The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Etxepare, Ricardo (2003). Valency and Argument Structure in the Basque Verb.

URL: http://www.iker.cnrs.fr/pdf/Etxepare_ValencyArguments.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3910&langcode=eus (2018-10-21).


Example #1:

    (i)       a. Peruk ardoa       edan du
    Peru-erg wine-D-abs drink Aux-T
    `Peru drank wine'
Example #2:

    b. Ardoa/Peru           iritsi  da
    wine-D-abs/Peru-abs arrived Aux-I
    `The wine/Peru arrived'
Example #3:

    (i)    a. Jonek liburu-a-k irakurr-i-a-k         ditu
    Jon-erg book-D-pl read-partc-D-pl       Aux-T
    `Jon has those books read'
Example #4:

    b. Adiskide-a-k etorr-i-a-k      dira
    friend-d-pl come-partc-D-pl Aux-I
    `My friends have arrived'
Example #5:

    (i)       a. Ez dakit     [ nori e e eman]
    neg know-I who-Dat give
    `I don't know whom to give this'
Example #6:

    b. Joni     esan dio      [zer e egin]
    Jon-dat say Aux-DT what do
    `He/she told Jon what to do'
Example #7:

    (ii)    [Jonek semea eskolan utzi zuen] eta [ e klasera joan zen]
    Jon-erg son-abs school-in leave Aux-T and class-to go Aux-I
    `Jon left his son at school, and then he (Jon/*his son) went to class'
Example #8:

    (i)     [Ni-k ikusteko] agindu/eskatu du
    I-erg see-N-for order/ask-partc Aux-T
    `*He asked/ordered for me to see it'
Example #9:

    (i)      a. Horren egiteko abiatu gara
    that-g do-N-for set out Aux-I
    `We set out to do that (lit. ...to do of that)'
Example #10:

    (i)     a. Adiskideek elkar         ikusi     dute
    friends-erg each-other see-partc Aux-T
    `The friends saw each other'
Example #11:

    (iii)   a. Jonek ardoa      ekarri      du
    Jon-erg wine-abs bring-partc Aux-T
    `Jon brought the wine'
Example #12:

    b. Jonek saltatu      du
    Jon-erg jump-partc Aux-T
    `Jon jumped'
Example #13:

    b. *Elkar        joan ziren
    each other go Aux-T
    `*Each other went'
Example #14:

    c. *Elkarrek          ikusi     dituzte lagunak
    each other-erg see-partc Aux-T friends
    `Each other saw the friends'
Example #15:

    (16)   a. Xabier      zerbitzari dago              kafetegi horretan
    Xabier-abs waiter      is-in a location cafe     that-in
    `Xabier is working as a waiter in that cafe'
Example #16:

    b. Xabier       zerbitzari(a) da
    Xabier-Abs waiter       is
    `Xabier is a waiter'
Example #17:

    b. Gizon bat atean dago
    man a door-at is-loc
    `A man is at the door'
Example #18:

    c. Ez da hor kabitzen
    neg Aux-I there fit
    `It does not fit there'
Example #19:

    c. Harainoko bidea/hiru kilometro ib ili dut/ditut
    there-to-g way-D/three kilometers walk Aux-T(sing/plural)
    `I walked three kilometers/the way to there'
Example #20:

    b. Mendi     hura igo dut, #baina ez naiz tontorreraino iritsi
    mountain that climb Aux-T but neg Aux-I top-to              get
    `I climbed that mountain, #but I didn't get to the top'
Example #21:

    b. Kaxak 200 metro jeitsi ditut
    boxes-D 200 mts take down Aux-T
    `I took down the boxes 200 meters'
Example #22:

    b. ??Kamioia Iruna      ailegatzen hasi da
    runner stadium-to arrive         begin Aux-I
    `The truck began to arrive to Irun'
Example #23:

    b. ??Paketeak    b ukatu du    ailegatzen
    package-Erg finish Aux-T arrive-N-Loc
    `The package finished arriving'
Example #24:

    (ii)     Heldu           da
    Arrive-partc Aux-I
    `It is arriving now (it comes)'
Example #25:

    b. Jonek zakurra gelditu du
    Jon-Erg dog-the stop aux
    `Jon stopped the dog'
Example #26:

    b. Irrigarri gertatu        gara
    ridiculous result-partc Aux-I
    `We found ourselves in ridicule'
Example #27:

    c. Horrelako beharrean gertatu        naiz
    such          need        result-partc Aux-I
    `I found myself in such a need'
Example #28:

    b. Azkenaldian problemak azaldu dira
    lately         problems pop up Aux
    `Problems popped up lately'
Example #29:

    b. Teorema azaldu nion
    theorem explain Aux-DT
    `I explained the theorem to him'
Example #30:

    b. Aberatsentzako elkartokia    b ilakatu     dute
    rich-for           meeting-club develop-into Aux-T
    `They developed it into a meeting-club for the rich'
Example #31:

    d. Atertu       du
    clear-partc Aux-T
    `It has become clear'
Example #32:

    (ii)    a. Hego haizeak eguna berotu       du
    south wind-Erg day-D warm-partc Aux-T
    `The south wind warmed the day'
Example #33:

    b. Hodeiek     eguna ilundu      dute
    clouds-Erg day-D dark-partc Aux-T
    `The clouds darkened the day'
Example #34:

    (iii)   a. *[   ]i berotu    du ,            baina [ ]i ez zen berez      hain haize beroa
    warm-partc Aux-T, but           not was by itself such warm wind-D
    `*Iti warmed, but iti wasn't such a hot air'
Example #35:

    b. [   ]i eguna berotu   du, baina [ ]i ez zen hain haize beroa
    day-D warm-partc Aux-T, but          not was such warm wind-D
    `It warmed the day, but it wasn't such a hot air'
Example #36:

    b. Ifar poloan hotz haundia egiten du/?dago
    north pole-in cold big         do-Hab Aux-T/be-in a location
    `In the north pole, it is very cold (as a property of the pole)'
Example #37:

    b. Jamaikan bero haundia egiten du         (oraintxe)
    Jamaica-in hot big          do-Hab Aux-T right now
    `In Jamaica it is very hot right now'
Example #38:

    (i)     Euria ari du
    rain ari Aux-T
    `It is raining'
Example #39:

    b. Jon ispiluan ikusi da
    jon mirror-in see Aux-I
    `Jon saw himself in the mirror'
Example #40:

    b. Xabierrek etengabe    bere b urua goraipatu du
    Xabier-Erg continuously his head praise Aux-T
    `Xabier has praised himself continuously'
Example #41:

    b. *Gerrilariak beren b uruak basora  babestu     dituzte
    partisans their heads-abs woods-to protect-partc Aux-T
    `The partisans protected themselves inmto the woods'
Example #42:

    b. Xabierrek bere b urua zubiazpian bota    du
    Xabier-erg his head-abs under the bridge-loc Aux-T
    `Xabier threw himself under the bridge'
Example #43:

    b. Xabier    garbitu da
    Xabier-abs wash Aux-I
    `Xabier washed'
Example #44:

    b. *Mirenek b ere burua jantzi du
    Miren-erg his head dress Aux-T
    `Miren dressed up'
Example #45:

    b. *Mirenek b ere burua idortu du
    Miren-erg his head dry       Aux-T
    `Miren dried herself up'
Example #46:

    gab ea       ze n
    without-Det was
    `Xabier went to Miren at two o'clock. By four o'clock he wasn't yet there'
Example #47:

    b. Joni adiskide b at joan zaio
    Jon-dat friend one leave Aux(dat-abs)
    `A friend of Jon left'
Example #48:

    b. Hori baliatu        du
    that-abs profit-partc Aux-T
    `He made that profitable'
Example #49:

    b. Etxeetako tximiniak kea   dariote   (Lz,BB,156)
    houses-g chimney-erg smoke spill(erg-abs)
    `The chimneys of the houses send up smoke'
Example #50:

    Jon-erg house new-D-abs buy-partc Aux-T
    `Jon bought a new house'
Example #51:

    b. Lehioko kristalak distiratu        du
    window-of glass-erg shine-partc Aux-T
    `The glass in the window shone'
Example #52:

    c. *Kristalak lurra distiratu      du
    glass-erg floor shine-partc Aux-T
    `*The glass shone the floor (made the floor shine)'
Example #53:

    Gene Kelly-erg dance famous one dance-ger Aux-T film that-loc
    `Gene Kelly dances a famous dance in that film'
Example #54:

    b. Jolas polit bat jolastu zuten
    play nice one play-partc Aux-T
    `They played a nice play'
Example #55:

    c. Abraracourcix-ek b orroka luze b at borrokatzen du    istorio horretan
    Abraracourcix-erg fight       long one fight-ger    Aux-T story that-loc
    `Abraracourcix fights a long fight in that story'
Example #56:

    jumper cuban-erg two meters jump-partc aux-T(pl)
    `The cuban athlete jumped two meters'
Example #57:

    Jon-erg run-partc Aux-T           Jon-erg run do Aux-T
    `Jon ran'                                `Jon ran'
Example #58:

    Jon-erg dance one dance-partc Aux-T
    `Jon danced a dance'
Example #59:

    b. *Jonek dantza b at dantza egin du
    Jon-erg dance one dance do Aux-T
    `Jon danced a dance'
Example #60:

    Jon-erg chat-loc do Aux-T us-with
    `Jon chatted with us'
Example #61:

    Jon-erg Urtain-g against fight-partc Aux-T
    `Jon fought against Urtain'
Example #62:

    b. Jon    Urtainen kontra borrokatu da
    Jon-abs Urtain-g against fight-partc Aux-T
    `Jon fought against Urtain'
Example #63:

    (100) a. Jonek b i dantza dantzatu ditu
    Jon-erg two dance-abs dance-partc Aux-T
    `Jon danced two dances'
Example #64:

    b. Berrogei egun eta b errogei gau b arautu     zituen
    forty day and forty           night fasten-partc Aux-T
    `He fastened for forty days and forty nights'
Example #65:

    (101) a. Urtain     b orrokatu du     Jonek
    Urtain-abs fight-partc Aux-T Jon-erg
    `Jon fought Urtain'
Example #66:

    b. Gu baino sendoagorik ez dugu ba gudukatuko
    us than stronger-part neg aux-T then war-partc-fut
    `We want war those who are stronger that us, then'
Example #67:

    (102) a. *Berriak Mikel      dardaratu du
    news-erg Mikel-abs tremble-partc Aux-T
    `*The news trembled Mikel (made Mikel tremble)'
Example #68:

    (ii)         Berriak Mikel   dardara-erazi du
    News-erg Mikel-abs tremble-cause Aux-T
    `The news made Mikel tremble'
Example #69:

    c. *Pailazoak haurrak     jolastu  ditu
    clown-erg children-abs play-partc Aux-T
    `The clown played the children (made the children play)'
Example #70:

    (111) a. Patxik soroan garia        erein du
    Patxi-erg field-in wheat-abs sow Aux-T
    `Patxi sowed wheat in the field'
Example #71:

    b. Patxik soroa       gariz      erein du
    Patxi-erg field-abs wheat-instr sow Aux-T
    `Patxi sowed the field with wheat'
Example #72:

    (112) a. Patxik sagarrak kamioian kargatu ditu
    Patxi-erg apples-abs truck-in load     Aux-T(pl.abs)
    `Patxi loaded the apples in the truck
Example #73:

    b. Patxik kamioia sagarrez kargatu zuen
    Patxi-erg truck-abs apple-instr load   Aux-T(sing.abs)
    `Patxi loaded the truck with apples'
Example #74:

    (113) a. Artaburuak aletu        dira
    corn-ears-abs pit-partc Aux-I
    `The corn (ears of) grew pits'
Example #75:

    b. Adarrak      kimatu dira
    Branches-abs bud-partc Aux-I
    `The branches budded'
Example #76:

    c. Txitak     lumatu        dira
    chicks-abs grew-feathers-partc Aux-I
    `The chicks grew feathers'
Example #77:

    c. Txitak    lumatu      dituzte
    chicks-abs pluck-partc Aux-T
    `They plucked the chicks'
Example #78:

    (115) a. Jonek lan egiten du
    Jon-Erg work do-Gen Aux-T
    `Jon works'
Example #79:

    b. Mikelek salto egin du
    Mikel-Erg jump do Aux-T
    `Mikel jumped'
Example #80:

    (ii)   a. Jonek dantza egin du
    Jon-erg dance do Aux-T
    `Jon danced'
Example #81:

    (118) a. Jonek dantza egin du
    Jon-Erg dance do Aux-T
    `Jon danced'
Example #82:

    b. Nork egin du dantza ? (wh-questions)
    who do Aux-T dance
    `Who danced?'
Example #83:

    c. JONEK egin du      dantza      (focus movement)
    Jon-Erg do Aux-T dance
    `JON danced'
Example #84:

    d. DANTZA egin du       Jonek
    dance      do Aux-T Jon-Erg
    `Jon DANCED'
Example #85:

    e. Dantza, Jonek EGITEN du
    dance Jon-Erg do-freq Aux-T
    `As for dancing, Jon does dance'
Example #86:

    (119) a. Ez du zirkinik egiten
    neg Aux move-part do-prog
    `He doesnt move (at all)'
Example #87:

    b. Ez du      eztulik    egin
    neg Aux-T cough-part do
    `He didn't cough (a single time)'
Example #88:

    b. Joni     dantza eginarazi diote
    Jon-dat dance do-cause Aux-DT
    `They made Jon dance'
Example #89:

    b. Jon       dantzarazi dute
    Jon-abs dance-cause Aux-T
    `They made Jon dance'
Example #90:

    c. ?Joni      dantzarazi diote
    Jon-dat dance-cause Aux-DT
    `They made Jon dance'
Example #91:

    (121) a. Jonek dantza b at dantzatu du
    Jon-Erg dance a dance-partc Aux-T
    `Jon danced a dance'
Example #92:

    b. *Jonek dantza bat dantza egin du
    Jon-Erg dance a dance do Aux-T
    `Jon danced a dance'
Example #93:

    (122) a. Zoro batek oinezko         b i ri   harrika egin zien
    fool one-Erg pedestrians two-Dat stone-adv do Aux-DT
    `A fool threw stones at two pedestrians'
Example #94:

    b. Zoro batek oinezko          bi       harrikatu    zituen
    fool one-Erg pedestrians two-Dat shoot-partc Aux-T
    `A fool stoned two pedestrians'
Example #95:

    (123) a. Zakurrak hondakinei usna egin zien
    dog-Erg garbage-dat smell do Aux-DT
    `The dog smelled at the garbage'
Example #96:

    b. Zakurrak hondakinak usnatu          zituen
    dog-Erg garbage             smell-partc Aux-T
    `The dog smelled (all) the garbage'
Example #97:

    (124) a. Jonek mahaiari (*b azterrera) bultza egin zion
    Jon-Erg table-Dat corner-to push do Aux-DT
    `Jon pushed at the table (*to the corner)'
Example #98:

    b. Jonek mahaia bazterrera b ultzatu zuen
    Jon-Erg table corner-to push-partc Aux
    `Jon pushed the table to the corner'
Example #99:

    (126) a. Mikel b azterrera b ultzatu du
    Mikel corner-to push-partc Aux-T
    `He pushed Mikel to the corner'
Example #100:

    b. Mikeli (*bazterrera) bultzatu dio
    Mikel-Dat corner-to push-partc Aux-DT
    `He pushed at Mikel (*to the corner)'
Example #101:

    (130)      Nork   hartu du     min?
    Who-erg pain Aux-T pain
    `He/she hurt him/her in two minutes
Example #102:

    (138) a. Proposamena goizeko          b ilkuran     onetsi/onartu      dute
    proposal-abs morning-of meeting-loc accept-partc                   Aux-T
    `They accepted the offer in this morning's meeting'
Example #103:

    b. Abertzale gehienek atentatua              gaitzetsi      dute
    nationalist most-erg terrorist act-abs condemn-partc Aux-T
    īMost nationalists condemned the terrorist action'
Example #104:

    c. ?Ehun      urte eta gero, pintura zahar horiek ederretsi           dituzte
    hundred year and then painting old those-abs consider beautiful Aux-T
    `One hundred years later, they have considered those old pictures as beatiful'
Example #105:

    (139) a. *Jonek hori       atzo         irrikatu/desiratu zuen
    Jon-erg that-abs yesterday desire-partc              Aux-T
    `*Jon desired that yesterday'
Example #106:

    b. Jonek ez du         h o ri      era m a n
    Jon-erg neg Aux-T that-abs bring
    `Jon didnīt bring that/*Jon didnīt bear that (yesterday)
Example #107:

    c. Jonek ezin      du       hori eraman
    Jon-erg cannot Aux-T that bear
    `Jon cannot bear/stand that'
Example #108:

    (141) a. Nere adiskideek errespetatzen naute
    my friends-erg respect-impf Aux-T
    `My friends respect me/have me respect'
Example #109:

    b. Nere adiskideek errespetatu naute
    my friends-erg respect-partc Aux-T
    `My friends showed me respect'
Example #110:

    (144) a. Horrekin tematu/setatu/ ob sesionatu da
    that-with become stubborn/obsess-partc Aux-I
    `He became stubborn at that/obsessed with that'
Example #111:

    b. Horretaz oroitu/akordatu da
    that-instr remember        Aux-I
    `He remembered that'
Example #112:

    (152) a. Xabierrek [ barazkiak   er o s i ] nahi ditu
    Xabier-erg vegetables-abs buy-partc want Aux-T-plural
    `Xabier wants to buy vegetables'
Example #113:

    b. Xabierrek [ b arazkiak  erostea ]     nahi du
    Xabier-erg vegetables-abs buy-nom-Det want Aux-T-sing
    `Xabier wants someone else to buy vegetables'
Example #114:

    c. Hori    bisitatu gogo du
    that-abs visit-partc wish Aux-T
    `He wishes to visit that'
Example #115:

    (155) a. Xabier bota behar da (reflexive)
    Xabier throw must Aux-I
    `Xabier must throw himself'
Example #116:

    b. Xabierrek bota behar du (non-reflexive)
    Xabier-erg throw must aux-T
    `Xabier must throw something'
Example #117:

    c. Xab ierrek bere burua zubiazpian     b ota behar du/*da
    Xabier-erg his head-abs under the bridge throw must Aux-T/I
    `Xabier must throw himself under the bridge'
Example #118:

    (160) a.Eman daroat
    Give carry-T(erg-abs)
    `I usually give it'
Example #119:

    b. Jonek      Mireni ardoa      ekarri dio
    Jon-e    rg Miren-dat wine-abs bring Aux-DT
    `Jon b    rought wine for Miren'
Example #120:

    (162) a. Lanari ekin dio
    work-dat engage-in Aux-DT
    `He began to work, he engaged in working'
Example #121:

    b. Eragon beti gauza onen bati (S. )
    hold-on always thing good-g one-dat
    `Hold on to some good thing always'
Example #122:

    c. Emaztea hil eta gero, negarrari eman zion
    wife-abs die and after, cry-D-dat give Aux-DT
    `After his wife died, he cried very often (gave himself to crying)'
Example #123:

    (i)   Eman du     haurrari
    Give Aux-T child-dat
    `He gave it to the child'
Example #124:

    (164) a. Xabier    b ulegora deitu        dute
    Xabier-abs office-ad call-    partc Aux-T
    `They called Xabier to the     office'
Example #125:

    b. Xabierri bulegora deitu           diote
    Xabier-dat office-adl call-   partc Aux-DT
    `They called Xabier to the     office'
Example #126:

    (165) a. Autobusera bultzatu gaituzte
    bus-adl        push-partc Aux-T
    `They pushed us into the bus'
Example #127:

    b. Autobusean/?Autob usera b ultzatu digute
    bus-loc/adl                      push-partc Aux-DT
    `They pushed us in the bus'
Example #128:

    c. ?Autob usera b ultza egin digute
    bus-adl       push do Aux-DT
    `They pushed us into the bus'
Example #129:

    (166) a. Ezezagun batzuek lagundu gaituzte
    unknown some-erg help-partc Aux-T
    `Unknown people helped us'
Example #130:

    b. Ezezagun batzuek lagundu           digute
    unknown some-erg help/accompany-partc Aux-DT
    `Unknown people helped/accompanied us'
Example #131:

    (170) Nork deitzen du ?        Beren anaia da / ??Anaia dute
    who call-ger Aux-T their brother Aux-I/ brother Aux-T
    `Who's calling? It is their brother/??He is their brother'
Example #132:

    (174) a. Gela hori       etxearen ganbara da
    room that-abs house-G loft         Aux-I
    `That room is the loft of the house'
Example #133:

    b. Etxeak      gela hori      ganb ara du
    House-erg room that-abs loft          Aux-T
    `That room is the loft of the house'
Example #134:

    (175) a. (Hango hura ) Eusko Jaurlaritzaren b ozeramailea                 da
    that one-abs Basque Government-G spokesman/woman-abs is
    `That one is the spokesman/woman of the Basque Government'
Example #135:

    b. *(Hango hura ) Eusko Jaurlaritzak          b o z er a m a i l e du
    that one-abs Basque Government-erg spokesman/woman has
    `That one is the spokesman/woman of the government'
Example #136:

    (180) a. Jonek Aitor      anaia du
    Jon-erg Aitor-abs brother Aux-T
    `Aitor is Jon's brother'
Example #137:

    b. Jonek kotxeak lanb ide ditu
    Jon-erg cars-abs job      Aux-T
    `Cars are Jon's occupation'
Example #138:

    (181) a. Nere eskuak ikara/bero      daude
    my hands-abs trembling/hot are-in a location
    `My hands are trembling'
Example #139:

    b. (*Nere) eskuak  ikara/b ero    ditut
    I-erg my hands-abs trembling/hot Aux-T(pl)
    `I have my hands trembling'
Example #140:

    b. Jonek 50 metro jaitsi          ditu urpean
    Jon-erg 50 meters descend-partc Aux-T underwater
    `Jon descended 50 meters'
Example #141:

    (186) a. Jonek patatak       jaitsi   dizkit
    Jon-erg potatoes-abs take down Aux-DT
    `Jon took down my potatoes/Jon took down the potatoes on my interest'
Example #142:

    b. Mikelek Joni (b ere) kotxea hautsi    dio
    Mikel-erg Jon-dat his car      break-partc Aux-DT
    `Mikel broke his car to Jon'
Example #143:

    (188) a. Mikelek Jonen sudurra hautsi du
    Mikel-erg Jon-g nose-abs break Aux-T
    `Mikel broke Jon's nose'
Example #144:

    b. Mikelek Joni (*bere) sudurra hautsi     dio
    Mikel-erg Jon-dat his nose-abs break-partc Aux-DT
    `Mikel broke Jon his nose'
Example #145:

    (189) a. Mikelek Jonen beso b at     hautsi du
    Mikel-erg Jon-g arm one-abs break Aux-T
    `Mikel broke one of Jon's arms'
Example #146:

    b. Mikelek Joni    bere b eso(etako) bat hautsi dio
    Mikel-erg Jon-dat his arm(loc-g) one break Aux-DT
    `Mikel broke Jon one of his arms'
Example #147:

    (190) a. San Vicenteren besoa hautsi dute
    Saint Vincent-g arm-abs break Aux-T
    `They broke Saint Vincent's arm'
Example #148:

    b. San Vicenteri    besoa hautsi diote
    Saint Vincent-dat arm-abs break Aux-DT
    `They broke Saint Vincent's arm'
Example #149:

    (192) a. Mikelek b esoa hautsi du
    Mikel-erg arm-abs break Aux-T
    `Mikel broke his arm'
Example #150:

    b. Mikel   b esoa hautsi      da
    Mikel-abs arm-abs break-partc Aux-I
    `Mikel broke his arm'
Example #151:

    (193) a. Mikelek b esoa nahita      hautsi        du
    Mikel-erg arm-abs voluntarily break-partc Aux-T
    `Mikel broke his arm voluntarily'
Example #152:

    b. ??Mikel    b e so a nahita     hautsi da
    Mikel-abs arm-abs voluntarily break Aux-I
    `Mikel broke his arm voluntarily'
Example #153:

    (194) a. *Adiskideak besoak hautsi dira
    friends-abs arms-abs break Aux-I
    `My friends broke their arms'
Example #154:

    b. ?Adiskideak besoa hautsi dira
    friends-abs arm-abs break Aux-I(plural)
    `My friends broke (each) an arm'
Example #155:

    c. *Adiskidea besoak hautsi da/dira
    friend-abs arms-abs break Aux-I(sing/plural)
    `My friend broke his arms'
Example #156:

    (196) a. *Gogoratu naizena        hori/horretaz da
    recall-partc Aux-I-rel-D that-abs/instr     Aux-I
    `What I recall is that'
Example #157:

    b. Gogoratu dudana          hori    da
    recall-partc Aux-T-rel-D that-abs Aux-I
    `What I recall is that'
Example #158:

    b. Egin nuen nere arterako lan hura       ez zela        komeni
    do Aux-T my own-for work that-abs neg was-Comp convenient
    `I said to myself that that work wasn't convenient'
Example #159:

    b. ??Eman nuen ez zela             etorriko
    give Aux-T neg Aux-I-Comp come-fut
    `I conjectured that he would not come'
Example #160:

    (203) a. Iduri du  Jon    h a s err e  dagoela
    seem Aux-T Jon-abs angry be-in a location-Comp
    `It seems that Jon is angry'
Example #161:

    (204) *Jonek iduri du      b ere taldeak galdu duela
    Jon-erg seem Aux-T his team-erg lose-partc Aux-T-Comp
    `*Jon seems that his team lost'
Example #162:

    (206) *Nonbait, Xab ier    Joni    iruditu zaio           ez dela     joango
    Apparently, Xabier-abs Jon-dat seem Aux-I(dat.abs) neg Aux-I-Comp go-fut
    `*Apparently, Xabier seems to Jon that (Xabier) will not come'
Example #163:

    (208) a. Jonek Xabier       etorriko dela          dio
    Jon-erg Xabier-abs come-fut Aux-I-Comp he-says
    `Jon says that Xabier will come'
Example #164:

    b. Jonek etorriko dela            diosku (<dio+ts+gu)
    Jon-erg come-fut Aux-I-Comp he tells us (say+ditransitive+1st.pl)
    `Jon tells us that Xabier will come'
Example #165:

    (209) Nik horri interesgarri deritzot
    I-erg that-dat interesting judge(dat-abs-erg)
    `I judge that as interesting'