-vat *katsel-lee-n    /*katsel-lee-nsa Leijonakuningas-ta.
    child-PL.NOM be-3PL watch-NUT-ACC / watch-NUT-3POS Lion.King-PAR
    'The children have watched Lion King'
Example #392:

    (93)   Lapse-t        ei-vät   ol-lee-t   katsel-lee-t Leijonakuningas-ta.
    child-PL.NOM N EG-3PL be-NUT -PL watch-NUT -PL Lion.King-PAR
    'The children hadn't watched Lion King'
Example #393:

    (95)    a. Minna on       maalan-nut autotalli-a.
    M.NOM be.3SG paint-NUT garage-PAR
    'Minna has been painting the garage (but isn't finished yet)'
Example #394:

    b. Minna on        maalan-nut autotalli-n.
    M.NOM be.3SG paint-NUT garage-ACC
    'Minna has painted the garage (so that it's finished)'
Example #395:

    c. Minna on      ihastu-nut             maalaa-mise-en.
    M.NOM be.3SG take.a.fancy.to-NUT paint-DEVN -ILL
    'Minna has taken a fancy to painting'
Example #396:

    (96)   a. Anssi ei          maalan-nut autotalli-a /*autotalli-n.
    A.NOM N EG.3SG paint-NUT garage-PAR / garage-ACC
    'Anssi didn't paint the garage'
Example #397:

    b. Anssi ei          ihastu-nut           maalaa-mise-en.
    A.NOM N EG.3SG take.a.fancy.to-NUT paint-DEVN -ILL
    'Anssi didn't take a fancy to painting'
Example #398:

    c. te         ole-tte puhu-nee-t
    2PL .NOM be-2PL speak-NUT-      PL
    'you(pl) have spoken'
Example #399:

    (99)   a. Lapse-t        ei-vät    ol-lee-t  katsel-lee-t Nalle Puhi-a.
    child-PL .NOM N EG-3PL be-NUT-PL watch-NUT-PL Bear Pooh-PAR
    'The children hadn't watched Winnie the Pooh'
Example #400:

    (100) a. Eeva on      osta-nut kukk-i-a      Aimo-lle joka päivä tällä viiko-lla.
    E.NOM be.3SG buy-PP flower-PL-PAR A-A LL every day this.ADE week-ADE
    'Eeva has bought flowers for Aimo every day this week'
Example #401:

    b. Petteri on      kuul-lut Airi-lta Kati-sta todella mehukkaa-n juoru-n.
    P.NOM be.3SG hear-PP A-A BL K-ELA really juicy-ACC gossip-ACC
    'Petteri has heard a really juicy piece of gossip about Kati from Airi'
Example #402:

    kuul-lut taas!
    hear-PP again
    'Petteri has heard a tremendously juicy rumour about Kati again!'
Example #403:

    (104) a. Elizabeth on      luke-nut toisen         luvu-n   jo kaksi kerta-a.
    E.NOM be.3SG read-NUT second.ACC chapter-ACC already two time-PAR
    'Elizabeth has probably already read it two times'
Example #404:

    b. *He         ei-vät lääkäri-t.
    3PL.NOM N EG-3PL doctor-PL.    NOM
    'They (are) not doctors'
Example #405:

    b. Petteri ei         kuul-lut juoru-j-a   Kati-sta.
    P.NOM N EG.3SG hear-NUT gossip-PL-PAR K-ELA -EMP
    'Petteri didn't hear rumours about Kati'
Example #406:

    (108) a. Elaine ei         löytä-nyt kirja-sta kasvi-a.
    E.NOM N EG.3SG find-NUT book-INE plant-PAR
    'Elaine didn't find the plant in the book'
Example #407:

    b. Ne          kolme [ahnet-ta] tyhmä-ä kissa-a sairastu-i-vat.
    those.NOM three.NOM greedy-PAR dumb-PAR cat-PAR get.sick-PA ST-3PL
    'Those three greedy dumb cats got sick'
Example #408:

    (111) a. [pallo-n heittä-ne-i-lle]     laps-i-lle
    ball-ACC throw-NUT-PL -ALL child-PL -ALL
    'for/to the children who have thrown the ball'
Example #409:

    b. ilois-i-lle     laps-i-lle
    happy-PL -ALL child-PL -ALL
    'for/to the happy children'
Example #410:

    b. Aika      ol-i         kulutta-nut talo-n      [asuikelvottoma-ksi].
    time.NOM be-PA ST.3SG use-NUT       house-ACC uninhabitable-TRAN
    'Time had used up the house (until it became) uninhabitable'
Example #411:

    (113) a. Kunio riehaantu-i        [juuri päiväuni-lta herän-nee-n] hurmioitunee-ksi.
    K.NOM get.wild-PA ST.3SG just nap-A BL        wake-NUT-ACC ecstasy-TRAN
    'Kunio got as wild as (someone) just woken from a nap is ecstatic'
Example #412:

    b. Kunio riehaantu-i        [hullunkurise-n] hurmioitunee-ksi.
    K.NOM get.wild-PA ST.3SG comical-GEN      ecstasy-TRAN
    'Kunio got as wild as (someone) comically ecstatic'
Example #413:

    (116) a. Tämä      talo       on     paljon rappeutu-nee-mpi kuin tuo.
    this.NOM house.NOM be.3SG much decay-NUT-COM than that.NOM
    'This house is much more decayed than that one'
Example #414:

    b. Sofia on       innostu-nee-mpi ehdotukse-sta kuin minä.
    S.NOM be.3SG excited-NUT-COM suggestion-INE than I.NOM
    'Sofia is more excited about the suggestion than I am'
Example #415:

    c. Gateau on     huomattavasti hyvinsyö-nee-mmä-n näköinen kuin Anaïs.
    G.NOM be.3SG considerably better.eat-NUT-COM -GEN like        than A.NOM
    'Gateau looks considerably more well fed (?eaten) than Anaïs'
Example #416:

    (117) a. *Tämä      talo       on      paljon hajon-nee-mpi kuin tuo.
    this.NOM house.NOM be.3SG much break-NUT-COM than that.NOM
    'This house is much more broken than that one'
Example #417:

    c. *Gateau on       syö-nee-mpi kuin Anaïs.
    G.N O M be.3SG eat-NUT-COM than A.NOM
    'Gateau has eaten more/is plumper than Anaïs' (??)
Example #418:

    (118) a. *Kuol-lee-mpi mies      vie-dä-än        hauta-an.
    die-NUT-COM man.ACC bring-PA SS-A GR grave-ILL
    'The more dead man is brought into the grave'
Example #419:

    b. Kuol-lee-mpa-a       ilmet-tä       saa     hake-a.
    dead-NUT-COM -PAR expression-PAR can.3SG search-TA
    'One can look for a more dead expression (and not find one)!'
Example #420:

    (119) a. *[Pallo-a heittä-nee-mpi] lapsi        voitt-i      kilpailu-n.
    ball-PAR throw-NUT-COM child.NOM win-PA ST.3SG competition-            ACC
    'The child (who) threw the ball more won the competition'
Example #421:

    b. [pallo-n heittä-nyt] lapsi
    ball-ACC throw-NUT child
    'the child (who) threw the ball'
Example #422:

    (123) a. pallo-n       heittä-nyt      lapsi
    ball-ACC (SG ) throw-NUT(SG ) child.    NOM (SG   )
    'the child who threw the ball'
Example #423:

    b. pallo-n         heittä-nee-t lapse-t
    ball-ACC (SG ) throw-NUT-PL child-PL .   NOM
    'the children who threw the ball'
Example #424:

    c. pallo-t      heittä-nyt      lapsi
    ball-PL .ACC throw-NUT(SG ) child.   NOM (SG   )
    'the child who threw the balls'
Example #425:

    rikko-a-kse-en)]        on     käsittämätöntä.
    break-TA -TRAN -3POS be.3SG incomprehensible
    incomprehensible'
Example #426:

    palvo-nee-n]     prinssi Ronaldi-n j tiehe-nsä.
    adore-NUT-ACC prince R-ACC             away-3POS
    'Princess Elizabeth's reproaches drove away the self-adoring Prince Ronald'
Example #427:

    toivo-nee-n] Jaana-n j erää-nä harmaa-na keskiviikkoiltapäivä-nä.
    wish-NUT-ACC J-ACC one-ESS grey-ESS Wednesday.afternoon-ESS
    a long time, one grey Wednesday afternoon'
Example #428:

    (125) mies      [CPjolle [FocusPHanna [TopicPkukk-i-a      osta-a [vPaina tiistai-na]]]]
    man.NOM who.A LL          H.NOM        flower-PL-PAR buy-3SG always Tuesday-ESS
    'the man for whom Hanna always buys flowers on Tuesday (is here)'
Example #429:

    b. Kukk-i-aO        minä kuule-n [DPTuija-n [T/APosta-nee-n   taas Aki-lle tO]].
    flower-PL-PAR I.NOM hear-1SG T-GEN             buy-NUT-ACC again A-A LL
    'I hear (that) Tuija (has) bought flowers again for Aki'
Example #430:

    (130) a. mies     jolle  Hanna kukk-i-a        osta-a aina tiistai-na ...
    man.NOM who.A LL H.NOM flower-PL-PAR buy-3SG always Tues-ESS
    'the man for whom Hanna always buys flowers on Tuesday (is here)'
Example #431:

    (131) *Kukk-i-aO        minä pidä-n [FocusP [DPTuija-lle [T/APosta-nee-sta tO]]] miehe-stä.
    flower-PL-PAR I.NOM like-1SG            T-A LL        buy-NUT-INE        man-INE
    'I like the man who buys flowers for Tuija'
Example #432:

    (134) a. [pallo-n kato-lle heittä-nyt] lapsi
    ball-ACC roof-A LL throw-NUT child
    (='the ball-on-the-roof-thrown child')
Example #433:

    (138) a. tyttäre-stä-än     ylpeä äiti
    daughter-ELA -3POS proud mother
    'a mother proud of her daughter'
Example #434:

    b. *ylpeä tyttäre-stä-än       äiti
    proud daughter-ELA -3POS mother
    'a mother proud of her daughter'
Example #435:

    (139) a. tyttäre-stä-än     ylpeil-lyt äiti
    daughter-ELA -3POS pride-NUT mother
    'a mother (who) prided in her daughter'
Example #436:

    b. *ylpeil-lyt tyttäre-stä-än      äiti
    pride-NUT daughter-ELA -3POS mother
    'a mother (who) prided in her daughter'
Example #437:

    (142) a. (Minä) odota-n [porti-n        vihdoin aukea-va-n].
    I.NOM wait-1SG gate-GEN finally open-VA -ACC
    'I wait for the gate to finally open'
Example #438:

    b. tämä meidän yllätyks-i-ä      rakasta-va Jumala-mme
    this our      surprise-PL-PAR love-VA god-1PL.POS
    'this God of ours, who loves surprises'
Example #439:

    c. Vielä on    koitta-va tämä  päivä.
    yet be.3SG come-VA this.NOM day.NOM
    'This day will yet come'
Example #440:

    b. Minä huomaa-n [Nipsu-n kuikutta-nee-n lounaspyyntö-nsä onnistuneesti].
    I.NOM notice-1SG N-GEN squeak-NUT -ACC lunch.request-3POS successfully
    'I notice (that) Nipsu has squeaked her request for lunch successfully'
Example #441:

    (144) a. [Asia-t         aina unohta-va] Anniina unohti taas tapaamise-mme.
    thing-PL.NOM always forget-VA A.NOM forgot again meeting-1PL.POS
    'Anniina (who) always forgets things forgot our meeting again'
Example #442:

    (145) a. Päivi näk-i         [Sofia-n heittä-vä-n kiepi-n].
    P.NOM see-PA ST.3SG S-GEN throw-VA -ACC cartwheel-            ACC
    'Päivi saw Sofia do a cartwheel' (telic)
Example #443:

    b. Päivi näk-i         [Sofia-n heittä-vä-n    kieppi-ä].
    P.NOM see-PA ST.3SG S-GEN throw-VA -ACC cartwheel-           PAR
    'Päivi saw Sofia doing a cartwheel' (atelic)
Example #444:

    c. Jaana kerto-i        [Eevi-n unelmoi-va-n tanssitunne-i-sta].
    J.NOM tell-PA ST.3SG E-GEN dream-VA -ACC dance.lesson-PL-ELA
    'Jaana said (that) Eevi (is) dreaming of dance lessons'
Example #445:

    d. Auni unelmoi [pro tule-va-nsa         iso-na prinsessa-ksi].
    A.NOM dream.3SG        come-VA -3POS big-ESS princess-TRAN
    'Auni dreams of becoming a princess (when she grows) big'
Example #446:

    e. JilaS kuulu-u [tS nautti-va-n            olo-sta-an       Fresno-ssa].
    J.NOM sound-3SG            enjoy-VA -ACC stay-ELA -3POS F-INE
    '(It) sounds (like) Jila (is) enjoying her stay in Fresno'
Example #447:

    (146) a. Minä kuuntel-i-n             sen    [miele-n hiljentä-vä-n] kappalee-n.
    I.NOM listen-PA ST-1SG       3SG.ACC mind-ACC quieten-VA -ACC piece-ACC
    'I listened to that piece   (of music) (that) quietens the mind' (telic interpre
Example #448:

    b. Minä kuuntel-i-n          sen    [miel-tä hiljentä-vä-n]        kappalee-n.
    I.NOM listen-PA ST-1SG 3SG.ACC mind-PAR quieten-VA -ACC          piece-ACC
    'I listened to that piece (of music) (that) quietens the mind'   (atelic interpr
Example #449:

    c. [aidosti elämä-stä nautti-va-lle] ihmise-lle
    genuinely life-ELA enjoy-VA -ALL person-ALL
    'a person (who) genuinely enjoys life'
Example #450:

    d. [Opi konttori-n porta-i-lla itse-ä-äni          pese-vä] kissai
    office-GEN stair-PL-A LL self-PAR -3POS wash-VA cat.NOM
    'the cat (that) is washing herself on the office stairs'
Example #451:

    (149) a. Vielä tänään hän           on ... tule-va tähän huoneese-en ja ...
    still today 3SG.NOM be.3SG come-VA this-ILL room-ILL       and
    'Still today he will ... come to this room and ...'              (p. 72)
Example #452:

    b. Vasta myöhemmin nainen          ol-i        oppi-va lisää kivi-stä.
    only later          woman.NOM be-PA ST.3SG learn-VA more rock-INE
    'Only later was the woman to learn more about rocks'           (p. 42)
Example #453:

    c. Ei epäilystä-kään, hän      ol-isi   menehty-vä kuoliaa-ksi ...
    no doubt-EMP       3SG.NOM be-COND perish-VA dead-TRAN
    'Without a doubt, he would perish and die ...'                  (p. 27)
Example #454:

    (150) a. Kunio ei        tul-lut    leikki-mä-än.
    K.NOM N EG.3SG come-NUT play-MA -ILL
    'Kunio didn't come to play'
Example #455:

    b. *Kunio ei          tule-va leikki-mä-än.
    K.NOM N EG.3SG come-VA play-MA -ILL
    'Kunio doesn't /won't come to play'
Example #456:

    c. Kunio ei         tule-O/     leikki-mä-än.
    K.NOM N EG.3SG come-PR ES play-MA -ILL
    'Kunio doesn't /won't come to play'
Example #457:

    (151) a. Minä nä-i-n         [Sofia-n tanssi-va-n].
    I.NOM see-PA ST-1SG S-GEN dance-VA -ACC
    'I saw Sofia dancing'
Example #458:

    b. Minä katsel-i-n        [heidän lähte-vä-n].
    I.NOM watch-PA ST-1SG 3PL.GEN leave-VA -ACC
    'I watched them leaving'
Example #459:

    (152) a. Minä usko-n          [Eevi-n tanssi-va-n].
    I.NOM believe-1SG E-GEN dance-VA -ACC
    'I believe (that) Eevi dances'
Example #460:

    b. Minä luule-n [heidän lähte-vä-n].
    I.NOM think-1SG 3PL.GEN leave-VA -ACC
    'I think (that) they will leave'
Example #461:

    (153) Minä kuule-n [laste-n        esittä-vä-n     Pähkinänsärkijä-ä].
    I.NOM hear-1SG child-GEN present-VA -ACC Nutcracker-PAR
    OR 'I hear (that) the children will perform the Nutcracker'
Example #462:

    (158) a. Lapsi      ei        lue    /*luke kirja-a.
    child.NOM N EG.3SG read-O / read book-PAR
    'The child does not read the book'
Example #463:

    b. Te             e-tte    takuulla voita /*voitta tätä  veto-a.
    you(PL).NOM N EG-2PL definitely win-O / win this.PAR bet-PAR
    'You definitely won't win this bet'
Example #464:

    (1)    a. Minä halua-n [ymmärtä-ä           suome-n  infinitiive-j-ä].
    I.NOM want-1SG understand-TA Finnish-GEN infinitive-PL-PAR
    'I want to understand Finnish infinitives'
Example #465:

    b. Minulla on      aikomus [ymmärtä-ä        suome-n       infinitiive-j-ä].
    I.A LL be.3SG intention understand-TA Finnish-GEN infinitive-PL-PAR
    'I have an intention to understand Finnish infinitives'
Example #466:

    Hakulise-n ja Karlssoni-n kirja-a.
    H-GEN         and K-GEN       book-PAR
    'In order to understand Finnish infinitives, I studied Hakulinen and Karlsson's
Example #467:

    (2)     a. Viivi lupas-i             [korja-ta polkupyörä-n].
    V.NOM promise-PA ST.3SG fix-TA bicycle-ACC
    'Viivi promised to fix the bicycle' (telic: until it is fixed)
Example #468:

    b. Viivi lupas-i             [korja-ta polkupyörä-ä].
    V.NOM promise-PA ST.3SG fix-TA bicycle-PAR
    'Viivi promised to fix the bicycle' (atelic: to make it better than it is now)
Example #469:

    (3)     Viivi-n täyty-i        [syö-dä sana-nsa /*ylpeyte-nsä /*rakkaute-nsa].
    V-GEN must-PA ST.3SG eat-TA word-3POS/ pride-3POS / love-3POS
    'Viivi had to eat her words (i.e. break her promise)/*her pride/*her love'
Example #470:

    b. Tässä     on       tyyny [Anaïsi-n nukku-a auringo-ssa].
    here.INE be.3SG pillow A-GEN sleep-TA sun-INE
    'Here is a pillow for Anaïs to sleep (on) in the sun'
Example #471:

    c. Suome-n       infinitiivi-t        o-vat vaike-i-ta      [kenenkään ymmärtä-ä].
    Finnish-GEN infinitive-PL.NOM be-3PL difficult-PL-PAR anyone.GEN understand-TA
    'Finnish infinitives are difficult for anyone to understand'
Example #472:

    Anaïs kiipes-i            tyyny-lle].
    A.NOM climb-PA ST.3SG pillow-A LL
    climbed on the pillow'
Example #473:

    (7)     a. Lapse-t       halua-vat [katsel-la Leijonakuningas-ta].
    child-PL.NOM want-3PL watch-TA Lion.King-PAR
    'The children want to watch Lion King'
Example #474:

    b. Kipling aiko-o [hankki-a koira-n].
    K.NOM plan-3SG acquire-TA dog-ACC
    'Kipling plans to acquire a dog'
Example #475:

    c. Katie osa-a      [ui-da    kuin delfiini].
    K.NOM can-3SG swim-TA like dolphin
    'Katie can swim like a dolphin'
Example #476:

    d. Heidän onnistu-i           [katsel-la Leijonakuningas-ta].
    3PL.GEN succeed-PA ST.3SG watch-TA Lion.King-PAR
    'They succeeded in watching Lion King'
Example #477:

    e. Sinun   täyty-y [lähte-ä heti].
    you.GEN must-3SG leave-TA immediately
    'You must leave immediately'
Example #478:

    f. Ilaria-a pelotta-a [ui-da järvessä].
    I-PAR scare-3SG swim-TA lake.in
    'Ilaria is afraid to swim in a lake'
Example #479:

    g. Minua kiinnosta-a [luke-a se            dekkari].
    1SG.PAR interest-3SG read-TA that.ACC mystery.ACC
    'I'm interested in reading that mystery'
Example #480:

    h. Sinun       on    aika [lähte-ä].
    you.GEN be.3SG time leave-TA
    'It's time for you to leave'
Example #481:

    i. Heillä on      lupa       [katsel-la Leijonakuningas-ta].
    3PL.ADE be.3SG permission watch-TA Lion.King-PAR
    'They have permission to watch Lion King'
Example #482:

    (8)    a. Kaunotar      päätt-i         tutki-a   Länsisiive-n.
    Beauty.NOM decide-PA ST.3SG explore-TA West.Wing-ACC
    'Beauty decided to explore the West Wing'
Example #483:

    b. Kaunotar      päätt-i         tutki-a   Länsisiipe-ä.
    Beauty.NOM decide-PA ST.3SG explore-TA West.Wing-PAR
    'Beauty decided to explore the West Wing'
Example #484:

    c. Kaunotar    päätt-i           pitä-ä Hirviö-stä.
    Beauty.NOM decide-PA ST.3SG like-TA Beast-INE
    'Beauty decided to like the Beast'
Example #485:

    (9)    a. Sofia osa-a [(*Aurora /*Aurora-n) uid-a].
    S.NOM can-3SG A.NOM / A-GEN       swim-TA
    'Sofia can (*for Aurora to) swim'
Example #486:

    c. Minun onnistu-i          [(*sinä     /*sinun) löytä-ä avaime-ni].
    I.GEN succeed-PA ST.3SG you.NOM / you.GEN find-TA key-1SG.POS
    'I succeeded in (*you) to find my keys'
Example #487:

    d. Minun on       pakko [(*sinä        /*sinun) keksi-ä ratkaisu tähän kysymykse-en].
    I.GEN be.3SG necessity you.NOM / you.GEN think-TA solution this.ILL question-ILL
    'I have to (*you to) think of a solution for this question'
Example #488:

    (10)   a. Opettaja     käsk-i          [*(las-te-n)     kirjoitta-a runo-n].
    teacher.NOM order-PA ST.3SG child-PL-GEN write-TA poem-ACC
    'The teacher ordered the children to write a poem'
Example #489:

    b. Minä anno-i-n         [*(marsu-n)         juos-ta vapaa-na lattia-lla].
    I.NOM let-PA ST-1SG guinea.pid-GEN run-TA free-ESS floor-ADE
    'I let the guinea pig run free on the floor'
Example #490:

    (12)    a. Juka-n täyty-y luke-a kirja.
    J-GEN must-3SG read-TA book.      ACC
    'Jukka must read a book'                     (Vainikka 1989:172, (38b))
Example #491:

    (13)   a. Jukka yritt-i         luke-a kirja-n.
    J.NOM try-PA ST.3SG read-TA book-ACC
    'Jukka tried to read a book'                  (Vainikka 1989:273, (24a))
Example #492:

    (14)   a. Minä yrit-i-n        luke-a kirja-n.
    I.NOM try-PA ST-1SG read-TA book-ACC
    'I tried to read a book'
Example #493:

    (15)   a. Minä halua-n omena-n.
    I.NOM want-1SG apple-ACC
    'I want an apple'
Example #494:

    b. Minä halua-n [lähte-ä].
    I.NOM want-1SG leave-TA
    'I want to leave'
Example #495:

    c. Lapse-t       pelkää-vät mehiläis-i-ä.
    child-PL.NOM fear-3PL bee-PL-PAR
    'The children fear bees'
Example #496:

    d. Lapse-t       pelkää-vät [esiinty-ä yksin luoka-n ede-ssä].
    child-PL.NOM fear-3PL perform-TA alone class-GEN front-INE
    'The children fear to perform alone in front of the class'
Example #497:

    g. Sally osa-a tango-a.
    S.NOM can-3SG tango-PAR
    'Sally knows (=can dance) the tango'
Example #498:

    h. Sally osa-a [tanssi-a tango-a loistavasti].
    S.NOM can-3SG dance-TA tango-PAR brilliantly
    'Sally can dance the tango brilliantly'
Example #499:

    c. Sofia käsk-i         Howardi-n maista-a heti           kaurapuuro-a.
    S.NOM order-PA ST.3SG H-GEN        taste-TA immediately oatmeal-PAR
    'Sofia ordered Howard to taste the oatmeal immediately'
Example #500:

    (ei-kä         koskaan maista).
    (N EG.3SG-and never taste)
    never tastes it)'
Example #501:

    c. Minua kiinnosta-a usein aamu-lla         lähte-ä iltapäivä-llä hölkä-lle...
    I.PAR interest-3SG often morning-ADE leave-TA afternoon-ADE jog-A LL
    time afternoon rolls around I find excuses not to)'
Example #502:

    (20)   a. Sofia osa-a vihdoin kirjoitta-a molemma-t sukunime-nsä.
    S.NOM can-3SG finally spell-TA both-PL.ACC last.name-3POS
    'Sofia can finally spell both of her last names'
Example #503:

    b. Minun onnistu-i           löytä-ä Lea-n ja Maria-n artikkeli.
    I.GEN succeed-PA ST.3SG find-TA L-GEN and M-GEN article
    'I succeeded in finding Lea and Maria's article'
Example #504:

    (21)   a. Sinun kannatta-isi                 hankki-a Arboreal pu-ide-n      piirtä-mise-en.
    you.GEN be.worthwhile-COND .3SG obtain-TA A.ACC tree-PL-GEN draw-DEVN -ILL
    'It would be worth your while to obtain Arboreal for drawing trees'
Example #505:

    (23)   a. Minä halua-n omena-n.
    I.NOM want-1SG apple-ACC
    'I want an apple'
Example #506:

    b. Minä halua-n [lähte-ä].
    I.NOM want-1SG leave-TA
    'I want to leave'
Example #507:

    c. Lapse-t       pelkää-vät mehiläis-i-ä.
    child-PL.NOM fear-3PL bee-PL-PAR
    'The children fear bees'
Example #508:

    d. Lapse-t       pelkää-vät [esiinty-ä yksin luoka-n ede-ssä].
    child-PL.NOM fear-3PL      perform-TA alone class-GEN front-INE
    'The children fear to perform alone in front of the class'
Example #509:

    g. Sally osa-a     tango-a.
    S.NOM can-3SG tango-PAR
    'Sally knows (=can dance) the tango'
Example #510:

    h. Sally osa-a [tanssi-a tango-a loistavasti].
    S.NOM can-3SG dance-TA tango-PAR brilliantly
    'Sally can dance the tango brilliantly'
Example #511:

    (24)   a. Minun täyty-y *kauppa-an/*kylpy /*kylvy-n.
    I.NOM must-3SG store-ILL / bath.ACC / bath-ACC
    'I must *to the store /*a bath'
Example #512:

    b. Minun täyty-y [menn-ä kauppa-an/otta-a kylpy].
    I.NOM must-3SG go-TA store-ILL /take-TA bath.ACC
    'I must go to the store/take a bath'
Example #513:

    c. Minä aio-n *kieppi-ä             /*kauppa-an/*kylvy-n.
    I.NOM plan-1SG cartwheel-PAR / store-ILL / bath-ACC
    'I plan *a cartwheel /*to the store /*a bath'
Example #514:

    d. Minä aio-n [heittä-ä kieppi-ä              /men-nä kauppa-an/otta-a kylvy-n].
    I.NOM plan-1SG throw-TA cartwheel-PAR /go-TA store-ILL /take-TA bath-ACC
    'I plan to do a cartwheel /to go to the store /to take a bath'
Example #515:

    e. Minä voi-n *valokuva-n/*(kanssa-si) Viro-on /*kiepi-n.
    I.NOM can-1SG photo-ACC / with-2SG.POS Estonia-ILL/ cartwheel-          ACC
    'I can *a photograph /*(with you) to Estonia /*a cartwheel'
Example #516:

    /heittä-ä kiepi-n.
    /throw-TA cartwheel-    ACC
    'I can take a photograph/leave (with you) to Estonia/do a cartwheel'
Example #517:

    (25)   a. Tämä     kurpitsa        kelpa-a   meidän piirakka-a-mme.
    this.NOM pumpkin.NOM be.fine-3SG our     pie-ILL -1PL.POS
    'This pumpkin will do for our pie'
Example #518:

    b. Sinun       kelpa-a    [lomail-la], kun väitöskirja-si             on      jo valmis!
    you.GEN be.fine-3SG vacation-TA when dissertation-2SG.POS be.3SG already done
    'It's fine for you to vacation, since your dissertation is already finished!'
Example #519:

    c. Tämä      mekko        sopi-i minulle kuin valettu.
    this.NOM dress.NOM fit-3SG I.ALL like cast
    'This dress fits (=also suits) me like (it's) cast (on me)'
Example #520:

    d. Sinun    sopi-i [tul-la] milloin vain halua-t.
    you.GEN suit-3SG come-TA when only want-2SG
    'You can come whenever you want'
Example #521:

    e. Minä pidä-n sinusta.
    I.NOM like-1SG you.INE
    'I like you'
Example #522:

    f. Minun pitä-ä [lähte-ä].
    I.GEN must-3SG leave-TA
    'I have to leave'
Example #523:

    b. *Sofia osa-a että hän            sukelta-a hyvin.
    S.NOM can-3SG that 3SG.NOM dive-3SG well
    'Sofia can that she dives well'
Example #524:

    d. *Sinun sopi-i että tule-t       milloin vain halua-t.
    you.GEN suit-3SG that come-2SG when only want-2SG
    'You can that you come whenever you want'
Example #525:

    (28)   a. Asta-lla on     suunnitelma [saa-da johtaja lähte-mä-än].
    A-ADE be.3SG plan              get-TA boss.ACC leave-MA -ILL
    'Asta has a plan to get the boss to leave'
Example #526:

    b. Asta-lla on     suunnitelma [johtaja-n pää-n     meno-ksi].
    A-ADE be.3SG plan              boss-GEN head-GEN going-TRAN
    'Asta has a plan for the boss' downfall'
Example #527:

    c. Asta-lla on     suunnitelma *[että saa-mme johtaja-n lähte-mä-än].
    A-ADE be.3SG plan               that get-1PL boss-ACC leave-MA -ILL
    'Asta has a plan *that we get the boss to leave'
Example #528:

    (29)   a. Minä en           pidä hänen ehdotukse-sta-an [muutta-a aikataulu].
    I.NOM N EG-1SG like 3SG.GEN proposal-ELA -3POS change-TA schedule-GEN
    'I don't like her proposal to change the schedule'
Example #529:

    b. Minä en           pidä hänen ehdotukse-sta-an aikataulu-n muutta-mise-ksi.
    I.NOM N EG-1SG like 3SG.GEN proposal-ELA -3POS schedule-GEN change-DEVN -TRAN
    'I don't like her proposal for the change in the schedule'
Example #530:

    aikataulu-n].
    schedule-ACC
    'I don't like her proposal *that we would change the schedule'
Example #531:

    (30)   a. Minä ost-i-n           porkkano-i-ta [kaikkie-n syö-dä].
    I.NOM buy-PA ST-1SG carrot-PL-PAR all-GEN eat-TA
    'I bought carrots for all to eat'
Example #532:

    b. Minä ost-i-n           porkkano-i-ta kaikille.
    I.NOM buy-PA ST-1SG carrot-PL-PAR all.ALL
    'I bought carrots for all'
Example #533:

    c. Minä ost-i-n           porkkano-i-ta *[että kaikki syö-vät niitä].
    I.NOM buy-PA ST-1SG carrot-PL-PAR that all.NOM eat-3PL 3PL.PAR
    'I bought carrots *that all eat them'
Example #534:

    (31)   a. Infinitiivi-t        o-vat vaike-i-ta        [kenenkään ymmärtä-ä].
    infinitive-PL.NOM be-3PL difficult-PL-PAR anyone.GEN understand-TA
    'Infinitives are difficult for anyone to understand'
Example #535:

    (32)   a. *[Pohti-a infinitiive-j-ä koko päivän] väsyttä-ä minua.
    ponder-TA infinitive-PL-PAR all day      tire-3SG I.PAR
    'To ponder infinitives all day tires me'
Example #536:

    b. Minä aio-n        kirjoitta-a väitöskirja-a koko päivän /*[tul-la ilta].
    I.NOM plan-1SG write-TA dissertation-PAR all day /*come-TA evening
    'I plan to write my dissertation all day /*to come the evening'
Example #537:

    /*[tul-la      huominen].
    / come-TA tomorrow
    tomorrow'
Example #538:

    b. Meidän onnistu-i            löytä-ä lopulta perille.
    we.GEN succeed-PA ST.3SG find-TA finally there
    'We finally succeeded in finding our destination'
Example #539:

    (34)    a. Meidän on       pakko    lähte-ä.
    we.GEN be.3SG necessity leave-TA
    'We must leave'
Example #540:

    b. Sinun       on     aika oppi-a ui-ma-an.
    you.GEN be.3SG time learn-TA swim-MA -ILL
    'It's time for you to learn to swim'
Example #541:

    c. Minun on        lupa        laina-ta   Hitay-n kirja-a.
    1SG .GEN be.3SG permission borrow-TA H-GEN book-PAR
    'I have permission to borrow Hitay's book'
Example #542:

    d. Heidän on           mukava lomail-la    Karibianristeily-llä.
    3PL .GEN be.3SG nice        vacation-TA Caribbean.cruise-ADE
    '(It's) nice for them to vacation on a Caribbean cruise'
Example #543:

    e. Järvis-te-n on       ikävä       asu-a uude-n valtatie-n         viere-llä.
    J-PL -GEN be.3SG unpleasant live-TA new-GEN highway-GEN by-ADE
    '(It's) unpleasant for the Järvinens to live by the new highway'
Example #544:

    (35)    a. Nämä        lista-t     o-vat paksu-j-a.
    these.NOM list-PL .NOM be-3PL thick-PL -P      AR
    'These lists are thick'
Example #545:

    (36)      a. Minua arvelutta-isi            lähte-ä yksin maailmanympärysmatka-lle.
    I.PAR be.hesitant-COND .3SG leave-TA alone trip.around.world-A LL
    'I would be hesitant to leave on a trip around the world alone'
Example #546:

    b. Minua huvitt-i           kuunnel-la koulu-n     nokkahuilukonsertti-a.
    I.PAR amuse-PA ST.3SG listen-TA school-GEN recorder.concert-PAR
    'It amused me to listen to the school's recorder concert'
Example #547:

    c. Minua kiinnosta-a pohti-a        suome-n        infinitiive-j-ä.
    I.PAR interest-3SG ponder-TA Finnish-GEN infinitive-PL-P           AR
    'It interests me to ponder Finnish infinitives'
Example #548:

    c. Sinä       e-t     muista-nut      osta-a uut-ta lamppu-a!
    you.NOM N EG-2SG remember-NUT buy-TA new-PAR light.bulb-PAR
    'You didn't remember to buy a new light bulb!'
Example #549:

    (38)   a. Väitöskirja-a     täyty-y kirjoitta-a minun.
    dissertation-PAR must-3SG write-TA I.GEN
    'I must write a dissertation'
Example #550:

    (39)    a. Me     pääti-mme syö-dä illallis-ta takapiha-lla.
    we.NOM decide-1PL eat-TA supper-PAR back.yard-ADE
    'We decided to eat supper in the back yard'
Example #551:

    b. Illallis-ta pääti-mme syö-dä takapiha-lla me.
    supper-PAR decide-1PL eat-TA back.yard-ADE we.        NOM
    'We decided to eat supper in the back yard'
Example #552:

    (40)    a. Opettaja     käsk-i          [*(las-te-n)     kirjoitta-a runo-n].
    teacher.NOM order-PA ST.3SG child-PL-GEN write-TA poem-ACC
    'The teacher ordered the children to write a poem'
Example #553:

    b. Minä anno-i-n         [*(marsu-n)         juos-ta vapaa-na lattia-lla].
    I.NOM let-PA ST-1SG guinea.pig-GEN run-TA free-ESS floor-ADE
    'I let the guinea pig run free on the floor'
Example #554:

    c. He       salli-vat [*(meidän) otta-a valokuv-i-a tästä silla-sta].
    3PL.NOM allow-3PL we.GEN take-TA photo-PL-PAR this.INE bridge-INE
    'They will allow us to take photos of this bridge'
Example #555:

    (41)   a. Minä anna-n sinut /*sinun hirviö-lle!
    I.NOM give-1SG you.ACC / you.GEN monster-A       LL
    'I will give you to the monster!'
Example #556:

    b. Minä anna-n [sinun /*sinut      tanssi-a].
    I.NOM let-1SG you.GEN / you.ACC dance-TA
    'I will let you dance'
Example #557:

    (42)   a. Raakalainen anta-a [koira-lla /*koira-n ol-la kylmä].
    barbarian.NOM let-3SG dog-A LL / dog-GEN be-TA cold
    'Only a barbarian would let a dog be cold'
Example #558:

    b. Jumala salli-i [sata-a rake-i-ta         ja tuhka-a].
    god.NOM let-3SG rain-TA hail-PL-PAR and ash-PAR
    'God lets (it) rain hail stones and ashes'
Example #559:

    c. Älä      anna [jauho-je-n men-nä suu-hun] oppila-ide-n       ede-ssä.
    N EG.IMP  let   flour-PL-GEN go-TA mouth-ILL student-PL-GEN front-INE
    'Don't let yourself go speechless in front of the students'
Example #560:

    (43)    a. Minä halua-n sinut    /*sinun.
    I.NOM want-1SG you.ACC / you.GEN
    'I want you'
Example #561:

    b. Minä halua-n [sinun /*sinut lähte-ä].
    I.NOM want-1SG you.GEN / you.ACC leave-TA
    'I want you to leave'
Example #562:

    c. ?Minä halua-n [sinulla ol-la oikein hauska-a].
    I.NOM want-1SG you.ADE be-TA very fun-PAR
    'I want you to have lots of fun'
Example #563:

    b. Minua pelotta-a [sinun         /*sinut tasapainoil-la kato-lla].
    I.PAR frighten-3SG you.GEN / you.ACC balance-TA roof-ADE
    'I'm frightened by you balancing on the roof'
Example #564:

    c. Minua pelotta-a [Harrisi-n hallitukse-lla      ol-la niin paljon valta-a].
    I.PAR frighten-3SG H-GEN government-ADE be-TA so much power-P                     AR
    'I'm frightened by the Harris government having so much power'
Example #565:

    d. *Minua unohta-a /Minä unohda-n pelo-tta-a                 /laula-tta-a.
    I.PAR forget-3SG /I.NOM forget-1SG fear-CAUS-TA /sing-CAUS-               TA
    'I forget to be frightened/ I forget to feel like singing'
Example #566:

    e. *Minulla/Minua pelotta-a        ol-la kylmä/nälkä              /jano.
    I.ADE /I.PAR frighten-3SG be-TA cold /hunger.             NOM /thirst.   NOM
    'I'm frightened to be cold/hungry/thirsty'
Example #567:

    (46)   a. ??Toivottavasti huomenna muista-a      /ymmärtä-ä       ol-la kaunis-ta.
    hopefully    tomorrow remember-3SG /understand-3SG be-TA beautiful-PAR
    'Hopefully tomorrow remembers/dares/understands to be beautiful'
Example #568:

    b. *Kyllä-päs        tänään huvitta-a /pelotta-a       /pelkä-ä /halua-a sata-a.
    certainly-EMP today amuse-3SG /frighten-3SG /fear-3SG /want-3SG rain-TA
    ?'It certainly amuses /frightens /fears /wants to rain today'
Example #569:

    (47)   a. *Päree-t           halua-vat pala-a minulta-kin Aatu-n kanssa.
    wood.chip-PL.NOM want-3PL burn-TA I.A BL-EMP A-GEN with
    (attempted meaning: 'Even I want to lose my temper with Aatu')
Example #570:

    b. *Sisu päättä-ä      men-nä kaula-an kaiki-lta joskus.
    "guts" decide-3SG go-TA neck-ILL all-A BL sometime
    (attempted meaning: 'Everyone decides to lose their courage sometime')
Example #571:

    c. *Jauho-t         pelotta-vat men-nä suuhu-n sinu-lle-kin.
    flour-PL.NOM frighten-3PL go-TA mouth-ILL you-A LL-EMP
    (attempted meaning: 'You are frightened to go speechless'
Example #572:

    (48)   a. Huomenna täyty-y        sata-a /ol-la kaunis-ta.
    tomorrow must-3SG rain-TA /be-TA beautiful-PAR
    'It has to rain/be beautiful tomorrow' (Laitinen and Vilkuna 1993:31, (5))
Example #573:

    c. Nyt on          jo      aika sata-a /ol-la kaunis-ta.
    now be.3SG already time rain-TA /be-TA beautiful-PAR
    'It is already time to rain/be beautiful'
Example #574:

    (49)   a. Sinusta sopi-i            tul-la       vaikka meribiologi.
    you.ELA be.suitable-3SG become-TA even ocean.biologist
    'You're suited for an ocean biologist, for example'
Example #575:

    b. Sinua        kelpa-a     laula-tta-a.
    you.PAR be.fine-3SG sing-CAUS-TA
    'It's fine for you to feel like singing'
Example #576:

    b. Sinua    on     lupa        nuku-tta-a.
    you.PAR be.3SG permission sleep-CAUS-       TA
    'You have permission to feel sleepy'
Example #577:

    (51)   a. Minun sitten osa-a      ol-la kylmä /nälkä          /jano.
    I.GEN then can-3SG be-TA cold /hunger.           NOM /thirst.   NOM
    'I sure am cold/hungry/thirsty'
Example #578:

    b. Minua alka-a          aivast-utta-a    /pelo-tta-a      /laula-tta-a.
    I.PAR begin-3SG sneeze-CAUS-TA /fear-CAUS-TA /sing-CAUS-                TA
    'I begin to feel like sneezing/frightened/like singing'
Example #579:

    (52)   a. Päree-t            täyty-y    joskus pala-a sinu-lta-kin.
    wood.chip-PL.NOM must-3SG sometime burn-TA you-A BL-EMP
    (lit. 'The wood chips must burn sometime even from you')
Example #580:

    b. Sisu on        oikeus men-nä     kaula-an kaiki-lta joskus.
    "guts" be.3SG right go-TA          neck-ILL all-A BL sometime
    (lit. 'The guts have the right   to go in the throat from everyone sometime')
Example #581:

    c. Jauho-t         voi-vat /alka-vat men-nä suuhu-n sinu-lle-kin ...
    flour-PL.NOM can-3PL /begin-3PL go-TA mouth-ILL you-A LL-EMP
    (lit. 'The flour can/begins to go in your mouth when...')
Example #582:

    (53)     a. Minun onnistu-i           [(*sinä   /*sinun) löytä-ä avaime-ni].
    I.GEN succeed-PA ST.3SG you.NOM / you.GEN find-TA key-1SG.POS
    'I succeeded in (*you) finding my keys'
Example #583:

    c. Sofia osa-a [(*Aurora /*Aurora-n) uid-a].
    S.NOM can-3SG A.NOM / A-GEN       swim-TA
    'Sofia can (*for Aurora to) swim'
Example #584:

    a. Minun onnistu-i           [löytä-ä avaime-ni].
    I.GEN succeed-PA ST.3SG find-TA key-1SG.POS
    'I succeeded in finding my keys'
Example #585:

    b. Minun on        pakko [löytä-ä avaime-ni].
    I.GEN be.3SG necessity find-TA key-1SG.POS
    'I have to find my keys'
Example #586:

    c. Minä vo-isi-n       [löytä-ä avaime-ni].
    I.NOM can-COND -1SG find-TA key-1SG.POS
    'I could/might find my keys (if I cleaned up my apartment)'
Example #587:

    a. Minä halua-n [löytä-ä avaime-ni].
    I.NOM want-1SG find-TA key-1SG.POS
    'I want to find my keys'
Example #588:

    b. Minua kiinnosta-a [löytä-ä avaime-ni].
    I.PAR interest-3SG find-TA key-1SG.POS
    'I interested in finding my keys'
Example #589:

    c. Minä päät-i-n           [löytä-ä avaime-ni].
    I.NOM decide-PA ST-1SG find-TA key-1SG.POS
    'I decided to find my keys'
Example #590:

    a. *Kerttu käsk-i           [löytä-ä minun avaime-ni].
    K.NOM order-PA ST.3SG find-TA I.GEN key-1SG.POS
    'Kerttu ordered me to find my keys'
Example #591:

    c. *Kerttu-a kiinnost-i              [löytä-ä minun avaime-ni].
    K-PAR be.interested-PA ST.3SG find-TA I.GEN key-1SG.POS
    'Kerttu was interested in me my finding my keys'
Example #592:

    a. Kerttu käsk-i          [minun löytä-ä avaime-ni].
    K.NOM order-PA ST.3SG I.GEN find-TA key-1SG.POS
    'Kerttu ordered me to find my keys'
Example #593:

    b. Kerttu halus-i       [minun löytä-ä avaime-ni].
    K.NOM want-PA ST.3SG I.GEN find-TA key-1SG.POS
    'Kerttu wanted me to find my keys'
Example #594:

    c. Kerttu-a kiinnost-i             [minun löytä-ä avaime-ni].
    K-PAR be.interested-PA ST.3SG I.GEN find-TA key-1SG.POS
    'Kerttu was interested in me my finding my keys'
Example #595:

    (58)    a. Kerttu käsk-i          [TP avaime-ni löytä-ä [vP minun ].
    K.NOM order-PA ST.3SG key-1SG.POS find-TA I.GEN
    'Kerttu told me to find my keys'
Example #596:

    (59)    a. Kerttu käsk-i           [TP minun löytä-ä [vPavaime-ni]].
    K.NOM order-PA ST.3SG I.GEN find-TA key-1SG.POS
    'Kerttu told me to find my keys'
Example #597:

    b. Kerttu käsk-i           [TP avaime-ni löytä-ä [vPminun ]].
    K.NOM order-PA ST.3SG key-1SG.POS find-TA I.GEN
    'As for the keys, Kerttu told me to find them'
Example #598:

    [vPtuntikausi-a, mutta Heimo-a hän         autta-a oitis]]]].
    hours-PAR but H-PAR 3SG.NOM help-3SG right.away
    right away'
Example #599:

    (60)   a. Minun onnistu-i           [löytä-ä avaime-ni].
    I.GEN succeed-PA ST.3SG find-TA key-1SG.POS
    'I succeeded in finding my keys'
Example #600:

    b. Minä halua-n [löytä-ä avaime-ni].
    I.NOM want-1SG find-TA key-1SG.POS
    'I want to find my keys'
Example #601:

    (61)   a. Minun onnistu-i           [ne         avaime-ni löytä-ä hetke-ssä].
    I.GEN succeed-PA ST.3SG those.ACC key-1SG.POS find-TA moment-INE
    'I succeeded in finding those keys of mine in a flash'
Example #602:

    b. Pirkko osa-a [vuorimaisem-i-a             maala-ta erikoisen kauniisti].
    P.NOM can-3SG mountain.scenery-PL-PAR paint-TA especially beautifully
    'Pirkko can paint mountain scenery especially beautifully'
Example #603:

    c. Minä halua-n [tästä valokuva-sta suurenta-a kopio-n eteisen seinä-lle].
    I.NOM want-1SG this.ELA photo-ELA enlarge-TA copy-ACC hall-GEN wall-A LL
    'I want to enlarge a copy of this photo for the hall wall'
Example #604:

    d. Ilaria-a pelotta-a     [järv-i-ssä ui-da        kaikkein eniten].
    I-PAR frighten-3SG lake-PL-INE swim-TA all               most
    'Ilaria is afraid to swim in lakes most of all'
Example #605:

    c. Minua kiinnosta-a [Casablanca (*huolellise-mmi-n ) katso-a (3) uudestaan (3)].
    I.PAR interest-3SG C.ACC           careful-COM -ADV watch-TA     again
    'I'm interested in watching Casablanca again more carefully'
Example #606:

    osta-a [vPaina koti-in].
    buy-TA always home-ILL
    'Even children can always buy presents for home on a class trip at an apple farm
Example #607:

    kaike-n saaste-en     sea-ssa kyllä koskaan]].
    all-GEN pollution-GEN midst-INE certainly ever
    summer'
Example #608:

    saaste-en     sea-ssa     ui-da     kyllä    [vPkoskaan]].
    pollution-GEN midst-INE swim-TA certainly ever
    summer'
Example #609:

    mutta mutustel-la muutam-i-a.
    but munch-TA some-PL-PAR
    'I allowed Sofia, not to eat the whole bag of candy, but to munch a few'
Example #610:

    tänne.
    here.ILL
    'I want, not you to leave (to go) to Maija, but Maija to come here'
Example #611:

    (68)    He        salli-vat [CP(*että /*kun) [Topic/TPmeidän lähte-ä aikaisemmin]].
    3PL.NOM allow-3PL        that / when          we.GEN leave-TA earlier
    'They allowed (*that/*when) us to go earlier'
Example #612:

    (69)    a. *Opettaja      käsk-i       [FocusPmitäO [Topic/TPsinun kirjoitta-a tO huomise-ksi]]?
    teacher.NOM tell-PA ST.3SG       what.PAR       you.GEN write-TA      tomorrow-TRAN
    'What did the teacher tell you to write for tomorrow?'
Example #613:

    c. *Minä käsk-i-n        [FocusP omena-t-han [Topic/TPsinun kuori-a tällä veitse-llä]].
    I.NOM order-PA ST-1SG apple-PL.NOM -EMP          you.GEN peel-TA this knife-ADE
    'It was the apples (that) I ordered you to peel with this knife'
Example #614:

    (mutta hänen kirjoihinsa ei saa kukaan koske-a).
    but her books           N EG get anyone touch-TA
    her books)'
Example #615:

    etsi-ä    [vP Kari-n [vPaina [vPkova-lla touhu-lla]]]], ...
    search-TA K-GEN always hard-ADE fuss-ADE
    with much fuss (but she finds them for Heimo right away)'
Example #616:

    (75)      a. Kerttu käsk-i           minun löytä-ä avaime-ni.
    K.NOM order-PA ST.3SG I.GEN find-TA key-1SG.POS
    'Kerttu told me to find my keys'
Example #617:

    (76)   a. Minun täyty-y [CP(*että) [TPlöytä-ä avaime-ni]].
    I.GEN must-3SG        that    find-TA key-1SG.POS
    'I must (*that) find my keys'
Example #618:

    c. *Sinun    onnistui-i        [FocusP avaime-ni-ko [TPlöytä-ä]]?
    you.GEN succeed-PA ST.3SG          key-1SG.POS-Q   find-TA
    'Was it my keys that you succeeded in finding?'
Example #619:

    d. *Minun onnistu-i           [FocusP avaime-ni-pas   [TPlöytä-ä]]!
    I.GEN succeed-PA ST.3SG           key-1SG.POS-EMP    find-TA
    'It was my keys that I succeeded in finding!'
Example #620:

    e. *Minun onnistu-i           [NegP ei     [TPlöytä-ä avaim-i-a-ni]].
    I.GEN succeed-PA ST.3SG       N EG.3SG    find-TA key-PL-PAR -1SG.P   OS
    'I succeeded in not finding my keys'
Example #621:

    (77)   a. Minun onnistu-i,           ei löytä-ä avaim-i-a-ni,           mutta siivo-ta vähän.
    I.GEN succeed-PA ST.3SG N EG find-TA key-PL-PAR -1SG.POS but clean-TA little
    'I succeeded, not in finding my keys, but in cleaning up a little'
Example #622:

    (80)     a. Minun täyty-y löytä-ä avaime-ni.
    I.GEN must-3SG find-TA key-1SG.POS
    'I must find my keys'
Example #623:

    d. Hänellä ei            ole vielä selvi-llä, [mitenOBL PRO aloitta-a työ-t        tOBL ].
    3SG.ADE N EG.3SG be still clear-ADE how                    start-TA work-PL.ACC
    'She still isn't clear on how to start the work'
Example #624:

    e. Minä mieti-n,     [lähte-ä-köV PRO tV ], vai ei.
    I.NOM wonder-1SG leave-TA -Q               or N EG.3     SG
    'I wonder whether to go or not'
Example #625:

    g. Minä unohda-n, [sokeri-a-koO PRO nyt laitta-a t O, vai suola-a].
    I.NOM forget-1SG sugar-PAR -Q           now put-TA   or salt-PAR
    'I forget whether to put sugar in now, or salt'
Example #626:

    b. Rauhoitu rakas ystävä: miksi otta-a yksi hylkäyskirje niin vakavasti?
    calm.IMP dear friend why take-TA one rejection.letter so seriously
    'Calm yourself, dear friend: why take one rejection letter so seriously?'
Example #627:

    c. Mitä      nyt teh-dä?
    what.PAR now do-TA
    'What to do now?'
Example #628:

    b. Minä lupaa-n         [(*että) PRO tiska-ta astia-t].
    I.NOM promise-1SG that             wash-TA dish-PL.     ACC
    'I promise (*that) to wash the dishes'
Example #629:

    c. Minä varmaan unohda-n [(*kun /*jos) PRO anta-a merkki].
    I.NOM probably forget-1SG when / if                give-TA sign.ACC
    'I'll probably forget (*when/if) to give the sign'
Example #630:

    (86)    a. Minä muist-i-n            *[ei       PRO tervehti-ä Helga-a].
    I.NOM remember-PA ST-1SG N EG.3SG          greet-TA H-PAR
    'I remembered not to greet Helga (since she had asked me not to)'
Example #631:

    b. Täällä    voi-ta-isi-in         vaikka      [pro tanssi-a polkka-a].
    here.ADE can-P A SS-COND -A GR for.instance      dance-TA polka-PAR
    'Here (people) could, for instance, dance polka'
Example #632:

    b. Illallis-taOBJ pääti-mme [PRO syö-dä tOBJ takapiha-lla] me.
    supper-PAR decide-1PL            eat-TA     back.yard-ADE we.         NOM
    'We decided to eat supper in the back yard'
Example #633:

    c. Takapiha-llaOBL pääti-mme [PRO syö-dä illallis-ta tOBL ] me.
    back.yard-ADE decide-1PL            eat-TA supper-PAR    we.         NOM
    'We decided to eat supper in the back yard'
Example #634:

    (99)   a. Illallis-taO pääti-mme me     [PRO syö-dä tO takapiha-lla].
    supper-PAR decide-1PL we.NOM          eat-TA   back.yard-ADE
    'Supper we decided to eat in the back yard'
Example #635:

    (100) a. Puuro-aO     käsk-i        [Howardi-n syö-dä tO] Sofia.
    porridge.PAR order-PA ST.3SG H-GEN     eat-TA    S.NOM
    'Sofia ordered Howard to eat porridge'
Example #636:

    b. Tämä anta-a        sinulle tilaisuude-n     [osallistu-a täysiaikaisesti projekti-in].
    this.NOM give-3SG you.A LL opportunity-ACC participate-TA full.time project-ILL
    'This gives you an opportunity to participate in the project full time'
Example #637:

    c. Hänessä heräs-i         ajatus [saa-da aika-an jotain     suur-ta].
    3SG.INE wake-PA ST.3SG thought get-TA time-INE something great-PAR
    'In her awoke a thought to produce something magnificent'
Example #638:

    (103) a. Mielee-ni     nous-i         kysymys, [mitä    teh-dä nyt].
    mind-1SG.POS rise-PA ST.3SG question what.PAR do-TA now
    'Into my mind rose a question: what to do now?'
Example #639:

    (104) a. tapa [kategorisoi-da maailma-a]
    way categorize-TA world-PAR
    'way of categorizing the world'
Example #640:

    (106) a. Opettaja     anto-i         luva-n          [las-te-n          lähte-ä välitunni-lle].
    teacher.NOM give-PA ST.3SG permission-ACC child-PL-GEN -TA leave-TA recess-A LL
    'The teacher gave permission for the children to go on recess'
Example #641:

    (109) a. Mielee-ni     nous-i        kysymys, [minne (*las-te-n)        lähte-ä nyt].
    mind-1SG.POS rise-PA ST.3SG question what.ILL child-PL-GEN leave-TA now
    'Into my mind rose a question: where (*for the children) to go now?'
Example #642:

    b. Kaisa-a kiusas-i        epäilys, [ei-kö   (*Peka-n) sittenkin lähte-ä mukaan].
    K.NOM bother-PA ST.3SG doubt N EG.3SG-Q P-GEN after.all leave-TA with
    'Kaisa was bothered by a doubt whether (*for Pekka) not to go with (them) after
Example #643:

    (110) a. *Minä pyys-i-n         lupa-a           [pro lähte-ä-ni            mukaan],...
    I.NOM ask-PA ST-1SG permission-PAR         leave-TA -1SG.POS with
    'I asked for a permission to go with (them, but I didn't get it)'
Example #644:

    b. *Mati-lla on     ideologia [pro otta-a-nsa      osaa kaikki-in mielenosoituks-i-in].
    M-ADE be.3SG ideology           take-TA -3POS part all-ILL demonstration-ILL
    'Matti has an ideology to take part in all demonstrations'
Example #645:

    [(kenenkään) ymmärtä-ä          tO ].
    anyone.GEN understand-TA
    'Finnish infinitives are difficult for anyone to understand'
Example #646:

    b. Hyttys-i-stäO    on      /*o-vat vaikea /*vaike-i-ta [(kenenkään) pitä-ä tO ].
    mosquito-PL-ELA be.3SG/ be-3PL difficult/ difficult-PL-PAR anyone.GEN like-TA
    'Mosquitoes are difficult for anyone to like'
Example #647:

    (114) a. KenenkäänS on          vaikea [tS ymmärtä-ä        suome-n      infinitiive-j-ä].
    anyone.GEN be.3SG difficult         understand-TA Finnish-GEN infinitive-PL-PAR
    'Finnish infinitives are difficult for anyone to understand'
Example #648:

    b. *KenenkäänS o-vat vaike-i-ta            [tS ymmärtä-ä     suome-n infinitiivi-t].
    anyone.GEN be-3PL difficult-PL-PAR understand-TA Finnish-GEN infinitive-PL.NOM
    'Finnish infinitives are difficult (for anyone) to understand'
Example #649:

    (minä) lu-i-n             Ida-n tutkielma-n.
    I.NOM read-PA ST-1SG I-GEN treatise-ACC
    'In order (*for me) to understand infinitives better, I read Ida's treatise'
Example #650:

    /*[hänestä tul-la-kse-en            lääkäri].
    / 3SG.ELA become-TA -TRAN -3POS doctor
    'Ritva reads anatomy eagerly in order (*for her) to become a doctor'
Example #651:

    *[laule-ta-a-ksi       niitä    vuosijuhla-ssa].
    sing-P A SS-TA -TRAN 3PL.PAR annual.party-INE
    the annual party'
Example #652:

    (124) a. Kalastaja-n-ko     tyttäre-n      lapse-n sinä         äsken nä-i-t t?
    fisherman-GEN -Q daughter-GEN child-ACC you.NOM just see-PA ST-2SG
    'Was it the fisherman's daughter's child who you just saw?'
Example #653:

    b. *Kalastaja-n-koPos sinä      äsken nä-i-t        tPos tyttäre-n    lapse-n?
    fisherman-GEN -Q you.NOM just see-PA ST-2SG         daughter-GEN child-ACC
    *'Was it the fisherman's who you just saw tPos daughter's child?'
Example #654:

    c. Kenen      lapse-n     sinä     äsken nä-i-t?
    who.GEN -Q child-ACC you.NOM just see-PA ST-2SG
    'Whose child did you just see?'
Example #655:

    sö-i-n         minä koko pussillise-n lakritsa-a.
    eat-PA ST-1SG I.NOM whole bag-GEN licorice-PAR
    licorice'
Example #656:

    (132) a. Sofia tanssi-i villisti, [tamburiini-a-an       meluisasti rymistä-e-n].
    S.NOM dance-3SG wildly tambourine-PAR -3POS noisily         bang-DE-INS
    'Sofia is dancing wildly (while) banging her tambourine noisily'
Example #657:

    b. Virve pudott-i         maljako-n [Lasu-n näh-de-n].
    V.NOM drop-PA ST.3SG vase-ACC L-GEN see-DE-INS
    'Virve dropped the vase, Lasu seeing it'
Example #658:

    d. Maija juhl-i               voitto-a-an [syö-de-n koko kaku-n].
    M.NOM celebrate-PA ST.ESG win-PAR -3POS eat-DE-INS whole cake-ACC
    'Maija celebrated her win by eating the whole cake'
Example #659:

    b. Jooseppi hoita-a kunto-a-an             [käy-de-n usein hölkä-llä].
    J.NOM care-3SG condition-PAR -3POS go-DE-INS often jog-ADE
    'Jooseppi keeps fit by going often for a jog'
Example #660:

    b. [Peukalo-i-ta pyöritel-tä-e-n] ei         raportti-a saada loppuun.
    thumb-PL-PAR roll-P A SS-DE-INS N EG.3SG report-PAR get ready
    '(One) won't get the report ready by twiddling (one's) t humbs'
Example #661:

    usko-o      Darlene oppi-va-nsa ranska-a  tehokkaasti.
    believe-3SG D.NOM learn-VA -3POS French-PAR effectively
    believes (that she is) learning French effectively'
Example #662:

    Niina-n uut-ta työpaikka-a.
    N-GEN new-PAR job-PAR
    'By eating a Lebanese lunch, we all celebrated Niina's new job'
Example #663:

    (140) a. Minä lu-i-n           *(hänen) kirja-nsa.
    I.NOM read-PA ST-1SG 3SG.GEN book-3POS
    'I read his/her book'
Example #664:

    b. Hän        sano-i         [(*hänen) luke-nee-nsa kirja-n].
    3SG.NOM say-PA ST.3SG 3SG.GEN read-NUT-3POS book-ACC
    'S/he says (that) s/he read the book'
Example #665:

    c. [*(Hänen) luki-e-ssa-an       kirja-a] minä selas-i-n      sanomalehte-ä.
    3SG.GEN read-DE-INE-3POS book-PAR I.NOM flip-PA ST-1SG newspaper-PAR
    'While she was reading a book, I scanned the newspaper'
Example #666:

    Siellä    (*he       /*heidän) korja-tt-i-n         auto(-*n).
    there.ADE 3PL.NOM / 3PL.GEN fix-PA SS-PA ST-A GR car.ACC
    'The car got fixed there (?by them)'
Example #667:

    /*hänen) siellä         korjaamo-lla.
    / 3PL.GEN there.ADE garage-ADE
    'Now our car has finally been fixed (*by her) there at the garage'
Example #668:

    b. Lemmikki marss-i         ulos, sano-ma-tta edes näkemiin.
    L.NOM    march-PA ST.3SG out say-MA -A BE even goodbye
    'Lemmikki marched out, without even saying goodbye'
Example #669:

    c. Jaana-n kirjoitta-ma-t      kirjee-t
    J-GEN write-MA -PL.NOM letter-PL.      NOM
    'the letters written by Jaana'
Example #670:

    (146) a. Opettaja     laitto-i        lapse-n kirjoitta-ma-an runo-n.
    teacher.NOM have-PA ST.3SG child-ACC write-MA -ILL poem-ACC
    'The teacher had the child write a poem' (telic: 'and finish it')
Example #671:

    b. Opettaja     laitto-i        lapse-n    kirjoitta-ma-an runo-a.
    teacher.NOM have-PA ST.3SG child-ACC write-MA -ILL poem-PAR
    not necessarily finish)
Example #672:

    c. Opettaja      sa-i           lapse-n   pitä-mä-än runo-i-sta.
    teacher.NOM get-PA ST.3SG child-ACC like-MA -ILL poem-PL-ELA
    'The teacher got the child to like poems'
Example #673:

    nukku-ma-t       torku-t      kest-i-vät   kuusi tunti-a.
    sleep-MA -PL.NOM nap-PL.NOM last-PA ST-3PL six hour-PAR
    sun lasted six hours'
Example #674:

    b. Minä kiels-i-n            laps-i-a     koske-ma-sta koskaan kaktukse-en.
    I.NOM forbid-PA ST-1SG child-PL-PAR touch-MA -ELA ever     cactus-ILL
    'I forbade the children to ever touch the cactus'
Example #675:

    bussi-a Raija-n kanssa.
    bus-PAR R-GEN with
    'I see Anniina waiting for the bus with Raija every morning at six o'clock'
Example #676:

    d. Minä u-i-n            altaa-n pää-stä pää-hän kroolaa-ma-lla.
    I.NOM swim-PA ST-1SG pool-GEN end-ELA end-ILL crawl-MA -ADE
    'I swam from one end of the pool to the other by (using) the crawl'
Example #677:

    e. Auringonkukansiemene-si ei      kasva kastele-ma-tta.
    sunflower.seed-2SG.POS N EG.3SG grow water(V)-MA -ABE
    'Your sunflower seed won't grow without watering'
Example #678:

    b. Minä auto-i-n           las-ta    [kirjoitta-ma-an joulupuki-lle].
    I.NOM help-PA ST-1SG child-PAR write-MA -ILL Santa.Claus-A LL
    'I helped the child to write to Santa Claus'
Example #679:

    c. Minä pyys-i-n         Teuvo-a eläintarha-an.
    I.NOM ask-PA ST-1SG T-PAR zoo-ILL
    'I asked Teuvo to the zoo'
Example #680:

    d. Minä pyys-i-n        Terhi-ä [tule-ma-an kahvi-lle].
    I.NOM ask-PA ST-1SG T-PAR come-MA -ILL coffee-A LL
    'I asked Terhi to come for coffee'
Example #681:

    e. Minä nä-i-n           Vilpu-n ranna-ssa.
    I.NOM see-PA ST-1SG V-ACC shore-INE
    'I saw Vilppu at the shore'
Example #682:

    f. Minä nä-i-n         Johanna-n [ui-ma-ssa].
    I.NOM see-PA ST-1SG J-ACC      swim-MA -INE
    'I saw Johanna swimming'
Example #683:

    g. Minä pakot-i-n            Jussin komero-on.
    I.NOM force-PA ST-1SG J-ACC cupboard-ILL
    'I forced Jussi into the cupboard'
Example #684:

    h. Minä pakot-i-n        Orvoki-n [kirjoitta-ma-an elämänkerta-nsa].
    I.NOM force-PA ST-1SG O-ACC write-MA -ILL autobiography-3P               OS
    'I forced Orvokki to write her autobiography'
Example #685:

    i. Minä kiels-i-n            laps-i-a     pahanteo-sta.
    I.NOM forbid-PA ST-1SG child-PL-PAR mischief-ELA
    'I forbade the children from mischief'
Example #686:

    j. Minä kiels-i-n           Sofia-a [heittä-mä-stä pallo-a olohuonee-ssa].
    I.NOM forbid-PA ST-1SG S-PAR throw-MA -ELA ball-PAR living.room-INE
    'I forbade Sofia to throw the ball in the living room'
Example #687:

    (153) a. Pekka näk-i        Juka-n luke-ma-ssa sarjakuv-i-a.
    P.NOM see-PA ST.3SG J-ACC read-MA -INE comic-PL-PAR
    'Pekka saw Jukka reading comics'        (Vainikka 1989: 261, (14a))
Example #688:

    b. Minä auto-i-n        pappa-a       bussi-in takapenkki-in.
    I.NOM help-PA ST-1SG grampa-PAR bus-ILL back.bench-ILL
    'I helped Grampa onto the bus to the back bench'
Example #689:

    c. Minä pyys-i-n         Teuvo-a eläintarha-an [katso-ma-an käärme-i-tä].
    I.NOM ask-PA ST-1SG T-PAR zoo-ILL            see-MA -ILL snake-PL-PAR
    'I asked Teuvo to the zoo to see the snakes'
Example #690:

    d. Minä pyys-i-n       Terhi-ä Toronto-on eläintarha-an käärmetalo-on.
    I.NOM ask-PA ST-1SG T-PAR T-ILL            zoo-ILL        snake.house-ILL
    'I asked Terhi (to come) to Toronto to the zoo to the snake house'
Example #691:

    e. Minä nä-i-n          Vilpu-n ranna-ssa [ui-ma-ssa].
    I.NOM see-PA ST-1SG V-ACC shore-INE swim-MA -INE
    'I saw Vilppu at the shore swimming'
Example #692:

    f. Minä nä-i-n           ravu-n     ranna-ssa [hieka-ssa].
    I.NOM see-PA ST-1SG crab-ACC shore-INE sand-MA -INE
    'I saw a crab at the shore in the sand'
Example #693:

    elämänkerta-nsa].
    autobiography-3POS
    'I forced Olli to the desk to write his autobiography'
Example #694:

    h. Minä pakot-i-n           Olli-n toimisto-on kirjoituspöydä-n ääre-en.
    I.NOM force-PA ST-1SG O-ACC office-ILL      desk-GEN         edge-ILL
    'I forced Olli to the office to the desk'
Example #695:

    (155) a. Minä nä-i-n         Vilpu-n [ui-ma-ssa] [räpiköi-mä-ssä koira-a].
    I.NOM see-PA ST-1SG V-ACC swim-MA -INE splash-MA -INE dog-PAR
    'I saw Vilppu swimming splashing like a dog'
Example #696:

    [kirjoitta-ma-an elämänkerta-a-nsa].
    write-MA -ILL autobiography-PAR -3P     OS
    'I forced Olli to the desk to sweat to write his autobiography'
Example #697:

    (156) a. Minä auto-i-n         pappa-a     #bussi-in [äänestä-mä-än].
    I.NOM help-PA ST-1SG grampa-PAR bus-ILL vote-MA -ILL
    'I helped Grampa onto the bus to vote'
Example #698:

    b. Minä auto-i-n        pappa-a      #bussi-in keinutuoli-in.
    I.NOM help-PA ST-1SG grampa-PAR bus-ILL rocking.chair-ILL
    'I helped Grampa onto the bus to the rocking chair'
Example #699:

    c. Minä pyys-i-n        Teuvo-a #eläintarha-an [äänestä-mä-än].
    I.NOM ask-PA ST-1SG T-PAR      zoo-ILL        vote-MA -ILL
    'I asked Teuvo to the zoo to vote'
Example #700:

    d. Minä pyys-i-n        Terhi-ä #eläintarha-an huvipuisto-on.
    I.NOM ask-PA ST-1SG T-PAR zoo-ILL             amusement.park-        ILL
    'I asked Terhi (to come) to the zoo to the amusement park'
Example #701:

    e. Minä nä-i-n           Vilpu-n #ranna-ssa [äänestä-mä-ssä].
    I.NOM see-PA ST-1SG V-ACC shore-INE vote-MA -INE
    'I saw Vilppu at the shore voting'
Example #702:

    (157) a. Hän      pysy-i          sauna-ssa.                                          N
    3SG.NOM stay-PA ST.3SG sauna-INE
    'S/he remained in the sauna'
Example #703:

    b. (pöydä-n) pää-lle; (pöydä-n) pää-ltä; (pöydä-n) pää-llä                     P
    table-GEN top-A LL table-GEN top-A BL table-GEN top-ADE
    'to the top of the table; from the top of the table; on top of the table'
Example #704:

    c. Hän       pysy-i       kaunii-na.                                           A
    3SG.NOM stay-PA ST.3SG beautiful-ESS
    'S/he stayed beautiful'
Example #705:

    d. Hän        ol-i        [osta-ma-ssa leipä-ä].                               V
    3SG.NOM be-PA ST.3SG buy-MA -INE bread-PAR
    'S/he was buying bread'
Example #706:

    c. Minä opet-i-n            Sofia-a [tavaa-ma-an kysymyssano-j-a].
    I.NOM teach-PA ST-1SG S-PAR spell-MA -ILL question.word-PL-PAR
    'I taught Sofia [to spell question words]'
Example #707:

    b. *Minua harmitta-a        [Sofia-n kaata-ma(-n) maito-a].
    I.PAR be.annoyed-3SG S-GEN spill-MA (-ACC ) milk-PAR
    'I'm annoyed at Sofia spilling the milk'
Example #708:

    b. Minua harmitta-a        [Sofia-n maido-n kaata-minen].
    I.PAR be.annoyed-3SG S-GEN milk-GEN spill-DEVN .ACC
    'I'm annoyed at Sofia's spilling of the milk'
Example #709:

    c. Minä opet-i-n            Sofia-lle [kysymyssano-je-n     tavaa-mi-sta ].
    I.NOM teach-PA ST-1SG S-A LL        question.word-PL-GEN spell-DEVN -ELA
    'I taught Sofia spelling of question words'
Example #710:

    jäätävä-n     kylmä-stä suloise-n    lämpimä-än.
    freezing-GEN cold-ELA wonderful-GEN warm-ILL
    wonderfully warm'
Example #711:

    (164) a. Se          on    komea maljakko [lasise-ksi].
    3SG.NOM be.3SG handsome vase           glass-TRAN
    'It's a handsome vase for a glass one'
Example #712:

    b. Se          on    komea      maljakko [Liisa-n osta-ma-ksi].
    3SG.NOM be.3SG handsome vase             L-GEN buy-MA -TRAN
    'It's a handsome vase for one that Liisa has bought'
Example #713:

    c. Hevonen laahust-i              piha-an [hikise-nä ja uupunee-na].
    horse.NOM straggle-PA ST.3SG yard-ILL sweaty-ESS and exhausted-ESS
    'The horse straggled into the yard sweaty and exhausted'
Example #714:

    d. Hevonen laahust-i              piha-an [Hilma-n talutta-ma-na].
    horse.NOM straggle-PA ST.3SG yard-ILL H-GEN lead-MA -ESS
    'The horse straggled into the yard, led by Hilma'
Example #715:

    (166) a. Opettaja     laitto-i        lapse-t       kirjoitta-ma-an runo-j-a.
    teacher.NOM have-PA ST.3SG child-PL.ACC write-MA -ILL poem-PL-          P AR
    'The teacher had the children write poems' (all the children)
Example #716:

    b. Opettaja     laitto-i       laps-i-a    kirjoitta-ma-an runo-j-a.
    teacher.NOM have-PA ST.3SG child-PL-PAR write-MA -ILL poem-PAR
    'The teacher had some children write poems' (some children)
Example #717:

    c. Opettaja     ei       vaati-nut     las-ta /*lapse-n kirjoitta-ma-an runo-a.
    teacher.NOM N EG.3SG demand-NUT child-PAR / child-ACC write-MA -ILL poem-PAR
    'The teacher didn't demand (that) the child write a poem'
Example #718:

    (167) a. Minä kutsu-i-n          Sofia-n syö-mä-än.
    I.NOM call-PA ST-1SG S-ACC eat-MA -ILL
    'I called Sofia to eat' (it is presupposed that she would come once called)
Example #719:

    b. Minä kutsu-i-n         Sofia-a syö-mä-än.
    I.NOM call-PA ST-1SG S-PAR eat-MA -ILL
    'I called Sofia to eat' (and it was up to her whether to come or not)
Example #720:

    b. Minä e-n         opetta-nut häntä /*hänet       viheltä-mä-än Marseljeesi-a.
    I.NOM N EG-1SG teach-NUT 3SG.PAR / 3SG.ACC whistle-MA -ILL Marseillaise-PAR
    'I didn't teach her to whistle the Marseillaise'
Example #721:

    (169) a. Minä kielsi-n Sofia-a/*Sofia-n hyppi-mä-stä sohva-lla.
    I.NOM forbid-1SG S-PAR / S-ACC jump-MA -ELA sofa-ADE
    'I forbid Sofia to jump on the sofa'
Example #722:

    b. Minä kiellä-n       sinua /*sinut      laula-ma-sta Marseljeesi-a.
    I.NOM forbid-1SG you.PAR / you.ACC sing-MA -ELA Marseillaise-PAR
    'I forbid you to sing the Marseillaise'
Example #723:

    (170) a. Minä kehoit-i-n        Floora-a hajamielisesti     lähte-mä-än kahde-lta.
    I.NOM urge-PA ST-1SG F-GEN absent-mindedly         leave-MA -ILL two-A BL
    *'I urged (that) Floora should absent-mindedly    leave at two o'clock'
Example #724:

    b. Minä unohd-i-n           Floora-n hajamielisesti lähte-nee-n       kahde-lta.
    I.NOM forget-PA ST-1SG F-GEN absent-mindedly leave-NUT-ACC two-A BL
    *'I forgot, absentmindedly, (that) Floora had left at two o'clock'
Example #725:

    (171) a. Ilmarii varoitt-i       Taneli-aj itse-stä-äni /*j.
    I-NOM warn-PA ST.3SG T-PAR self-INE-3POSs
    'Ilmarii warned Taneliaj about himselfi /*j.'
Example #726:

    b. Minä varoit-i-n        Taneli-ai pitä-mä-än huol-ta itse-stä-äni.
    I.NOM warn-PA ST-1SG T-PAR take-MA -ILL care-PAR self-ILL-3POS
    'I warned Taneli to take care of himself'
Example #727:

    b. *Unelma autta-a Saima-a nuku-tta-ma-an.
    U.NOM help-3SG S-PAR sleep-CAUS-MA -                 ILL
    'Unelma helps Saima to feel sleepy'
Example #728:

    (174) a. *Siiri vaat-i                 heti        sata-ma-an.
    S.NOM demand-PA ST.3SG immediately rain-MA -ILL
    'Siiri demanded (that) it rain immediately'
Example #729:

    (i) ?Auli autto-i           Reiska-sta tule-ma-an    lääkäri-n.
    A.NOM help-P AST .3SG R-IN E      become-MA-ILL doctor-ACC
    'Auli helped Reiska become a doctor'
Example #730:

    (ii) Minä sa-i-n             eilen    sata-ma-an sadetanssi-lla-ni!
    I.NOM get-P AST -1SG yesterday rain-MA-ILL rain.dance-ADE -1SG .P    OS
    'I got it to rain yesterday by my rain dance'
Example #731:

    b. Micah saa        päreet              pala-ma-an pyhimyks-i-ltä-kin.
    M.NOM get.3SG wood.chip-PL .ACC burn-MA-ILL saint-PL -ABL -E MP
    'Micah can get even a saint to lose his/her temper'
Example #732:

    b. Sarah kehoitt-i       minua (*että/*jos) rentoutu-ma-an.
    S.NOM urge-PA ST.3SG I.PAR       that/ if relax-MA -ILL
    'Sarah urged me (*that/*if) to relax'
Example #733:

    (178) a. Minä pyys-i-n       sinua (*e-t       /*ei)   luke-ma-an Kahdettatois-ta yö-tä.
    I.NOM ask-PA ST-1SG you.PAR N EG-2SG/ N EG.3SG read-MA -ILL twelfth-PAR night-PAR
    'I asked you (*not) to read the Twelfth Night'
Example #734:

    c. Lassei men-i       [PROi ui-ma-an].
    L.NOM go-PA ST.3SG       swim-MA -ILL
    'Lasse went swimming'
Example #735:

    (185) a. Tuula käv-i           [kaupa-ssa].
    T.NOM visit-PA ST.3SG store-INE
    'Tuula went to the store'
Example #736:

    b. Marju tul-i             juuri [Newfoundlandi-stä].
    M.NOM come-PA ST.3SG just N-ELA
    'Marju just came from Newfoundland'
Example #737:

    c. Lasse men-i         [uimahalli-in].
    L.NOM go-PA ST.3SG swimming.pool-ILL
    'The child went to the swimming pool'
Example #738:

    b. Minä tyydy-n             [kahvikupillise-en]/[PRO jää-mä-än koti-in].
    I.NOM be.content-1SG coffee.cup-ILL          /    stay-MA -ILL home-ILL
    'I'll be content with a cup of coffee/to stay home'
Example #739:

    aikaisin].
    early
    'Ilaria easily got used to the new school/to waking up early'
Example #740:

    esimerkke-j-ä].
    example-PL-PAR
    'I'll now quit this game/inventing more examples'
Example #741:

    (187) a. *Ensi vuon-na minulla kyken-isi         ole-ma-an uusi         polkupyörä.
    next year-ESS I.ADE be.able.to-COND be-MA -ILL new.       ACC bicycle.ACC
    'Next year I would be able to have a new bike'
Example #742:

    b. *Minulla kieltäyty-y ole-ma-sta nälkä.
    I.ADE refuse-3SG be-MA -ELA hunger
    'I refuse to be hungry'
Example #743:

    d. *Päree-t              lakkas-i-vat vihdoin pala-ma-sta Kaija-lta.
    wood.chip-PL.NOM stop-PA ST-3PL finally burn-MA -ELA K-A BL
    'Kaija finally stopped losing her temper'
Example #744:

    (188) a. Ulla kieltäyty-y [PRO osta-ma-sta koskaan auto-a].
    U.NOM refuse-3SG            buy-MA -ELA ever car-PAR
    'Ulla refuses to ever buy a car'
Example #745:

    b. Me       ole-mme tottu-nee-t     [PRO käy-mä-än usein elokuv-i-ssa].
    we.NOM be-1PL used.to-NUT-PL            go-MA -ILL often movie-PL-INE
    'We're used to going to the movies often'
Example #746:

    c. Minä lakka-an [PRO pelaa-ma-sta aina tietokonepele-j-ä].
    I.NOM quit-1SG            play-MA -ELA always computer.game-PL-          P AR
    'I'll quit always playing computer games'
Example #747:

    f. Minä suostu-n nyt [PRO lähte-mä-än huomenna elokuv-i-in]...
    I.NOM agree-1SG now           leave-MA -ILL tomorrow movie-PL-ILL
    'I'll agree now to go to the movies tomorrow' (but I might change my mind)'
Example #748:

    b. Sofia opp-i           [PRO/*pro sukelta-ma-a(n)(*-nsa) viime kesä-nä].
    S.NOM learn-PA ST.3SG            dive-MA -ILL-3POS      last summer-ESS
    'Sofia learned to dive last summer'
Example #749:

    (190) a. Minä u-i-n            altaa-n    pää-stä pää-hän [kroolaa-ma-lla].
    I.NOM swim-PA ST-1SG pool-GEN end-ELA end-ILL crawl-MA -ADE
    'I swam from one end of the pool to the other by (using) the crawl'
Example #750:

    b. Ehkä tämä         selviä-ä         [pohti-ma-lla].
    maybe this.NOM become.clear-3SG ponder-MA -ADE
    'Maybe this will become clear by pondering (it)'
Example #751:

    c. Auringonkukansiemene-si ei       kasva [kastele-ma-tta].
    sunflower.seed-2SG.POS N EG.3SG grow water-MA -ABE
    'Your sunflower seed won't grow without watering'
Example #752:

    d. Hän        läht-i          juuri [maksa-ma-tta lasku-a-an].
    3SG.NOM leave-PA ST.3SG just pay-MA -ABE bill-PAR -3POS
    'He just left without paying his bill'
Example #753:

    (191) a. Minä u-i-n            altaa-n    pää-stä pää-hän [uimarenkaa-lla].
    I.NOM swim-PA ST-1SG pool-GEN end-ELA end-ILL float-ADE
    'I swam from one end of the pool to the other with a float'
Example #754:

    b. Ehkä tämä         selviä-ä         [raha-lla].
    maybe this.NOM become.clear-3SG money-ADE
    'Maybe this will become clear with money'
Example #755:

    c. Auringonkukansiemene-si ei       kasva [auringo-tta].
    sunflower.seed-2SG.POS N EG.3SG grow sun-ABE
    'Your sunflower seed won't grow without sun(light)'
Example #756:

    d. Hän         läht-i          juuri [taki-tta ja laki-tta].
    3SG.NOM leave-PA ST.3SG just coat-ABE and hat-ABE
    'He just left without his coat and his hat '
Example #757:

    (192) a. Hän      jäi            henki-in [meidän autta-ma-lla häntä].
    3SG.NOM stay-PA ST.3SG life-ILL we.GEN help-MA -ADE 3SG.PAR
    'He survived by our helping him'                 (Toivonen 1995:12, fn.8, (i))
Example #758:

    c. Auringonkukansiemene-si ei     kasva [sinun    kastele-ma-tta sitä].
    sunflower.seed-2SG.POS N EG.3SG grow you.GEN water-MA -A BE 3SG.P             AR
    'Your sunflower seed won't grow without you watering it'
Example #759:

    d. Minä hiivi-n      sisä-än [Anun huomaa-ma-tta ollenkaan].
    I.NOM tiptoe-1SG in-ILL A.GEN notice-MA -A BE at.all
    'I tiptoed in without Anu noticing at all'
Example #760:

    (193) a. Hän      jäi           henki-in [meidän autta-ma-lla(-*mme) häntä].
    3SG.NOM stay-PA ST.3SG life-ILL we.GEN help-MA -ADE-1PL.PO S 3SG.PAR
    'He survived by our helping him'
Example #761:

    d. Minä hiivi-n      sisä-än [sinun   huomaa-ma-tta-si].
    I.NOM tiptoe-1SG in-ILL you.GEN notice-MA -A BE
    'I tiptoed in without you noticing'
Example #762:

    nopeasti piiki-n.
    quickly shot-ACC
    'Without her feeling anything, the doctor quickly gave (her) a shot'
Example #763:

    kirje-i-tä
    letter-PL-   P AR
    '(some of) the letters that the boy wrote to his friends last week from Japan'
Example #764:

    (199) a. Lapse-t       alka-vat laula-a /laula-ma-an.
    child-PL.NOM begin-3PL sing-TA /sing-MA -ILL
    'The children begin to sing'
Example #765:

    b. Lapse-t       ryhty-vät laula-ma-an.
    child-PL.NOM begin-3PL sing-MA -ILL
    'The children begin to sing'
Example #766:

    c. Lapse-t       rupea-vat laula-ma-an.
    child-PL.NOM begin-3PL sing-MA -ILL
    'The children begin to sing'
Example #767:

    d. Lapse-t        aloitta-vat laulu-n / laula-mise-n.
    child-PL.NOM begin-3PL song-ACC / sing-DEVN -ACC
    'The children begin the song /the singing'
Example #768:

    (200) a. Minä halua-n Leena-n laula-a /laula-va-n.
    I.NOM want-1SG L-GEN sing-TA /sing-VA -ACC
    'I want Leena to sing'
Example #769:

    b. Minä halua-n Leena-n laula-ma-an.
    I.NOM want-1SG L-ACC sing-MA -ILL
    'I want Leena to sing'
Example #770:

    c. Minä halua-n että Leena laula-a.
    I.NOM want-1SG that L-NOM sing-3SG
    'I want that Leena will sing'
Example #771:

    d. *Kukk-i-a-ko        Kati kysy-i           että Liisa-lle-pa Maija ost-i tO tOBL.
    flower-PL-PAR -Q K.NOM ask-PA ST.3SG that L-A LL-EMP M.NOM buy-PA ST.3SG
    'Was it flowers that Kati asked whether that Maija bought for Liisa'
Example #772:

    (203) a. *Se        [kukk-i-a-ko       osta-nut tO] Maija niin sano-i?
    that.NOM flower-PL-PAR -Q buy-NUT        M.NOM so say-PA ST.3SG
    'Was it that was-it-flowers-that-she-bought Maija who said so?' (??)
Example #773:

    b. *Kukk-i-a-ko        se       [osta-nut tO] Maija niin sano-i?
    flower-PL-PAR -Q that.NOM buy-NUT M.NOM so say-PA ST.3SG
    'Was it that was-it-flowers-that-she-bought Maija who said so?' (??)
Example #774:

    (1)     a. Satee-n alka-e-ssa me             juoks-i-mme nopeasti koti-in.
    rain-GEN begin-DE-INE we.NOM run-PAST-1PL quickly home-ILL
    'When the rain started (falling), we quickly ran home'
Example #775:

    b. Minä näe-n lapse-t             kerää-mä-ssä kukk-i-a metsikö-ssä.
    I.NOM see-1SG child-PL.ACC gather-MA-INE flower-PL-PAR grove-INE
    'I see the children gathering flowers in the grove'
Example #776:

    c. Minä kuule-n las-te-n         tanssi-va-n.
    I.NOM hear-1SG child-PL-GEN dance-PR-ACC
    'I hear the children dancing'
Example #777:

    (2)    a. Minä nä-i-n           las-te-n tanssi-va-n.
    I.NOM see-PAST-1SG child-PL-GEN dance-PR-ACC
    'I saw the children dancing'
Example #778:

    b. Minä nä-i-n            lapse-t tanssi-ma-ssa.
    I.NOM see-PAST-1SG child-PL.NOM dance-MA-INE
    'I saw the children dancing'
Example #779:

    (3)    Minä ala-n        luke-a /luke-ma-an.
    I.NOM begin-1SG read-TA /read-MA-ILL
    'I begin to read'
Example #780:

    (4)    a. Lapse-t       ei-vät    tanssi-O/    /*tanssi-va.
    child-PLNOM NEG-3PL dance-PRES / dance-PR
    'The children aren't dancing/don't dance'
Example #781:

    b. Tanssi-O/ vielä vähän aika-a!
    dance-IMP still little time-PAR
    'Dance still a little longer!'