ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Bratt, Elizabeth Owen (1996). ARGUMENT COMPOSITION AND THE LEXICON: LEXICAL AND PERIPHRASTIC CAUSATIVES IN KOREAN.

URL: http://www.ai.sri.com/~owen/diss.pdf

(Last accessed 2005-02-18).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 397&langcode=kor (2019-04-22).

 

Example #1:

    1 Nay-ka ai-eykey pap-ul mek-i-ess-ta
    I-Nom child-Dat rice-Acc eat-Caus-Pst-Dec
    `I made the child eat rice.'
Example #2:

    2 Nay-ka ai-eykey pap-ul mek-key hay-ss-ta
    I-Nom child-Dat rice-Acc eat-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `I made the child eat rice.'
Example #3:

    3 Apeci-kkeyse atul-eykey ton-ul   cwu-si-ess-ta
    father-HNom son-Dat money-Acc give-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The father gave the son money.'
Example #4:

    4 a. Atul-eykey apeci-kkeyse ton-ul   cwu-si-ess-ta
    son-Dat father-HNom money-Acc give-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The father gave the son money.'
Example #5:

    c. Apeci-kkeyse ton-ul       atul-eykey cwu-si-ess-ta
    father-HNom money-Acc son-Dat give-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The father gave the son money.'
Example #6:

    5 Chelswu-ka ku chayk-ul ilk-ki-nun      hay-ss-ta
    Chelswu-Nom that book-Acc read-Cmp-Top do-Pst-Dec
    `Read the book, Chelswu did.'
Example #7:

    i a. Taroo-wa Tanaka-ni daidokoro-o soozi.si-te VP kaet-te VP morat-ta
    Taroo-Top Tanaka-Dat kitchen-Acc clean-and go.home-Cmp receive-Pst
    `Taroo got Tanaka to clean the kitchen and go home.'
Example #8:

    b. *Taroo-wa daidokoro-o Tanaka-ni t soozi.si-te VP kaet-te VP morat-ta
    Taroo-Top kitchen-Acc Tanaka-Dat clean-and go.home-Cmp receive-Pst
    `Taroo got Tanaka to clean the kitchen and go home.'
Example #9:

    b.    Kong-ul Cwuni-ka cayppalli cap-a
    ball-Acc Cwuni-Nom quick    catch-Pres
    `Balls he catches quick.'
Example #10:

    13 Komo-ka kocong.sachon-ul kakkum cay-wu-ess-ta
    aunt-Nom cousin-Acc         sometimes put.to.sleep-Pst-Dec
    `My aunt put my cousin to sleep sometimes.'
Example #11:

    14 Komo-ka kocong.sachon-ul kakkum kitali-key kangyo.hay-ss-ta
    aunt-Nom cousin-Acc        sometimeswait-Adv force-Pst-Dec
    `My aunt forced my cousin to wait sometimes.'
Example #12:

    15 Kocong.sachon-ul komo-nun kakkum ka-lilako kitay.ha-n-ta
    cousin-Acc       aunt-Top sometimes go-Cmp expect-Pres-Dec
    `My aunt expects my cousin to go sometimes.
Example #13:

    mit-nun-ta
    believe-Pres-Dec
    `I believe that the book is relevant to this problem.'
Example #14:

    mit-nun-ta
    believe-Pres-Dec
    `I believe the book to be relevant to this problem.'
Example #15:

    17 a. John-i Mary-eykey ka-lako amsi.hay-ss-ta
    John-Nom Mary-Dat go-Cmp suggest-Pst-Dec
    `John suggested going, to Mary.' VP
Example #16:

    b. John-i Mary-eykey Bill-i o-l-kes-ilako           amsi.hay-ss-ta
    John-Nom Mary-Dat Bill-Nom come-Fut-thing-Cmp suggest-Pst-Dec
    `John suggested to Mary that Bill would come.' S
Example #17:

    c. John-i salam-tul-eykey cencayng-ul amsi.hay-ss-ta
    John-Nom person-Plur-Dat war-Acc suggest-Pst-Dec
    `John suggested a war to the people.' NP
Example #18:

    18 Ku-ka wuli-tul-eykey ku sasil-ul yu.uy.ha-lako     yochong.hay-ss-ta
    he-Nom us-Plur-Dat that fact-Acc pay.attention-Cmp request-Pst-Dec
    `He requested us to pay attention to the fact.'
Example #19:

    19 Nay-kaku ai-lul          sulkilop-tako mit-nun-ta
    I-Nom that child-Acc wise-Cmp          believe-Pres-Dec
    `I believe the child is wise.'
Example #20:

    a-ni
    know-Ques
    lit. `Who do you know whether Younghee surprised?'
Example #21:

    a-ni
    know-Ques
    `Do you knowwhy Chelswu got angry?'
Example #22:

    too-ass-ta
    helped
    `I helped Chelswu so that he got the best score on the nal exams.'
Example #23:

    senmwul.hay-ss-ta-ko sayngkak.ha-n-ta
    gift.do-Pst-Dec-Cmp think.Pres-Dec
    `I think Swuni gave a booktoYuli as a present.'
Example #24:

    senmwul.hay-ss-ta-ko sayngkak.ha-n-ta
    gift.do-Pst-Dec-Cmp think.Pres-Dec
    `I think Swuni gave a booktoYuli as a present.'
Example #25:

    ilk-ess-ta-ko      malssum.ha-si-ess-ta
    read-Pst-Dec-Quot say-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The mother told the teacher that the child had read the book.'
Example #26:

    ilk-ess-ta-ko      malssum.ha-si-ess-ta
    read-Pst-Dec-Quot say-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The mother told the teacher that the child had read the book.'
Example #27:

    ilk-ess-ta-ko      malssum.ha-si-ess-ta
    read-Pst-Dec-Quot say-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The mother told the teacher that the child had read the book.'
Example #28:

    ai-ka malssum.ha-si-ess-ta
    child-Nom say-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The mother told the teacher that the child had read the book.'
Example #29:

    ilk-ess-ta-ko      malssum.ha-si-ess-ta
    read-Pst-Dec-Quot say-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The mother told the teacher that the child had read the book.'
Example #30:

    ilk-ess-ta-ko      malssum.ha-si-ess-ta
    read-Pst-Dec-Quot say-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The mother told the teacher that the child had read the book.'
Example #31:

    chwungko.ha-si-ess-ta
    advise-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `Cleverly, the mother advised the child to read the book.'
Example #32:

    chwungko.ha-si-ess-ta
    advise-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `Cleverly, the mother advised the child to read the book.'
Example #33:

    chwungko.ha-si-ess-ta
    advise-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `Cleverly, the mother advised the child to read the book.'
Example #34:

    chwungko.ha-si-ess-ta
    advise-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `Cleverly, the mother persuaded the child to read the book.'
Example #35:

    chwungko.ha-si-ess-ta
    advise-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `Cleverly, the mother persuaded the child to read the book.'
Example #36:

    30 a. Swuni-ka tases-kay kwuk-e-lul          ha-n-ta
    Swuni-Nom ve-Clasf nation-language-Acc do-Pres-Dec
    `Swuni can speak ve languages.'
Example #37:

    b. Kunye-ka acwu chicek-i-ta
    she-Nom very intelligent-be-Pres
    `She's very intelligent.'
Example #38:

    c. Acwu chicek-i-ta
    very intelligent-be-Pres
    `She's very intelligent.'
Example #39:

    31 a. Na-nun kwaca-lul iceymak kwuw-ess-ta
    I-Top cookie-Acc just.now bake-Pst-Dec
    `I just made some cookies.'
Example #40:

    b. Ese han-kay tu-si-cio
    please one-Clasf take-Hon-Imp
    `Please take one.'
Example #41:

    c. Ese tu-si-cio
    please take-Hon-Imp
    `Please take one.'
Example #42:

    32 ?Na-nun Johni -eykey kui-ka kukes-ul ha-l kes-ul myeng.hay-ss-ta
    I-Top John-Dat he-Nom it-Acc do-Fut thing-Acc order-Pst-Dec
    `I ordered Johni that hei do it, and not anyone else.'
Example #43:

    33 * Na-nun Johni -ul kui-ka papo-i-lako sayngkak.ha-n-ta
    I-Top John-Acc he-Nom fool-be-Cmp consider-Pres-Dec
    `I consider John to be a fool.'
Example #44:

    elyep-ta
    di cult-Dec
    `In Korean, Chinese characters are more di cult than the Korean alphabet.'
Example #45:

    35 Nay-ka tongsayng-i pyenhosa-i-ta
    I-Nom sister-Nom lawyer-be-Dec
    `My sister is a lawyer.'
Example #46:

    36 Haksayng-i chayk-i sey-kwan-i          philyo.ha-ta
    student-Nom book-Nom three-volumes-Nom need-Dec
    `The student needs three books.'
Example #47:

    37 a. Emeni-kkeyse ai-lul    pap-ul mek-key hay-ss-ta
    mother-HNom child-Acc rice-Acc eat-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `The mother made the child eat the rice.'
Example #48:

    b. Emeni-kkeyse ai-eykey pap-ul mek-key hay-ss-ta
    mother-HNom child-Dat rice-Acc eat-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `The mother made the child eat the rice.'
Example #49:

    c. Emeni-kkeyse ai-ka       pap-ul mek-key hay-ss-ta
    mother-HNom child-Nom rice-Acc eat-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `The mother made the child eat the rice.'
Example #50:

    38 a. Ku pwun-eykey na-nun o-key     hay-ss-ta
    That person-Dat I-Top come-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `I made him come'.
Example #51:

    b. Ku pwun-ul na-nun o-key        hay-ss-ta
    That person-Acc I-Top come-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `I made him come'.
Example #52:

    c. *Ku pwun-i         na-nun o-key hay-ss-ta
    That person-Nom I-Top come-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `I made him come'.
Example #53:

    chayk-ul myech-kwen cwu-key hay-ss-ta
    book-Acc several-volumes give-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    books'.
Example #54:

    chayk-ul myech-kwen cwu-key hay-ss-ta
    book-Acc several-volumes give-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    books'.
Example #55:

    chayk-ul myech-kwen cwu-key hay-ss-ta
    book-Acc several-volumes give-Cmp do-Pst-Dec
    `The rich man very generously had the librarian give the child some books'.
Example #56:

    40 a. Nay-ka pi-ka   coh-ta
    I-Nom rain-Nom like-Dec
    `I like rain.'
Example #57:

    b. *Pi-ka       nay-ka coh-ta
    rain-Nom I-Nom like-Dec
    `I like rain.'
Example #58:

    41 a. Nay-ka ton-i    iss-ta
    I-Nom money-Nom have-Dec
    `I have money.'
Example #59:

    b. *Ton-i       nay-ka iss-ta
    money-Nom I-Nom have-Dec
    `I have money.'
Example #60:

    i Pi-ka, na-nun coh-ta
    rain-Nom I-Top lie-Dec
    `Rain, I like.'
Example #61:

    chayk-ul ilk-ess-ta-ko        malssum.ha-si-ess-ta
    book-Acc read-Pst-Dec-Quot say-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `Cleverly, the mother told the teacher that the child had read the book.'
Example #62:

    chayk-ul ilk-ess-ta-ko       malssum.ha-si-ess-ta
    book-Acc read-Pst-Dec-Quot say-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The mother cleverly told the teacher that the child had read the book.'
Example #63:

    chayk-ul ilk-ess-ta-ko       malssum.ha-si-ess-ta
    book-Acc read-Pst-Dec-Quot say-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The mother told the teacher cleverly that the child had read the book.'
Example #64:

    chayk-ul ilk-ess-ta-ko       malssum.ha-si-ess-ta
    book-Acc read-Pst-Dec-Quot say-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The mother told the teacher cleverly that the child had read the book.'
Example #65:

    hyenmyeng.ha-key-to ilk-ess-ta-ko           malssum.ha-si-ess-ta
    cleverly                read-Pst-Dec-Quot say-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The mother told the teacher cleverly that the child had read the book.'
Example #66:

    chwungko.ha-si-ess-ta
    advise-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `Cleverly, the mother advised the child to read the book.'
Example #67:

    chwungko.ha-si-ess-ta
    advise-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The mother cleverly advised the child to read the book.'
Example #68:

    chwungko.ha-si-ess-ta
    advise-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The mother advised the child cleverly to read the book.'
Example #69:

    chwungko.ha-si-ess-ta
    advise-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The mother cleverly advised the child to read the book.'
Example #70:

    tosekwan.cikwen-eykey cwu-key hay-ss-ta
    librarian-Dat              give-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    books'.
Example #71:

    tosekwan.cikwen-ul cwu-key hay-ss-ta
    librarian-Acc          give-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    books'.
Example #72:

    tosekwan.cikwen-i cwu-key hay-ss-ta
    librarian-Nom        give-Cmp do-Pst-Dec
    `The rich man very generously had the librarian give the child some books'.
Example #73:

    ilk-ess-ta-ko      malssum.ha-si-ess-ta
    read-Pst-Dec-Quot say-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The mother told the teacher that the child had read the book.'
Example #74:

    meki-tolok myenglyeng.ha-si-ess-ta
    feed-so.that order-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The sick mother ordered the maid to feed the child rice.'
Example #75:

    meki-tolok myenglyeng.ha-si-ess-ta
    feed-so.that order-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The sick mother ordered the maid to feed the child rice.'
Example #76:

    ilk-ess-ta-ko     malssum.ha-si-ess-ta
    read-Pst-Dec-Quot say-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The mother proudly told the teacher that the child had read the book.'
Example #77:

    ilk-ess-ta-ko     malssum.ha-si-ess-ta
    read-Pst-Dec-Quot say-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The mother proudly told the teacher that the child had read the book.'
Example #78:

    pap-ul meki-tolok myenglyeng.ha-si-ess-ta
    rice-Acc feed-so.that order-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The sick mother frequently ordered the maid to feed the child rice.'
Example #79:

    cacwu meki-tolok myenglyeng.ha-si-ess-ta
    frequently feed-so.that order-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The sick mother frequently ordered the maid to feed the child rice.'
Example #80:

    chayk-ul myech-kwen cwu-key hay-ss-ta
    book-Acc several-volumes give-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    books.'
Example #81:

    chayk-ul myech-kwen cwu-key hay-ss-ta
    book-Acc several-volumes give-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    books.'
Example #82:

    chayk-ul myech-kwen cwu-key hay-ss-ta
    book-Acc several-volumes give-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    books.'
Example #83:

    myech-kwen pwuca-ka cwu-key hay-ss-ta
    several-volumes rich.man-Dat give-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    books.'
Example #84:

    myech-kwen pwuca-ka cwu-key hay-ss-ta
    several-volumes rich.man-Acc give-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    books.'
Example #85:

    myech-kwen pwuca-ka               cwu-key hay-ss-ta
    several-volumes rich.man-Nom give-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    books.'
Example #86:

    kwantay.ha-key-to cwu-key hay-ss-ta
    generously-very       give-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    books.'
Example #87:

    seltuk.ha-si-ess-ta
    persuade-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `Cleverly, the mother persuaded the child to read the book.'
Example #88:

    seltuk.ha-si-ess-ta
    persuade-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `Cleverly, the mother persuaded the child to read the book.'
Example #89:

    ilk-ess-ta-ko      malssum.ha-si-ess-ta
    read-Pst-Dec-Quot say-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The mother told the teacher that the child had read the book.'
Example #90:

    ai-ka malssum.ha-si-ess-ta
    child-Nom say-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The mother told the teacher that the child had read the book.'
Example #91:

    60 a. Emeni-kkeyse ai-eykey chayk-ul ilk-key ha-si-ess-ta
    mother-HNom child-Dat book-Acc read-Adv do-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `Mother made the child read the book.'
Example #92:

    b. Emeni-kkeyse ai-lul chayk-ul ilk-key ha-si-ess-ta
    mother-HNom child-Acc book-Acc read-Adv do-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `Mother made the child read the book.'
Example #93:

    c. Emeni-kkeyse ai-ka        chayk-ul ilk-key ha-si-ess-ta
    mother-HNom child-Nom book-Acc read-Adv do-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `Mother made the child read the book.'
Example #94:

    61 a. * Emeni-kkeyse chayk-ul ilk-key ai-eykey ha-si-ess-ta
    mother-HNom book-Acc read-Adv child-Dat do-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `Mother made the child read the book.'
Example #95:

    b. * Emeni-kkeyse chayk-ul ilk-key ai-lul ha-si-ess-ta
    mother-HNom book-Acc read-Adv child-Acc do-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `Mother made the child read the book.'
Example #96:

    c. * Emeni-kkeyse chayk-ul ilk-key ai-ka    ha-si-ess-ta
    mother-HNom book-Acc read-Adv child-Nom do-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `Mother made the child read the book.'
Example #97:

    62 a. Emeni-kkeyse ai-eykey chayk-ul ilk-tolok seltuk.ha-si-ess-ta
    Mother-HNom child-Dat book-Acc read-Cmp persuade-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `Mother persuaded the child to read the book.'
Example #98:

    b. Ai-eykey chayk-ul ilk-tolok emeni-kkeyse seltuk.ha-si-ess-ta
    child-Dat book-Acc read-Cmp mother-HNom persuade-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `Mother persuaded the child to read the book.'
Example #99:

    malssum.ha-si-ess-ta
    say-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `Mother said that the child read the book.'
Example #100:

    seltuk.ha-si-ess-ta
    persuade-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `Mother quietly persuaded the child to read the book.'
Example #101:

    seltuk.ha-si-ess-ta
    persuade-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `Mother quietly persuaded the child to read the book.'
Example #102:

    malssum.ha-si-ess-ta
    say-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `Mother quietly said that the child read the book.'
Example #103:

    68 a. *Ai-eykey chayk-ul ilk-key emeni-kkeyse ha-si-ess-ta
    child-Dat book-Acc read-Adv mother-HNom do-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `Mother made the child read the book.'
Example #104:

    b. *Ai-lul chayk-ul ilk-key emeni-kkeyse ha-si-ess-ta
    child-Acc book-Acc read-Adv mother-HNom do-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `Mother made the child read the book.'
Example #105:

    69 a. * Emeni-kkeyse ai-eykey chayk-ul ilk-key coyonghi ha-si-ess-ta
    mother-HNom child-Dat book-Acc read-Adv quietly do-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `Mother quietly made the child read the book.'
Example #106:

    b. * Emeni-kkeyse ai-lul chayk-ul ilk-key coyonghi ha-si-ess-ta
    mother-HNom child-Acc book-Acc read-Adv quietly do-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `Mother quietly made the child read the book.'
Example #107:

    70 a. John-un Mary-ka cip-ey ka-ki-lul      palay-ss-ta
    John-Top Mary-Nom home-Dir go-Cmp-Acc hope-Pst-Dec
    `John hoped that Mary would go home.'
Example #108:

    b.     Mary-ka cip-ey ka-ki-lul      John-un palay-ss-ta
    Mary-Nom home-Dir go-Cmp-Acc John-Top hope-Pst-Dec
    `John hoped Mary would go home.'
Example #109:

    71 a. John-un cip-ey ka-ki wen.hay-ss-ta
    John-Top home-Dir go-Cmp want-Pst-Dec
    `John wanted to go home.'
Example #110:

    b. ?Cip-ey ka-ki John-un wen.hay-ss-ta
    home-Dir go-Cmp John-Top want-Pst-Dec
    `John wanted to go home.'
Example #111:

    72 ?*John-un cip-ey ka-ki taytanhi wen.hay-ss-ta
    John-Top home-Dir go-Cmp very muchwant-Pst-Dec
    `John very muchwanted to go home.'
Example #112:

    73 a. John-un cip-ey ka-ki-lul     wen.hay-ss-ta
    John-Top home-Dir go-Cmp-Acc want-Pst-Dec
    `John wanted to go home.'
Example #113:

    c. John-un cip-ey ka-ki-lul      taytanhi wen.hay-ss-ta
    John-Top home-Dir go-Cmp-Acc very muchwant-Pst-Dec
    `John very muchwanted to go home.'
Example #114:

    74 a. John-un Mary-ka cip-ey ka-ki palay-ss-ta
    John-Top Mary-Nom home-Dir go-Cmp hope-Pst-Dec
    `John hoped that Mary would go home.'
Example #115:

    b. * Mary-ka cip-ey ka-ki John-un palay-ss-ta
    Mary-Nom home-Dir go-Cmp John-Top hope-Pst-Dec
    `John hoped Mary would go home.'
Example #116:

    75 John-un Mary-ka cip-ey ka-ki taytanhi palay-ss-ta
    John-Top Mary-Nom home-Dir go-Cmp very.much hope-Pst-Dec
    `John very much hoped Mary would go home.'
Example #117:

    76 John-un Mary-ka cip-ey ka-ki-lul         taytanhi palay-ss-ta
    John-Top Mary-Nom home-Dir go-Cmp-Acc very.much hope-Pst-Dec
    `John very much hoped Mary would go home.'
Example #118:

    77 a. *Ai-eykey chayk-ul ilk-key-lul emeni-kkeyse ha-si-ess-ta
    child-Dat book-Acc read-Adv-Acc mother-HNom do-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `Mother made the child read the book.'
Example #119:

    b. *Ai-lul chayk-ul ilk-key-lul emeni-kkeyse ha-si-ess-ta
    child-Dat book-Acc read-Adv-Acc mother-HNom do-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `Mother made the child read the book.'
Example #120:

    c. *Ai-ka chayk-ul ilk-key-lul emeni-kkeyse ha-si-ess-ta
    child-Dat book-Acc read-Adv-Acc mother-HNom do-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `Mother made the child read the book.'
Example #121:

    ha-si-ess-ta
    do-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `Mother made the child read the book.'
Example #122:

    ha-si-ess-ta
    do-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `Mother made the child read the book.'
Example #123:

    79 a. * Emeni-kkeyse chayk-ul ilk-key-lul ai-eykey ha-si-ess-ta
    mother-HNom book-Acc read-Adv-Acc child-Dat do-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `Mother made the child read the book.'
Example #124:

    b. * Emeni-kkeyse chayk-ul ilk-key-lul ai-lul ha-si-ess-ta
    mother-HNom book-Acc read-Adv-Acc child-Acc do-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `Mother made the child read the book.'
Example #125:

    c. * Emeni-kkeyse chayk-ul ilk-key-lul ai-ka    ha-si-ess-ta
    mother-HNom book-Acc read-Adv-Acc child-Nom do-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `Mother made the child read the book.'
Example #126:

    80 a. Nay-ka kulim-ul kuli-e-lul     po-myen
    I-Nom picture-Acc draw-Cmp-Acc try-if
    `If I try to draw a picture'
Example #127:

    seltuk.ha-si-ess-ta
    persuade-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `Mother persuaded John not to read anything.'
Example #128:

    seltuk.ha-si-ess-ta
    persuade-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `Mother persuaded John not to read anything.'
Example #129:

    82 a. Emeni-kkeyse John-eykey amwukes-to an ilk-key ha-si-ess-ta
    mother-HNom John-Dat anything-even not read-Adv do-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `Mother made John not read anything.'
Example #130:

    b. Amwukes-to emeni-kkeyse John-eykey an ilk-key ha-si-ess-ta
    anything-even mother-HNom John-Dat not read-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `Mother made John not read anything.'
Example #131:

    anh-ass-ta
    NegAux-Pst-Dec
    `Mother didn't persuade John to read anything.'
Example #132:

    anh-ass-ta
    NegAux-Pst-Dec
    `Mother didn't make John read anything.'
Example #133:

    anh-ass-ta
    NegAux-Pst-Dec
    `Mother didn't make John read anything.'
Example #134:

    anh-ass-ta
    NegAux-Pst-Dec
    `Mother didn't make John read anything.'
Example #135:

    anh-ass-ta
    NegAux-Pst-Dec
    `Mother didn't persuade John to read anything.'
Example #136:

    anh-ass-ta
    NegAux-Pst-Dec
    `Mother didn't persuade John to read anything.'
Example #137:

    anh-ass-ta
    NegAux-Pst-Dec
    `Mother didn't make John read anything.'
Example #138:

    anh-ass-ta
    NegAux-Pst-Dec
    `Mother didn't make John read anything.'
Example #139:

    93 a. Tom-un kongpwu-lul twu-sikan-tongan-ul hay-ss-ta
    Tom-Top study-Acc two-hour-during-Acc do-Pst-Dec
    `Tom studied for two hours.'
Example #140:

    b. Tom-un mikwuk-ul twu-pen-ul pangmwun.hay-ss-ta
    Tom-Top America-Acc two-time-Acc visit-Pst-Dec
    `Tom visited America two times.'
Example #141:

    94 Mwun-i han-sikan-tongan-i yel-ie       iss-ta
    door-Nom one-hour-during-Nom open-Pass be-Dec
    `The door remained open for an hour.'
Example #142:

    95 a. Swuni-ka han sikan-tongan-ul talli-ess-ta
    Swuni-Nom one hour-for-Acc run-Pst-Dec
    `Swuni ran for an hour.'
Example #143:

    b. *Swuni-ka han sikan-tongan-i talli-ess-ta
    Swuni-Nom one hour-for-Nom run-Pst-Dec
    `Swuni ran for an hour.'
Example #144:

    97 a. Chayk-i han sikan-tongan-ul ilk-hi-ess-ta
    book-Nom one hour-for-Acc read-Pass-Pst-Dec
    `The book was read for one hour.'
Example #145:

    b. Chayk-i han sikan-tongan-i ilk-hi-ess-ta
    book-Nom one hour-for-Nom read-Pass-Pst-Dec
    `The book was read for one hour.'
Example #146:

    98 a. Chayk-i han sikan-tongan-ul ilk-e  ci-ess-ta
    book-Nom one hour-for-Acc read-Cmp PasAux-Pst-Dec
    `The book was read for one hour.'
Example #147:

    b. Chayk-i han sikan-tongan-i ilk-e   ci-ess-ta
    book-Nom one hour-for-Nom read-Cmp PasAux-Pst-Dec
    `The book was read for one hour.'
Example #148:

    99 a. Chelswu-ka chayk-ul sey sikan-tongan-ul ilk-ess-ta
    Chelswu-Nom book-Acc three hour-during-Acc read-Pst-Dec
    `Chelswu read books for three hours.'
Example #149:

    b. * Haksayng-tul-i myech-sikan-ul kipp-ess-ta
    Student-Plur-Nom several-hour-Acc be.happy-Pst-Dec
    `The students were happy for several hours.'
Example #150:

    100 a. *Chelswu-ka chayk-ul sey sikan-tongan-i ilk-ess-ta
    Chelswu-Nom book-Acc three hour-during-Nom read-Pst-Dec
    `Chelswu read books for three hours.'
Example #151:

    b. Haksayng-tul-i myech-sikan-i kipp-ess-ta
    Student-Plur-Nom several-hour-Nom be.happy-Pst-Dec
    `The students were happy for several hours.'
Example #152:

    101 a. Chayk-i han sikan-tongan-ul ilk-e     ci-ess-ta
    book-Nom one hour-during-Acc read-Cmp PasAux-Pst-Dec
    `The book was read for an hour.'
Example #153:

    b. *Chayk-i han sikan-tongan-i ilk-e      ci-ess-ta
    book-Nom one hour-during-Nom read-Cmp PasAux-Pst-Dec
    `The book was read for an hour.'
Example #154:

    102 Pak-ssi-nun ai-eykey namwu-ey twu-son-ulo olu-key hay-ss-ta
    Park-Mr.-Top child-Dat tree-Dir two-hand-Inst go.up-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `Mr. Park made the child go up the tree with both hands.'
Example #155:

    103 Ecey na-nun Inho-lul onul hankwuk-ulo ttena-key hay-ss-ta
    yesterday I-Top Inho-Acc today Korea-to leave-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `Yesterday I made Inho leave for Korea today.'
Example #156:

    sey-sikan-tongan-i      kippu-key     ha-si-ess-ta
    three-hour-during-Nom be.happy-Cmp do-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The singing teacher twice made the students happy for three hours.'
Example #157:

    myech-sikan-ul kippu-key ha-si-ess-ta
    several-hour-Acc be.happy-Adv do-Hon-Pst-Dec
    several hours.'
Example #158:

    myech-sikan-i      kippu-key ha-si-ess-ta
    several-hour-Nom be.happy-Adv do-Hon-Pst-Dec
    several hours.'
Example #159:

    kippu-key      ha-si-ess-ta
    be.happy-Cmp do-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The singing teacher twice made the students happy.'
Example #160:

    sey-sikan-tongan-ul kippu-key           ha-si-ess-ta
    three-hours-during-Acc be.happy-Cmp do-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The singing teacher twice made the students happy for three hours.'
Example #161:

    sensayngnim-kkeyse kumyoil-ey swukcey-lul an nay-si-ess-ta
    teacher-HNom          Friday-on homework-Acc not assign-Hon-Pst-Dec
    not assign homework Friday.'
Example #162:

    sensayngnim-kkeyse kumyoil-ey swukcey-lul an nay-si-ess-ta
    teacher-HNom          Friday-on homework-Acc not assign-Hon-Pst-Dec
    not assign homework Friday.'
Example #163:

    kippu-key      ha-si-ess-ta
    be.happy-Cmp do-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The singing teacher made the students happy for an hour.'
Example #164:

    i-tayhak-eyse kaluchye o-n               sasil-i coh-a-yo
    this-university-at teach come-Pst fact-Nom like-Pres-End
    for a long time.'
Example #165:

    i-tayhak-eyse kaluchye o-n             sasil-i coh-a-yo
    this-university-at teach come-Pst fact-Nom like-Pres-End
    for a long time.'
Example #166:

    i-tayhak-eyse kaluchye o-n             sasil-i coh-a-yo
    this-university-at teach come-Pst fact-Nom like-Pres-End
    for a long time.'
Example #167:

    i-tayhak-eyse kaluchye o-n             sasil-i coh-a-yo
    this-university-at teach come-Pst fact-Nom like-Pres-End
    for a long time.'
Example #168:

    i-tayhak-eyse kaluchye         o-n       sasil-i coh-a-yo
    this-university-at teach       come-Pst fact-Nom like-Pres-End
    for a long time.'
Example #169:

    i-tayhak-eyse kaluchye o-n             sasil-i coh-a-yo
    this-university-at teach come-Pst fact-Nom like-Pres-End
    for a long time.'
Example #170:

    116 Komo-ka kocong.sachon-ul kakkum kitali-key hay-ss-ta
    aunt-Nom cousin-Acc      sometimes wait-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `My aunt sometimes made my cousin wait.'
Example #171:

    120 Komo-ka kocong.sachon-ul kakkum ka-lilako kitay.hay-ss-ta
    aunt-Nom cousin-Acc       sometimes go-Cmp expect-Pst-Dec
    `My aunt sometimes expected my cousin to go.'
Example #172:

    b. Kencho-kathulek-ey sil-li-ci-lul -ka                 anh-ass-ta
    Hay-Nom truck-Loc load-Pass-Cmp-Acc -Nom NegAux-Pst-Dec
    `The haywas not loaded in the truck.'
Example #173:

    123 a. Chelswu-ka Swuni-lul wus-key-lul hay-ss-ta
    Chelswu-Nom Swuni-Acc smile-Adv-Acc do-Pst-Dec
    `Chelswu made Swuni smile.'
Example #174:

    b. Swuni-ka wus-key*-lul ha-ye ci-ess-ta
    Swuni-Nom smile-Adv-Acc do-Cmp PasAux-Pst-Dec
    `Swuni was made to smile.'
Example #175:

    124 a. Chelswu-ka Swuni-lul wus-key-nun hay-ss-ta
    Chelswu-Nom Swuni-Acc smile-Adv-Top do-Pst-Dec
    Chelswu made Swuni smile.
Example #176:

    b. Swuni-ka wus-key-nun ha-ye ci-ess-ta
    Swuni-Nom smile-Adv-Top do-Cmp PasAux-Pst-Dec
    `Swuni was made to smile.'
Example #177:

    125 Ku-ka na-eykey kimchi-lul mek-key mos hay-ss-ta
    `He-Nom I-Dat kimchi-Acc eat-Adv cannot do-Pst-Dec
    `He could not make me eat kimchi.'
Example #178:

    131 a. Sensayngnim-kkeyse haksayng-tul-ul ka-key ha-si-ess-ta
    teacher-HNom        student-Plur-Acc go-Adv do-SHon-Pst-Dec
    `The teacher made the students go.'
Example #179:

    b. *Haksayng-tul-ul ka-key sensayngnim-kkeyse ha-si-ess-ta
    student-Plur-Acc go-Adv teacher-HNom      do-SHon-Pst-Dec
    `The teacher made the students go.'
Example #180:

    c. *Sensayngnim-kkeyse ka-key haksayng-tul-ul ha-si-ess-ta
    teacher-HNom        go-Adv student-Plur-Acc do-SHon-Pst-Dec
    `The teacher made the students go.'
Example #181:

    ha-si-ess-ta
    do-SHon-Pst-Dec
    `The teacher made the students go yesterday.'
Example #182:

    132 a. Ku chayk-ul ilk-e         po-ass-ni?
    that book-Acc read-Cmp see-Pst-Int
    `Did you try to read that book?
Example #183:

    b. Kulay, ilk-e        po-ass-e
    yes, read-Cmp see-Pst-DecAbr
    `Yes, I tried to read it.'
Example #184:

    c. *Kulay, po-ass-e
    yes, see-Pst-DecAbr
    `Yes, I tried.'
Example #185:

    d. *Kulay, ilk-e
    yes, read-Cmp
    `Yes, I read.'
Example #186:

    133 Na-nun ai-tul-eykey kwaca-lul kwup-key ha-ko mek-key ha-keyss-ta
    I-Top child-Plur-Dat cookie-Acc bake-Adv do-Conj eat-Adv do-Fut-Dec
    `I will have the children bake and eat cookies.'
Example #187:

    ha-si-ess-ta
    do-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The teacher made the child read a book and eat a cookie.'
Example #188:

    seltuk.ha-si-ess-ta
    persuade-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The teacher persuaded the child to read a book and to eat a cookie.'
Example #189:

    seltuk.ha-keyss-ta
    persuade-Fut-Dec
    `I will persuade the children to bake and eat cookies.'
Example #190:

    139 a. ??Haksayng-tul-eykey chayk-ul ilk-key Younghee-ka hay-ss-ta
    student-Plur-Dat book-Acc read-Adv Younghee-Nom do-Pst-Dec
    `Younghee made the students read the book.'
Example #191:

    b. ?Haksayng-tul-eykey chayk-ul ilk-key-nun Younghee-ka hay-ss-ta
    student-Plur-Dat book-Acc read-Adv-Top Younghee-Nom do-Pst-Dec
    `Younghee made the students read the book.'
Example #192:

    hay-ss-ta
    do-Pst-Dec
    `Even Younghee made the students read the book.'
Example #193:

    140 a. *Chayk-ul ilk-key Younghee-ka haksayng-tul-eykey hay-ss-ta
    book-Acc read-Adv Younghee-Nom student-Plur-Dat do-Pst-Dec
    `Younghee made the students read the book.'
Example #194:

    b. *Haksayng-tul-eykey ilk-key Younghee-ka chayk-ul hay-ss-ta
    student-Plur-Dat read-Adv Younghee-Nom book-Acc do-Pst-Dec
    `Younghee made the students read the book.'
Example #195:

    146 *Nay-ka Swuni-lul kuli-key-nun cokum hay-ss-ta
    I-Nom Swuni-Acc draw-Adv a.little do-Pst-Dec
    `I made Swuni draw a little.'
Example #196:

    kekceng.hay-ss-eto, unhayng-ey tul-e-o-n            hwu-ey,
    worry-Pst-even bank-in enter-Cmp-come-Pst after-Dat
    he entered the bank,'
Example #197:

    kenney cwu-key-nun him an tuli-ko hay-ss-ta
    across give-Adv-Top e ort not take-Conj do-Pst-Dec
    the money.'
Example #198:

    anh-ass-na       siph-ta
    Neg-Pst-Cmp      seem-Dec
    `It seems that   perhaps the mother tried to make the child write a letter'.
Example #199:

    180 a. Emeni-kkeyse ai-eykey pap-ul mek-key ha-yess-ta
    mother-HNom child-Dat rice-Acc eat-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `The mother made the child eat the rice.'
Example #200:

    b. Emeni-kkeyse ai-eykey pap-ul mek-key ha-n-ta
    mother-HNom child-Dat rice-Acc eat-Adv do-Pres-Dec
    `The mother makes the child eat the rice.'
Example #201:

    181 a. *Emeni-kkeyse ai-eykey pap-ul mek-ess-key ha-ta
    mother-HNom child-Dat rice-Acc eat-Pst-Adv do-Dec
    `The mother made the child eat the rice.'
Example #202:

    b. *Emeni-kkeyse ai-eykey pap-ul mek-ess-key ha-yess-ta
    mother-HNom child-Dat rice-Acc eat-Pst-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `The mother made the child have eaten the rice.'
Example #203:

    c. *Emeni-kkeyse ai-eykey pap-ul mek-nun-key ha-n-ta
    mother-HNom child-Dat rice-Acc eat-Pres-Adv do-Pres-Dec
    `The mother makes the child eat the rice.'
Example #204:

    182 a. Kim-sensayng-nim-i phyenci-lul ssu-si-na      po-ta
    Kim-teacher-Hon-Nom letter-Acc write-SHon-Cmp seem-Dec
    `Teacher Kim seems to be writing a letter.'
Example #205:

    b. Kim-sensayng-nim-i phyenci-lul ssu-si-ess-na      po-ta
    Kim-teacher-Hon-Nom letter-Acc write-SHon-Pst-Cmp seem-Dec
    `Teacher Kim seems to have written a letter.'
Example #206:

    184 a. ku elyewu-n swuep
    the di cult-Adj class
    `the di cult class'
Example #207:

    b. *ku swuep elyewu-n
    the class di cult-Adj
    `the di cult class'
Example #208:

    c. *swuep ku elyewu-n
    class the di cult-Adj
    `the di cult class'
Example #209:

    185 a. thukhi acwu elyewu.n
    unusually very di cult
    `unusually very di cult'
Example #210:

    b. *thukhi elyewu.n acwu
    unusually di cult very
    `unusually very di cult'
Example #211:

    c. *elyewu.n thukhi acwu
    di cult unusually very
    `unusually very di cult'
Example #212:

    186 a. Na-nun Stanford-ey tani-n-ta
    I-Top Stanford-to attend-Pres-Dec
    `I go to Stanford.'
Example #213:

    b. *Na-nun ey-Stanford tani-n-ta
    I-Top to-Stanford attend-Pres-Dec
    `I go to Stanford.'
Example #214:

    c. *Na-nun tani-n-ta      Stanford-ey
    I-Top attend-Pres-Dec Stanford-to
    `I go to Stanford.'
Example #215:

    d. * Stanford-ey tani-n-ta      Na-nun
    Stanford-to attend-Pres-Dec I-Top
    `I go to Stanford.'
Example #216:

    187 a. Emeni-ka ai-lul chwum.chwu-key ha-si-ess-ta
    mother-Nom child-Acc dance-Adv     do-SHon-Pst-Dec
    `The mother made the child dance.'
Example #217:

    b. Emeni-ka ai-lul chwum.chwu-tolok ha-si-n-ta
    mother-Nom child-Acc dance-Adv      do-SHon-Pres-Dec
    `The mother makes the child dance.'
Example #218:

    siph-usi-ta
    want-SHon-Dec
    `The mother wants to make the child dance.'
Example #219:

    d. *Emeni-ka ai-lul chwum.chwu-ko ha-si-ess-ta
    mother-Nom child-Acc dance-Adv     do-SHon-Pst-Dec
    `The mother made the child dance.'
Example #220:

    e. *Emeni-ka ai-lul chwum.chwu-ci ha-si-ess-ta
    mother-Nom child-Acc dance-Adv     do-SHon-Pst-Dec
    `The mother made the child dance.'
Example #221:

    188 a. Chelswu-ka Swuni-lul wus-key-lul hay-ss-ta
    Chelswu-Nom Swuni-Acc smile-Adv-Acc do-Pst-Dec
    Chelswu made Swuni smile.
Example #222:

    b. *Chelswu-ka Swuni-lul wus-key hay-ss-ta-lul
    Chelswu-Nom Swuni-Acc smile-Adv do-Pst-Dec-Acc
    Chelswu made Swuni smile.
Example #223:

    c. *Swuni-ka wus-key-lul ha-ye ci-ess-ta
    Swuni-Nom smile-Adv-Acc do-Cmp PasAux-Pst-Dec
    `Swuni was made to smile.'
Example #224:

    193 a. Emeni-kkeyse ai-eykey kwaca-lul mek-i-ess-ta
    mother-HNom child-Dat cookie-Acc eat-Caus-Pst-Dec
    `The mother made the child eat a cookie.'
Example #225:

    b. *Emeni-kkeyse ai-eykey kwaca-lul mek-nun-i-ess-ta
    mother-HNom child-Dat cookie-Acc eat-Top-Caus-Pst-Dec
    `The mother made the child eat a cookie.'
Example #226:

    c. *Emeni-kkeyse ai-eykey kwaca-lul mek-mos-i-ess-ta
    mother-HNom child-Dat cookie-Acc eat-cannot-Caus-Pst-Dec
    `The mother could not make the child eat a cookie.'
Example #227:

    194 a. Emeni-kkeyse ai-eykey kwaca-lul mek-i-ess-ta
    mother-HNom child-Dat cookie-Acc eat-Caus-Pst-Dec
    `The mother made the child eat a cookie.'
Example #228:

    b. Emeni-kkeyse kwaca-lul ai-eykey mek-i-ess-ta
    mother-HNom cookie-Acc child-Dat eat-Caus-Pst-Dec
    `The mother made the child eat a cookie.'
Example #229:

    c. Ai-eykey emeni-kkeyse kwaca-lul mek-i-ess-ta
    child-Dat mother-HNom cookie-Acc eat-Caus-Pst-Dec
    `The mother made the child eat a cookie.'
Example #230:

    d. Ai-eykey kwaca-lul emeni-kkeyse mek-i-ess-ta
    child-Dat cookie-Acc mother-HNom eat-Caus-Pst-Dec
    `The mother made the child eat a cookie.'
Example #231:

    ilk-ess-ta
    read-Pst-Dec
    `At home my friend read the prohibited book in her o ce.'
Example #232:

    198 Khal-lo ai-ka          koki-lul khal-lo ssel-ess-ta
    knife-with child-Nom meat-Acc knife-with cut-Pst-Dec
    `With a knife, the child cut the meat with a knife.'
Example #233:

    ilk-ess-tako mal.hay-ss-ta
    read-Pst-Quot say.Pst-Dec
    `At home my friend said that she read the prohibited book in her o ce.'
Example #234:

    nolaykhi-ess-ta
    startle-Pst-Dec
    `With a knife, the child startled the person cutting the meat with a knife.'
Example #235:

    chayk-ul samwusil-eyse ilk-key hay-ss-ta
    book-Acc o ce-Loc         read-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `By phone, at home I made my friend read the prohibited book in her o ce.'
Example #236:

    hay-ss-ta
    do-Pst-Dec
    `Sternly I made the students read the book thoroughly.'
Example #237:

    hay-ss-ta
    do Pst-Dec
    `With a knife, the waitress made the child cut the meat with a knife.'
Example #238:

    ilk-hi-ess-ta
    read-Caus-Pst-Dec
    `Sternly I made the student read the book thoroughly.'
Example #239:

    ssel-li-ess-ta
    cut-Caus-Pst-Dec
    `With a knife, the waitress made the child cut the meat with a knife.'
Example #240:

    206 a. Nay-ka ppalli ai-ka chayk-ul ilk-ess-tako mal.hay-ss-ta
    I-Nom quickly child-Dat book-Acc read-Pst-Quot do-Pst-Dec
    `I quickly said the child read the book.'
Example #241:

    b. Nay-ka ppalli ai-ka        chayk-ul ilk-ess-tako mal.hay-ss-ta
    I-Nom quickly child-Dat book-Acc read-Pst-Quot do-Pst-Dec
    `I said the child read the book quickly.'
Example #242:

    207 a. Ppalli nay-ka ai-ka chayk-ul ilk-ess-tako mal.hay-ss-ta
    quickly I-Nom child-Dat book-Acc read-Pst-Quot do-Pst-Dec
    `I quickly said the child read the book.'
Example #243:

    b. Nay-ka ai-ka ppalli chayk-ul ilk-ess-tako mal.hay-ss-ta
    I-Nom child-Dat quickly book-Acc read-Pst-Quot do-Pst-Dec
    `I said the child read the book quickly.'
Example #244:

    208 a. Emeni-ka ai-eykey chayk-ul ppalli ilk-key hay-ss-ta
    mother-Nom child-Dat book-Acc quickly read-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    or `Mother quickly made the child read the book.'
Example #245:

    b. Ppalli emeni-ka ai-eykey chayk-ul ilk-key hay-ss-ta
    quickly mother-Nom child-Dat book-Acc read-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    or `Mother quickly made the child read the book.'
Example #246:

    b. Pang-eyse emeni-nun ai-eykey os-ul            pes-key      hay-ss-ta
    room-Loc mother-Top child-Dat clothes-Acc take.o -Adv do-Pst-Dec
    or `In the room, the mother undressed the child.'
Example #247:

    210 a. Emeni-ka ai-eykey koki-lul khal-lo ssel-key hay-ss-ta
    mother-Nom child-Dat meat-Acc knife-with cut-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `Mother made the child cut the meat with the knife.'
Example #248:

    b. Khal-lo emeni-ka ai-eykey koki-lul ssel-key hay-ss-ta
    knife-with mother-Nom child-Dat meat-Acc cut-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `With the knife, Mother made the child cut the meat.'
Example #249:

    211 a. Emeni-ka ai-eykey chayk-ul ppalli ilk-hi-ess-ta
    mother-Nom child-Dat book-Acc quickly read-Caus-Pst-Dec
    or `Quickly, Mother made the child read the book.'
Example #250:

    b. Emeni-ka ai-eykey ppalli chayk-ul ilk-hi-ess-ta
    mother-Nom child-Dat quickly book-Acc read-Caus-Pst-Dec
    or `Quickly, Mother made the child read the book.'
Example #251:

    c. Ppalli emeni-ka ai-eykey chayk-ul ilk-hi-ess-ta
    quickly mother-Nom child-Dat book-Acc read-Caus-Pst-Dec
    or `Quickly, Mother made the child read the book.'
Example #252:

    ip-hi-ess-ta
    wear-Caus-Pst-Dec
    or `Mother made the child wear the red dress for a long time.'
Example #253:

    ip-hi-ess-ta
    wear-Caus-Pst-Dec
    or `Mother made the child wear the red dress for a long time.'
Example #254:

    213 a. Emeni-ka ai-eykey khal-lo koki-lul ssel-li-ess-ta
    mother-Nom child-Dat knife-with meat-Acc cut-Caus-Pst-Dec
    `Mother made the child cut the meat with the knife.'
Example #255:

    b. Emeni-ka ai-eykey khal-lo koki-lul ssel-li-ess-ta
    mother-Nom child-Dat knife-with meat-Acc cut-Caus-Pst-Dec
    `Mother made the child cut the meat with the knife.'
Example #256:

    c. Emeni-ka ai-eykey khal-lo koki-lul ssel-li-ess-ta
    mother-Nom child-Dat knife-with meat-Acc cut-Caus-Pst-Dec
    `Mother made the child cut the meat with the knife.'
Example #257:

    ilk-hi-ess-ta
    read-Caus-Pst-Dec
    or `I made my friend read the prohibited book at home.'
Example #258:

    ilk-hi-ess-ta
    read-Caus-Pst-Dec
    or `I made my friend read the prohibited book at home.'
Example #259:

    ilk-hi-ess-ta
    read-Caus-Pst-Dec
    or `I made my friend read the prohibited book at home.'
Example #260:

    215 a. Pak-ssi-nun ai-lul namwu-ey twu-son-ulo ol-li-ess-ta
    Park-Mr.-Top child-Acc tree-to two-hand-with go.up-Caus-Pst-Dec
    `Mr. Park lifted the child up the tree with both hands.'
Example #261:

    b. Emeni-nun pang-eyse ai-eykey os-ul                pes-ki-ess-ta
    mother-Top room-in child-Dat clothes-Acc take.o .Caus-Pst-Dec
    `The mother undressed the child in the room.'
Example #262:

    216 Ecey na-nun Inho-ka nayil hankwuk-ulo ttena-key hay-ss-ta
    yesterday I-Top Inho-Nom tomorrow Korea-to leave-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `Yesterday I persuaded Inho to leave for Korea tomorrow.'
Example #263:

    ssel-key hay-ss-ta
    cut-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    knife.'
Example #264:

    hay-ss-ta
    do-Pst-Dec
    `Sternly I made the student read the book thoroughly.'
Example #265:

    chayk-ul samwusil-eyse ilk-key hay-ss-ta
    book-Acc o ce-Loc         read-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `By phone, at home I made my friend read the prohibited book in her o ce.'
Example #266:

    223 Ai-ka      chayk-ul ppalli ilk-ess-ta
    child-Nom book-Acc quickly read-Pst-Dec
    `The child read the book quickly.'
Example #267:

    hay-ss-ta
    do-Pst-Dec
    `Sternly I made the student read the book thoroughly.'
Example #268:

    228 Emeni-ka ai-eykey koki-lul khal-lo ssel-key hay-ss-ta
    mother-Nom child-Dat meat-Acc knife-with cut-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `Mother made the child cut the meat with the knife.'
Example #269:

    232 a. Ppalli nay-ka ai-ka chayk-ul ilk-ess-tako mal.hay-ss-ta
    quickly I-Nom child-Dat book-Acc read-Pst-Quot do-Pst-Dec
    `I quickly said the child read the book.'
Example #270:

    b. Nay-ka ai-ka ppalli chayk-ul ilk-ess-tako mal.hay-ss-ta
    I-Nom child-Dat quickly book-Acc read-Pst-Quot do-Pst-Dec
    `I said the child read the book quickly.'
Example #271:

    237 a. Uysa-ka cang.ay.ca-lul          ket-key hay-ss-ta
    doctor-Nom disabled person-Acc walk-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `The doctor made it possible for the disabled person to walk.'
Example #272:

    b. Uysa-ka cang.ay.ca-lul           kel-li-ess-ta
    doctor-Nom disabled person-Acc walk-Caus-Pst-Dec
    `The doctor caused the disabled person to walk.'
Example #273:

    238 a. Salinca-nun salam-ul cwuk-i-n          ca-i-ta
    murderer-Top person-Acc kill-Caus-Pst person-be-Dec
    `A murderer is someone who has killed a person.'
Example #274:

    b. *Salinca-nun salam-ul cwuk-key ha-n ca-i-ta
    murderer-Top person-Acc kill-Adv do-Pst person-be-Dec
    `A murderer is someone who has caused a person to die.'
Example #275:

    hay-ss-ta
    do-Pst-Dec
    `I had the 3-month-old baby put on the clothes.'
Example #276:

    b. Na-nun sek-tal-toy-n         aki-eykey os-ul  ip-hi-ess-ta
    I-Top 3-month-become-Pst baby-Dat clothes-Acc wear-Caus-Pst-Dec
    `I dressed the 3-month-old baby.'
Example #277:

    240 Emeni-ka Yenghi-eykey say-os-ul           ip-hi-ess-ta
    mother-Nom Yenghi-Dat new-clothes-Acc wear-Caus-Pst-Dec
    the new clothes.'
Example #278:

    241 Emeni-ka Yenghi-eykey say-os-ul           ip-key hay-ss-ta
    mother-Nom Yenghi-Dat new-clothes-Acc wear-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `Mother caused Yenghi to wear new clothes'.
Example #279:

    242 a. Taxi-kangto-ka wunconswu-lul ccill-ese swum-ci-key hay-ss-ta
    taxi-robber-Nom driver-Acc        stab-and breath-cease-Cmp do-Pst-Dec
    `The taxi robber killed the driver by stabbing him.'
Example #280:

    b. Taxi-kangto-ka wunconswu-lul ccill-ese cwuk-key hay-ss-ta
    taxi-robber-Nom driver-Acc        stab-and die-Cmp do-Pst-Dec
    `The taxi robber killed the driver by stabbing him.'
Example #281:

    c. Taxi-kangto-ka wunconswu-lul ccill-ese cwuk-i-ess-ta
    taxi-robber-Nom driver-Acc        stab-and die-Caus-Pst-Dec
    `The taxi robber killed the driver by stabbing him.'
Example #282:

    ip-ey    pwu-ese, masi-key hay-ss-ta
    mouth-to pour-and drink-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    his mouth.'
Example #283:

    244 a. Oypwusonim-ul mence tha-yu-psita
    visitor-Acc      rst get.on-Caus-Propos
    `Let's make the visitors get on the elevator rst.'
Example #284:

    b. Oypwusonim-ul mence tha-key ha-psita
    visitor-Acc      rst get.on-Adv do-Propos
    `Let's make the visitors get on the elevator rst.'
Example #285:

    hay-ss-ta
    do-Pst-Dec
    `I made the student read the book on Tuesdayon Friday.'
Example #286:

    ilk-hi-ess-ta
    read-Caus-Pst-Dec
    `I made the student read the book on Tuesdayon Friday.'
Example #287:

    chayk-ul samwusil-eyse ilk-hi-ess-ta
    book-Acc o ce-Loc           read-Caus-Pst-Dec
    `By phone, at home I made my friend read the prohibited book in her o ce.'
Example #288:

    ilk-hi-ess-ta
    read-Caus-Pst-Dec
    `I made the student read the book on Tuesday at 11 a.m.'
Example #289:

    250 Hitler-nun coy eps-nun                manh-un                salam-ul cwuk-i-ess-ta
    Hitler-Top crime not.exist-Pres be.many-Pres            person-Acc die-Caus-Pst-Dec
    `Hitler killed many innocent people.'
Example #290:

    sa-mek-i-ess-ta
    buy-eat-Caus-Pst-Dec
    winter.'
Example #291:

    252 Chelswu-ka kil-ul cop-hi-ess-ta
    Chelswu-Nom road-Acc narrow-Caus-Pst-Dec
    `Chelswu narrowed the road.'
Example #292:

    253 Chelswu-ka kil-ul cop-key           hay-ss-ta
    Chelswu-Nom road-Acc narrow-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `Chelswu caused the road to be narrow.'
Example #293:

    254 Kangto-ka salam-ul kecin cwuk-i-ess-ta
    thief-Nom person-Acc almost kill-Caus-Pst-Dec
    `The thief almost killed the man.'
Example #294:

    257 a. Nay-ka kimchi-lul mos mek-nun-ta
    I-Nom kimchi-Acc cannot eat-Pres-Dec
    `I cannot eat kimchi.'
Example #295:

    b. Nay-ka kimchi-lul mek-ci mos ha -n-ta
    I-Nom kimchi-Acc eat-Cmp cannot do-Pres-Dec
    `I cannot eat kimchi.'
Example #296:

    258 a. Ku-ka na-eykey kimchi-lul mek-key mos hay-ss-ta
    he-Nom I-Dat kimchi-Acc eat-Adv cannot do-Pst-Dec
    `He could not cause me to eat kimchi.'
Example #297:

    b. Ku-ka na-eykey kimchi-lul mek-key ha-ci mos hay-ss-ta
    he-Nom I-Dat kimchi-Acc eat-Adv do-Cmp cannot do-Pst-Dec
    `He could not cause me to eat kimchi.'
Example #298:

    261 a. Ku-ka na-eykey kimchi-lul mos mek-key hay-ss-ta
    he-Nom I-Dat kimchi-Acc cannot eat-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `He did something so that I could not or cannot eat kimchi.'
Example #299:

    b. Ku-ka na-eykey kimchi-lul mek-ci mos ha-key                     hay-ss-ta
    he-Nom I-Dat kimchi-Acc eat-Adv cannot NegAux-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `He did something so that I could not or cannot eat kimchi.'
Example #300:

    264 a. Ku-ka na-eykey kimchi-lul mos mek-i-ess-ta
    he-Nom I-Dat kimchi-Acc cannot eat-Caus-Pst-Dec
    `He could not cause me to eat kimchi.'
Example #301:

    b. Ku-ka na-eykey kimchi-lul mek-i-ci     mos hay-ss-ta
    he-Nom I-Dat kimchi-Acc eat-Caus-Cmp cannot do-Pst-Dec
    `He could not cause me to eat kimchi.'
Example #302:

    267 a. * Ku-ka na-eykey kimchi-lul mos-mek -i-ess-ta
    he-Nom I-Dat kimchi-Acc cannot-eat-Caus-Pst-Dec
    `He did something so that I could not or cannot eat kimchi.'
Example #303:

    b. *Ku-ka na-eykey kimchi-lul mek-ci mos ha-i-ess-ta
    he-Nom I-Dat kimchi-Acc eat-Cmp cannot do-Caus-Pst-Dec
    `He did something so that I could not or cannot eat kimchi.'
Example #304:

    271 Ku-ka na-eykey kimchi-lul mos mek-i-ess-ta
    he-Nom I-Dat kimchi-Acc cannot eat-Caus-Pst-Dec
    `He could not cause me to eat kimchi.'
Example #305:

    275 a. *Na-nun kimchi-lul an mos           mek-ess-ta
    I-Top kimchi-Acc Neg Neg-cannot eat-Pst-Dec
    `I wasn't not able to eat kimchi.'
Example #306:

    b. *Na-nun hakkyo-ey an an ka-ss-ta
    I-Top school-Dir Neg Neg go-Pst-Dec
    `I didn't not go to school.'
Example #307:

    276 a. *Na-nun kimchi-lul mek-ci mos        anh-ass-ta
    I-Top kimchi-Acc eat-Cmp Neg-cannot NegAux-Pst-Dec
    `I was not able to not eat kimchi.'
Example #308:

    b. *Na-nun kimchi-lul mos              mek-ci anh-ass-ta
    I-Top kimchi-Acc Neg-cannot eat-Cmp NegAux-Pst-Dec
    `I was not able to not eat kimchi.'
Example #309:

    277 Na-nun kimchi-lul mos                 mek-ci anh-ass-ta
    I-Top kimchi-Acc Neg-cannot eat-Cmp NegAux-Pst-Dec
    `I was not unable to eat kimchi.'
Example #310:

    281 ilk-key an ha-ta
    read-Adv Neg do-Dec
    `not cause to read'
Example #311:

    b. * ilk-e
    read-Cmp Neg give-Dec
    `not give the favor of reading'
Example #312:

    c. * ilk-eya an ha-ta
    read-Cmp Neg must-Dec
    `must not read'
Example #313:

    283 an ilk-e             po-ta
    Neg read-Cmp try-Dec
    `not try to read'
Example #314:

    289 a. Ai-ka chinkwu-eykey kong-ul tenci-ess-ta
    child-Top friend-Dat       ball-Acc throw-Pst-Dec
    `The child threw the ball to a friend.'
Example #315:

    291 Nay-ka ttek-ul         mek-ess-ta
    I-Nom rice.cake-Acc eat-Pst-Dec
    `I ate the rice cake.'
Example #316:

    292 Sensayngnim-kkeyse ttek-ul          capswusi-ess-ta
    teacher-HNom          rice.cake-Acc Hon.eat-Pst-Dec
    `The teacher ate the rice cake.'
Example #317:

    293 Hankwuk-un nalssi-nun coh-a.yo
    Korea-Top weather-Top good-End
    the roads is ne.'
Example #318:

    294 Chayk-un sey-ka       kyosil-ey     iss-ta
    book-Top three-Nom classroom-Loc exist-Dec
    `Three books are in the classroom.'
Example #319:

    295 a. Mary-nun John-i phathi-ey ka-tolok seltuk.hay-ss-ta
    Mary-Top John-Nom party-Dat go-so.that persuade-Pst-Dec
    `Mary persuaded John to go to the party.
Example #320:

    b. Na-nun John-i -ul        chencay-ess-ta-ko mit-ess-ta
    I-Top John-Nom -Acc genius-Pst-Dec-Quot believe-Pst-Dec
    `I believed John to be have been a genius.'
Example #321:

    296 a. Halapeci-hanthey kohyang-i        kuliw-usi-n-ka po-ta
    grandfather-Dat hometown-Nom miss-Hon-Pres-Cmp seem-Dec
    `Grandfather seems to miss his hometown.'
Example #322:

    b. Halapeci-kkeyse kohyang-i         kuliw-usi-n-ka po-ta
    grandfather-HNom hometown-Nom miss-Hon-Pres-Cmp seem-Dec
    `Grandfather seems to miss his hometown.'
Example #323:

    297 a. Minswu-ka sulphu-ta
    Minswu-Nom be.sad-Dec
    `Minswu is sad.'
Example #324:

    b. *Minswu-eykey sulphu-ta
    Minswu-Dat be.sad-Dec
    `Minswu is sad.'
Example #325:

    298 a. Nay-ka ttek-ul         mek-ess-ta
    I-Nom rice.cake-Acc eat-Pst-Dec
    `I ate the rice cake.'
Example #326:

    b. Nay-kakong-ul tenci-ess-ta
    I-Nom ball-Acc throw-Pst-Dec
    `I threw the ball.'
Example #327:

    299 a. Nay-kakohyang-i        kulip-ta
    I-Nom hometown-Nom miss-Dec
    `I miss my home town.'
Example #328:

    b. Nay-ka kimchi-ka coh-ta
    I-Nom kimchee-Nom like-Dec
    `I like kimchee.'
Example #329:

    c. Nay-ka manh-un ton-i        iss-ta
    I-Nom be.much-Adj money-Nom have-Dec
    `I have a lot of money.'
Example #330:

    300 a. Swuni-ka Minswu-lul chayk-ul cwu-ess-ta
    Swuni-nom Minswu-Acc book-Acc give-Pst-Dec
    `Swuni gave Minswu a book.'
Example #331:

    b. Swuni-ka Minswu-eykey chayk-ul cwu-ess-ta
    Swuni-nom Minswu-Dat book-Acc give-Pst-Dec
    `Swuni gave Minswu a book.'
Example #332:

    301 a. Tom-un kongpwu-lul twu-sikan-tongan-ul hay-ss-ta
    Tom-Top study-Acc two-hour-during-Acc do-Pst-Dec
    `Tom studied for two hours.'
Example #333:

    b. Tom-un mikwuk-ul twu-pen-ul pangmwun.hay-ss-ta
    Tom-Top America-Acc two-time-Acc visit-Pst-Dec
    `Tom visited America two times.'
Example #334:

    302 Mwun-i han-sikan-tongan-i yel-ie       iss-ta
    door-Nom one-hour-during-Nom open-Pass be-Dec
    `The door remained open for an hour.'
Example #335:

    myech-sikan-ul kippu-key ha-si-ess-ta
    several-hour-Acc be.happy-Adv do-Hon-Pst-Dec
    several hours.'
Example #336:

    myech-sikan-i       kippu-key ha-si-ess-ta
    several-hour-Nom be.happy-Adv do-Hon-Pst-Dec
    several hours.'
Example #337:

    sensayngnim-kkeyse kumyoil-ey swukcey-lul an nay-si-ess-ta
    teacher-HNom          Friday-on homework-Acc not assign-Hon-Pst-Dec
    not assign homework Friday.'
Example #338:

    sensayngnim-kkeyse kumyoil-ey swukcey-lul an nay-si-ess-ta
    teacher-HNom          Friday-on homework-Acc not assign-Hon-Pst-Dec
    not assign homework Friday.'
Example #339:

    305 I-pen kyewul-i kwankwangkayk-i cey.il cek-ta
    this-time winter-Nom tourist-Nom            rst be.few-Dec
    `This winter wehave the fewest number of tourists.'
Example #340:

    mit-nun-ta
    believe-Pres-Dec
    `I believe this winter wehave the fewest number of tourists.'
Example #341:

    307 Swuni-ka nwun-i yeyppu-ta
    Swuni-Nom eyes-Nom be.pretty-Dec
    `Swuni's eyes are pretty.'
Example #342:

    308 Chelswu-ka Swuni-lul meli-lul piski-ko iss-ta
    Chelswu-Nom Swuni-Acc hair-Acc comb-Cmp be-Dec
    `Chelswu is combing Swuni's hair.'
Example #343:

    309 a. Haksayng-i ecey        seys-i    o-ass-ta
    student-Nom yesterday three-Nom come-Pst-Dec
    `Three students came yesterday.'
Example #344:

    b. Nay-ka haksayng-ul wuyenhi seys-ul manna-ss-ta
    I-Nom student-Acc by.chance three-Acc meet-Pst-Dec
    `I happened to meet three students.'
Example #345:

    314 a. pokcap.ha-n      chayk-i
    complicated-Adj book-Nom
    `a complicated book'
Example #346:

    b. pokcap.ha-n     chayk-eyse
    complicated-Adj book-from
    `from a complicated book'
Example #347:

    315 a. Na-nun pokcap.ha-key        ss-ess-ta
    I-Top be.complicated-Adv write-Pst-Dec
    `I wrote in a complicated way.'
Example #348:

    b. *pokcap.ha-key chayk-eyse
    complicated-Adv book-from
    `from a complicated book'
Example #349:

    c. *pokcap.ha-key chayk-i
    complicated-Adv book-Nom
    `a complicated book'
Example #350:

    316 a. Swuni-ka Minswu-eykey chayk-ul cwu-ess-ta
    Swuni-nom Minswu-Dat book-Acc give-Pst-Dec
    `Swuni gave Minswu a book.'
Example #351:

    b. Swuni-ka Minswu-lul chayk-ul cwu-ess-ta
    Swuni-nom Minswu-Acc book-Acc give-Pst-Dec
    `Swuni gave Minswu a book.'
Example #352:

    b. John-i Mary-lul os-ul           ip-hi-ess-ta
    John-Nom Mary-Acc clothes-Acc wear-Caus-Pst-Dec
    `John made Mary put on the clothes.'
Example #353:

    318 a. Swuni-ka Minswu-eykey chayk-ul ilk-e   cwu-ess-ta
    Swuni-Nom Minswu-Dat book-Acc read-Cmp give-Pst-Dec
    `Swuni read a book for Minswu.'
Example #354:

    b. Swuni-ka Minswu-lul chayk-ul ilk-e     cwu-ess-ta
    Swuni-Nom Minswu-Acc book-Acc read-Cmp give-Pst-Dec
    `Swuni read a book for Minswu.'
Example #355:

    319 a. Chelswu-ka hakkyo-ey phyenci-lul pwuci-ess-ta
    Chelswu-Nom hakkyo-Dat letter-Acc mail-Pst-Dec
    `Chelswu sent the letter to the school.'
Example #356:

    b. Chelswu-ka hakkyo-lo phyenci-lul pwuci-ess-ta
    Chelswu-Nom hakkyo-Dir letter-Acc mail-Pst-Dec
    `Chelswu sent the letter toward the school.'
Example #357:

    320 Chelswu-ka hakkyo-eykey-lo phyenci-lul pwuci-ess-ta
    Chelswu-Nom school-Dat-Dir letter-Acc mail-Pst-Dec
    `Chelswu sent the letter toward the school.'
Example #358:

    321 Chelswu-ka Yengswu-eykey-lo-wa na-ey-lo kong-ul tenci-ess-ta
    Chelswu-Nom Yenswu-Dat-Dir-Com I-Dat-Dir ball-Acc throw-Pst-Dec
    `Chelswu threw the ball toward Youngswu and me.'
Example #359:

    i      Pwusan ka-yo
    Pusan go-End
    `We go to Pusan.'
Example #360:

    b. Ai-ka          hakkyoka-ss-ta
    child-Nom school go-Pst-Dec
    `The child wenttoschool.'
Example #361:

    iii a.     Kil-ul ka-yo
    path-Acc go-End
    Wewalk along the path.
Example #362:

    b. *Kil      ka-yo
    path-Acc go-End
    Wewalk along the path.
Example #363:

    b.   Sensayngnim-kkeyse     ai yenge-lul kaluchi-si-ess-eyo
    teacher-HNom           child English-Acc teach-SHon-Pst-End
    `The teacher taught   the child English.'
Example #364:

    b. *Sensayngnim-kkeyse ai kong-ul tenci-si-ess-eyo
    teacher-HNom        child ball-Acc throw-SHon-Pst-End
    `The teacher threw the child a ball.'
Example #365:

    331 a. Na-nun ku haksayng-i chencay-i-lako mit-ess-ta
    I-Top that student-Nom genius-be-Cmp believe-Pst-Dec
    `I believed the studentwas a genius.'
Example #366:

    b. Na-nun ku haksayng-ul chencay-i-lako mit-ess-ta
    I-Top that student-Acc genius-be-Cmp believe-Pst-Dec
    `I believed the studentwas a genius.'
Example #367:

    332 a. *Na-nun ku haksayng-i-lul        chencay-i-lako mit-ess-ta
    I-Top that student-Nom-Acc genius-be-Cmp believe-Pst-Dec
    `I believed the studentwas a genius.'
Example #368:

    b. *Na-nun ku haksayng-ul-i           chencay-i-lako mit-ess-ta
    I-Top that student-Acc-Nom genius-be-Cmp believe-Pst-Dec
    `I believed the studentwas a genius.'
Example #369:

    338 a. Nay-ka swukcey-lul nay-ess-ta
    I-Nom homework-Acc hand.in-Pst-Dec
    `I handed in the homework.'
Example #370:

    b. Swukcey-ka       nay-e      ci-ess-ta
    homework-Nom hand.in-Cmp PasAux-Pst-Dec
    `I handed in the homework.'
Example #371:

    342 a. Na-nun nokcha-ka    coh-ta
    I-Top green.tea-Nom like-Dec
    `I like green tea.'
Example #372:

    b. Na-nun nokcha-lul coh-a ha-n-ta
    I-Top green.tea-Acc like-Cmp do-Pres-Dec
    `I like green tea.'
Example #373:

    347 Haksayng-tul-i myech-sikan-i          kipp-ess-ta
    Student-Plur-Nom several-hour-Nom be.happy-Pst-Dec
    `The students were happy for several hours.'
Example #374:

    myech-sikan-ul kippu-key hay-ss-ta
    several-hour-Acc be.happy-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    hours.'
Example #375:

    374 Nay-ka nonmwun-ul seys-ul ilk-ess-ta
    I-Nom thesis-Acc three-Acc read-Pst-Dec
    `I read three theses.'
Example #376:

    375 Haksayng-i chayk-ul seys-i                 ilk-ess-ta
    student-Nom book-Acc three-Nom read-Pst-Dec
    `Three students read the book.'
Example #377:

    376 Nay-ka haksayng-ul seys-ul ttena-key hay-ss-ta
    I-Nom student-Acc three-Acc leave-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `I made three students leave.'
Example #378:

    i Cha-ka twu sikan-tongan-ul *i              swuli-ka toy-ess-ta
    car-Nom two hours-during-Acc *Nom xing-Nom become-Pst-Dec
    `The car got xed for two hours.'
Example #379:

    377 a. Haksayng-i chayk-ul sey-sikan-tongan-ul ilk-ess-ta
    student-Nom book-Acc three-hour-during-Acc read-Pst-Dec
    `The student read a book for three hours.'
Example #380:

    b. Mwun-i han-sikan-tongan-i yel-i-e                    iss-ess-ta
    door-Nom one-hour-during-Nom open-Pass-Cmp be-Pst-Dec
    `The door remained open for one hour.'
Example #381:

    378 a. Chayk-i cip-ey         iss-ta
    book-Nom home-Loc.Stat be-Dec
    `The book is at home.'
Example #382:

    b. Nay-ka cip-eyse         kongpwu.ha-n-ta
    I-Nom house-Loc.NonStat study-Pres-Dec
    `I study at home.'
Example #383:

    380 a. Swuni-ka kangaci-ka talana-ss-ta
    Swuni-Nom puppy-Nom run.away-Pst-Dec
    `Swuni's puppy ran away.'
Example #384:

    381 a. * Kangaci-ka Swuni-ka talana-ss-ta
    puppy-Nom Swuni-Nom run.away-Pst-Dec
    `Swuni's puppy ran away.'
Example #385:

    382 a. Swuni-ka yenge sensayngnim-i philyo.ha-ta
    Swuni-Nom English teacher-Nom need-Dec
    `Swuni needs an English teacher.'
Example #386:

    b. *Swuni-ka yenge sensayngnim-kkeyse philyo.ha-ta
    Swuni-Nom English teacher-HNom    need-Dec
    `Swuni needs an English teacher.'
Example #387:

    383 a. Sensayngnim-kkeyse ton-i       philyo.ha-si-ta
    teacher-HNom         money-Nom need-Hon-Dec
    `The teacher needs money.'
Example #388:

    b. Sensayngnim-i ton-i        philyo.ha-si-ta
    teacher-Nom money-Nom need-Hon-Dec
    `The teacher needs money.'
Example #389:

    384 a. Kim-sensayngnim-i ttal-i          yeyppu-ta
    Kim-teacher-Nom daughter-Nom be.pretty-Dec
    `Prof. Kim's daughter is pretty.'
Example #390:

    b. *Kim-sensayngnim-kkeyse ttal-i          yeyppu-ta
    Kim-teacher-HNom          daughter-Nom be.pretty-Dec
    `Prof. Kim's daughter is pretty.'
Example #391:

    c. *Kim-sensayngnim-kkeyse ttal-i          yeyppu-si-ta
    Kim-teacher-HNom          daughter-Nom be.pretty-Hon-Dec
    `Prof. Kim's daughter is pretty.'
Example #392:

    385 a. Swuni-ka emeni-kkeyse phyenchanh-usi-ta
    Swuni-Nom mother-HNom be.sick-Hon-Dec
    `Swuni's mother is sick.'
Example #393:

    b. Swuni-ka emeni-ka phyenchanh-usi-ta
    Swuni-Nom mother-Nom be.sick-Hon-Dec
    `Swuni's mother is sick.'
Example #394:

    b. Nay-ka ai-lul chayk-ul ilk-key hay-ss-ta
    I-Nom child-Acc book-Acc read-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `I made the child read a book.'
Example #395:

    b. Holangi-ka ai-lul cip-ulo talli-key hay-ss-ta
    tiger-Nom child-Acc house-to run-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `The tiger made the child run to the house.'
Example #396:

    mal.hay-ss-ta
    say-Pst-Dec
    `I said that Swuni received a letter from a friend.'
Example #397:

    b. Nay-ka ai-lul yenphil-lo ssu-key hay-ss-ta
    I-Nom child-Acc pencil-with write-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `I made the child write with a pencil.'
Example #398:

    b. Emeni-ka ai-lul pap-ul mek-i-ess-ta
    mother-Nom child-Acc rice-Acc eat-Caus-Pst-Dec
    `The mother fed the child rice.'
Example #399:

    b. Nay-ka ai-lul yenphil-lo ss-iwu-ess-ta
    I-Nom child-Acc pencil-with write-Caus-Pst-Dec
    `I made the child write with a pencil.'
Example #400:

    394 Na-nun Inho-lul ka kippu-key    hay-ss-ta
    I-Top Inho-Acc Nom be.happy-Cmp do-Pst-Dec
    `I caused Inho to be happy.'
Example #401:

    395 a. Nay-ka Swuni-ka coh-ta
    I-Nom Swuni-Nom like-Dec
    `I like Swuni.'
Example #402:

    b. *Nay-ka Swuni-lul coh-ta
    I-Nom Swuni-Acc like-Dec
    `I like Swuni.'
Example #403:

    396 a. Nay-kachayk-i manh-ta
    I-Nom book-Nom be.many-Dec
    `I have a lot of books.'
Example #404:

    b. *Nay-kachayk-ul manh-ta
    I-Nom book-Nom be.many-Dec
    `I have a lot of books.'
Example #405:

    397 a. ?Maswulsa-ka na-lul Swuni-ka coh-key hay-ss-ta
    sorcerer-Nom me-Acc Swuni-Nom like-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `The sorcerer made me like Swuni.'
Example #406:

    b. ??Maswulsa-ka na-lul Swuni-lul coh-key hay-ss-ta
    sorcerer-Nom me-Acc Swuni-Acc like-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `The sorcerer made me like Swuni.'
Example #407:

    398 a. ?Maswulsa-ka na-lul chayk-i manh-key         hay-ss-ta
    sorcerer-Nom me-Acc book-Nom be.many-Cmp do-Pst-Dec
    `The sorcerer made me have a lot of books.'
Example #408:

    b. ??Maswulsa-ka na-lul chayk-ul manh-key           hay-ss-ta
    sorcerer-Nom me-Acc book-Acc be.many-Cmp do-Pst-Dec
    `The sorcerer made me have a lot of books.'
Example #409:

    399 Maswulsa-ka nay-ka Swuni-ka coh-key hay-ss-ta
    wizard-Nom I-Nom Swuni-Nom like-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `The wizard made me like Swuni.'
Example #410:

    400 a. Na-nun nokcha-ka    coh-ta
    I-Top green.tea-Nom like-Dec
    `I like green tea.'
Example #411:

    b. Na-nun nokcha-lul coh-a ha-n-ta
    I-Top green.tea-Acc like-Cmp do-Pres-Dec
    `I like green tea.'
Example #412:

    401 Haksayng-tul-i han-sikan-tongan-i *-ul kipp-ess-ta
    student-Plur-Nom one-hour-during-Nom *Acc be.happy-Pst-Dec
    `The students were happy for an hour.'
Example #413:

    402 Haksayng-i chayk-ul sey-sikan-tongan-ul ilk-ess-ta
    student-Nom book-Acc three-hour-during-Acc read-Pst-Dec
    `The student read a book for three hours.'
Example #414:

    myech-sikan-ul *i            kippu-key ha-si-ess-ta
    several-hour-Acc *Nom be.happy-Adv do-Hon-Pst-Dec
    hours.'
Example #415:

    kh-iwu-si-ess-ta
    be.big-Caus-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The foster parents raised orphaned children for eighteen years.'
Example #416:

    406 a. Kil-i     tosi-ey        cop-ta
    road-Nom city-Loc.Stat be.narrow-Dec
    `The roads in the city are narrow.'
Example #417:

    b. Nay-ka cip-eyse         kongpwu ha-n-ta
    I-Nom house-Loc.NonStat study do-Pres-Dec
    `I study at home.'
Example #418:

    ha-si-ess-ta
    do-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The king made the roads in the city narrow.'
Example #419:

    ha-si-ess-ta
    do-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The king made the roads in the city narrow.'
Example #420:

    408 Imkum-nim-kkeyse tosi-uy kil-ul cop-key       ha-si-ess-ta
    King-Hon-HNom city-Gen road-Acc be.narrow-Adv do-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The king made the city's roads narrow.'
Example #421:

    409 Imkum-nim-kkeyse tosi-ey kil-ul cop-key       ha-si-ess-ta
    King-Hon-HNom city-Gen road-Acc be.narrow-Adv do-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The king made the city's roads narrow.'
Example #422:

    412 Emeni-ka pang-eyse ai-eykey pap-ul mek-i-ess-ta
    Mother-Nom room-in child-Dat rice-Acc eat-Caus-Pst-Dec
    or `Mother fed the child rice in the room.'
Example #423:

    413 Emeni-ka sikmo-eykey matang-ey ppallay-lul nel-li-ess-ta
    Mother-Nom maid-Dat garden-in laundry-Acc spread-Caus-Pst-Dec
    `Mother made the maid spread the laundry in the garden.'
Example #424:

    414 Sikmo-ka ppallays.cwul-ey os-ul        nel-ess-ta
    maid-Nom clothesline-Loc clothes-Acc spread-Pst-Dec
    `The maid hung the clothes on the clothesline.'
Example #425:

    415 a. Nay-ka cip-ey tol-a     ka-ss-ta
    I-Nom home-Dir turn-Cmp go-Pst-Dec
    `I returned home.'
Example #426:

    b. Nay-ka pang-ey tul-e     ka-ss-ta
    I-Nom room-Dir enter-Cmp go-Pst-Dec
    `I entered the room.'
Example #427:

    nel-li-ess-ta
    spread-Caus-Pst-Dec
    `Mother made the maid spread the laundry in the garden at home.'
Example #428:

    417 a. Nay-ka ai-ka       chayk-ul ilk-key hay-ss-ta
    I-Nom child-Nom book-Acc read-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `I made the child read the book.'
Example #429:

    b. Nay-ka ai-eykey chayk-ul ilk-key hay-ss-ta
    I-Nom child-Dat book-Acc read-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `I made the child read the book.'
Example #430:

    c. Nay-ka ai-lul chayk-ul ilk-key hay-ss-ta
    I-Nom child-Acc book-Acc read-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `I made the child read the book.'
Example #431:

    418 a. Nay-ka ai-eykey chayk-ul ilk-hi-ess-ta
    I-Nom child-Dat book-Acc read-Caus-Pst-Dec
    `I made the child read the book.'
Example #432:

    b. Nay-ka ai-lul chayk-ul ilk-hi-ess-ta
    I-Nom child-Acc book-Acc read-Caus-Pst-Dec
    `I made the child read the book.'
Example #433:

    419 *Nay-ka ai-ka       chayk-ul ilk-hi-ess-ta
    I-Nom child-Nom book-Acc read-Caus-Pst-Dec
    `I made the child read the book.'
Example #434:

    420 a. Apeci-nun ai-lul matang-eyse nol-key hay-ss-ta
    Father-Top child-Acc yard-Loc play-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `The father forced commanded the child to play in the yard.'
Example #435:

    b. Apeci-nun ai-eykey matang-eyse nol-key hay-ss-ta
    Father-Top child-Dat yard-Loc play-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `The father told asked the child to play in the yard.'
Example #436:

    c. Apeci-nun ai-ka        matang-eyse nol-key hay-ss-ta
    Father-Top child-Nom yard-Loc play-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `The father arranged for permitted the child to play in the yard.'
Example #437:

    422 a. ok ok ok Na-nun ku-eykey kwuk-ul kkuli-key hay-ss-ta
    I-Top him-Dat soup boil-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `I made him boil the soup.'
Example #438:

    b. * ok ok Na-nun ku-lul kwuk-ul kkuli-key hay-ss-ta
    I-Top him-Acc soup boil-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `I made him boil the soup.'
Example #439:

    423 a. ok ok ok Na-nun ku-lul ka-key hay-ss-ta
    I-Top him-Acc go-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `I made him go.'
Example #440:

    b. * * ok Na-nun ku-eykey ka-key hay-ss-ta
    I-Top him-Dat go-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `I made him go.'
Example #441:

    i a. *Kwahakca-ka pi-ey o-key         hay-ss-ta
    scientist-Nom rain-Dat come-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `The scientist made it rain.'
Example #442:

    b. Kwahakca-ka pi-lul o-key             hay-ss-ta
    scientist-Nom rain-Acc come-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `The scientist made it rain.'
Example #443:

    425 a. ??Komo-ka kocong.sachon-hanthey kakkum kitali-key hay-ss-ta
    aunt-Nom cousin-Dat             sometimes wait-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `My aunt sometimes made my cousin wait.'
Example #444:

    hay-ss-ta
    do-Pst-Dec
    `My aunt sometimes made my cousin wait.'
Example #445:

    424 *Kwahakca-ka pi-ey-nun o-key         hay-ss-ta
    scientist-Nom rain-Dat-Top come-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `The scientist made it rain.'
Example #446:

    428 Emeni-kkeyse ai-eykey-lul pap-ul mek-key ha-si-ess-ta
    mother-HNom child-Dat-Acc rice-Acc eat-Adv do-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `Mother made the child eat the rice.'predicted good
Example #447:

    429 Imkum-nim-kkeyse ku maul-ey-lul pic-ul kaph-key ha-si-ess-ta
    king-Hon-HNom that town-Dat-Acc debt-Acc pay-Adv do-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The king had that town pay its debt.'predicted good
Example #448:

    430 *Emeni-kkeyse ai-eykey-ka pap-ul mek-key ha-si-ess-ta
    mother-HNom child-Dat-Nom rice-Acc eat-Adv do-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `Mother made the child eat the rice.'predicted `*'
Example #449:

    431 *Imkum-nim-kkeyse ku maul-ey-ka pic-ul kaph-key ha-si-ess-ta
    king-Hon-HNom that town-Dat-Nom debt-Acc pay-Adv do-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The king had that town pay its debt.'predicted `*'
Example #450:

    432 *Ai-eykey-ka pap-ul mek-ess-ta
    child-Dat-Nom rice-Acc eat-Pst-Dec
    `The child ate the rice.'
Example #451:

    433 *Ku maul-ey-ka pic-ul kaph-ess-ta
    that town-Dat-Nom debt pay-Pst-Dec
    `That town paid its debt.'
Example #452:

    434 Emeni-kkeyse apeci-kkeyse cinci-lul     capswusi-key ha-si-ess-ta
    mother-HNom father-HNom Hon.rice-Acc Hon.eat-Adv do-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `Mother caused father to eat the rice.'
Example #453:

    435 a. Emeni-ka apeci-ka cinci-lul             capswusi-key ha-si-ess-ta
    mother-Nom father-Nom Hon.rice-Acc Hon.eat-Adv do-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `Mother caused father to eat the rice.'
Example #454:

    b. Emeni-ka apeci-kkeyse cinci-lul         capswusi-key ha-si-ess-ta
    mother-Nom father-HNom Hon.rice-Acc Hon.eat-Adv do-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `Mother caused father to eat the rice.'
Example #455:

    c. Emeni-kkeyse apeci-ka cinci-lul         capswusi-key ha-si-ess-ta
    mother-HNom father-Nom Hon.rice-Acc Hon.eat-Adv do-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `Mother caused father to eat the rice.'
Example #456:

    malssumhasi-ess-ta
    Hon.say-Pst-Dec
    `Mother said that father ate the rice.'
Example #457:

    malssumhasi-ess-ta
    Hon.say-Pst-Dec
    `Mother said that father ate the rice.'
Example #458:

    malssumhasi-ess-ta
    Hon.say-Pst-Dec
    `Mother said that father ate the rice.'
Example #459:

    malssumhasi-ess-ta
    Hon.say-Pst-Dec
    `Mother said that father ate the rice.'
Example #460:

    442 Nay-ka Bobi-eykey Johnj -i caki-luli;j co.a.ha-n-ta-ko mal.hay-ss-ta
    I-Nom Bob-Dat John-Nom self-Acc like-Pres-Dec-Quot say-Pst-Dec
    `I said to Bobi that Johnj liked selfi;j .'
Example #461:

    mal.hay-ss-ta
    say-Pst-Dec
    `Minswui told Swunij that hei shej came late.'
Example #462:

    sokay.ha-lako kwen.ha-si-ess-ta
    introduce-Cmp ask-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The old mani asked the teacherj to introduce himselfi;j.'
Example #463:

    cipwul.ha-tolok seltuk.hay-ss-ta
    pay-Cmp         persuade-Pst-Dec
    `Swunii persuaded Minswuj to pay himselfj *herselfi a lot of money.'
Example #464:

    ha-si-ess-ta
    do-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The old mani made the teacherj introduce himselfi;j.'
Example #465:

    ha-si-ess-ta
    do-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The old mani made the teacherj introduce himselfi;j.'
Example #466:

    chilu-key hay-ss-ta
    pay-Adv do-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `Swunii made Minswuj pay herselfi himselfj a lot of money.'
Example #467:

    cipwul.ha-key hay-ss-ta
    pay-Adv       do-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `Swunii made Minswuj pay herselfi himselfj a lot of money.'
Example #468:

    ha-si-ess-ta
    do-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The old mani made the teacherj introduce himselfi;j.'
Example #469:

    chilu-key hay-ss-ta
    pay-Adv do-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `Swunii made Minswuj pay *herselfi himselfj a lot of money.'
Example #470:

    ssu-i-si-ess-ta
    write-Caus-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The kingi made the princej write a letter to himselfi;j.'
Example #471:

    phyenci-lul ssu-i-si-ess-ta
    letter-Acc write-Caus-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The kingi made the princej write a letter to himselfi;j.'
Example #472:

    po-i-ess-ta
    see-Caus-Pst-Dec
    `Minswui showed Chelswuj a picture of himselfi;j.'
Example #473:

    po-i-ess-ta
    see-Caus-Pst-Dec
    `Minswui showed Chelswuj a picture of himselfi;j.'
Example #474:

    457 Cho-sensayngnim-kkeyse cwumwusi-ess-ta
    Cho-teacher-HNom       Hon.sleep-Pst-Dec
    `Teacher Cho slept.'
Example #475:

    seltuk.hay-ss-ta
    persuade-Pst-Dec
    `I persuaded Teacher Cho to teach Korean.'
Example #476:

    462 a. Kyoswu-nim -i      na-eykey chayk-ul ilk-key ha-si -ess-ta
    professor-Hon-Nom me-Dat book-Acc read-Adv do-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The professor made me read the book'.
Example #477:

    b. Nay-ka kyoswu-nim -ul ttena-si -key hay-ss-ta
    I-Nom professor-Hon-Acc leave-Hon-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `I had the professor leave'.
Example #478:

    ha-si -ess-ta
    do-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The principal made the teachers sit.'
Example #479:

    ilk-hi-si -ess-ta
    read-Caus-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `Professor Kim made Professor Park read the book.'
Example #480:

    ilk-si -hi-si -ess-ta
    read-Hon-Caus-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `Professor Kim made Professor Park read the book.'
Example #481:

    466 a. *Nay-ka Pak-kyoswu-nim -kkey chayk-ul ilk-hi-si -ess-ta
    I-Nom Park-professor-Hon-HDat book-Acc read-Caus-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `I made Professor Park read the book.'
Example #482:

    b. Nay-ka Pak-kyoswu-nim -kkey chayk-ul ilk-hi-ess-ta
    I-Nom Park-professor-Hon-HDat book-Acc read-Caus-Pst-Dec
    `I made Professor Park read the book.'
Example #483:

    467 *Nay-ka Pak-kyoswu-nim -kkey chayk-ul ilk-usi -hi-ess-ta
    I-Nom Park-professor-Hon-HDat book-Acc read-Hon-Caus-Pst-Dec
    `I made Professor Park read the book.'
Example #484:

    b. Ku sanay-tul-uy khi-ka        chenceng-ey-tul tah-ass-ta
    the man-Plur-Gen height-Nom ceiling-to-Plur touch-Pst-Dec
    `The height of the men was such that their heads touched the ceiling.'
Example #485:

    469 a. Ai-tul-i        kwaca-lul mek-ko-tul  iss-ta
    child-Plur-Nom cookie-Acc eat-Cmp-Plur be-Dec
    `Children are eating cookies.'
Example #486:

    b. John-i kwaca-lul mek-ko*-tul  iss-ta
    John-Nom cookie-Acc eat-Cmp-Plur be-Dec
    `John is eating cookies.'
Example #487:

    470 Ai-tul-i         ca-na--tul         po-ci-yo-tul
    child-Plur-Nom sleep-Cmp-Plur seem-Cmp-End-Plur
    `It seems that the children are sleeping, doesn't it?'
Example #488:

    phiano-lul nay cip-ey olmki-key ha-yss-na-tul po-ci-yo
    piano-Acc my house-Dir carry-Adv do-Pst-Cmp-Plur seem-Cmp-End
    my house.'
Example #489:

    phiano-lul nay cip-ey olmki-key-tul ha-yss-na po-ci-yo
    piano-Acc my house-Dir carry-Adv-Plur do-Pst-Cmp seem-Cmp-End
    house.'
Example #490:

    phiano-lul nay cip-ey olmki-key-tul ha-yss-na po-ci-yo
    piano-Acc my house-Dir carry-Adv-Plur do-Pst-Cmp seem-Cmp-End
    my house.'
Example #491:

    phiano-lul nay cip-ey olmki-key-tul ha-yss-na po-ci-yo
    piano-Acc my house-Dir carry-Adv-Plur do-Pst-Cmp seem-Cmp-End
    my house.'
Example #492:

    tul-li-ess-na-tul     po-ci-yo
    carry-Caus-Pst-Cmp seem-Cmp-End
    `It seems that my sisters made the porter carry that big box.
Example #493:

    tul-li-ess-na-tul     po-ci-yo
    carry-Caus-Pst-Cmp seem-Cmp-End
    `It seems that my sister made the porters together carry that big box.
Example #494:

    tul-tul-li-ess-na     po-ci-yo
    carry-Caus-Pst-Cmp seem-Cmp-End
    `It seems that my sisters made the porter carry that big box.
Example #495:

    tul-tul-li-ess-na po-ci-yo
    box-Acc           carry-Caus-Pst-Cmp seem-Cmp-End
    `It seems that my sister made the porters together carry that big box.
Example #496:

    sangca-tul-ul cip-ey-tul       olmki-key ha-yss-na po-ci-yo
    box-Plur-Acc house-Dir-Plur carry-Adv do-Pst-Cmp seem-Cmp-End
    `It seems that my sister made the mover carry manyboxes on his own.'
Example #497:

    sangca-tul-ul cip-ey-tul     olmki-key ha-yss-na po-ci-yo
    box-Plur-Acc house-Dir-Plur carry-Adv do-Pst-Cmp seem-Cmp-End
    `It seems that my sister made the mover carry manyboxes on his own.'
Example #498:

    481 Yetongsayng-i mayil ai-hanthey-tul phiano-lul chi-key hay-ss-ta
    sister-Nom every.daychild-Dat-Plur piano-Acc play-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `Every daymy sister made the child play the piano.'
Example #499:

    482 Nay-ka John-eykey Mary-ka ttena-key ha-tolok pwutak.hay-ss-ta
    I-Nom John-Dat Mary-Nom leave-Adv do-so.that ask-Pst-Dec
    *`I asked John for Mary to make him leave.'
Example #500:

    483 a. John-i Mary-ka ttena-key hay-ss-ta
    John-Nom Mary-Nom leave-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `John made Mary leave.'
Example #501:

    b. Mary-ka John-i ttena-key hay-ss-ta
    Mary-Nom John-Nom leave-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `Mary made John leave.'
Example #502:

    484 Kimi-ssi-ka Pakj -ssi-eykey cakii;j -ey.tayhayeiyaki hay-ss-ta
    Kim-Mr.-Nom Park-Mr.-Dat self-about             talk do-Pst-Dec
    `Mr. Kimi talked to Mr. Parkj about himselfi;j.'
Example #503:

    485 Aii-nun sonyej -lul cakii;j -uy pang-eyse cha-ss-ta
    child-Top girl-Acc self-Gen room-Loc kick-Pst-Dec
    `The childi kicked the girlj in hisi *herj own room.'
Example #504:

    hay-ss-ta
    do-Pst-Dec
    `Mr. Kimi requested the girlj to be in hisi herj own room.'
Example #505:

    hay-ss-ta
    do-Pst-Dec
    `Mr. Kimi had the womanj get out of hisi herj own car.'
Example #506:

    b. Emenii-nun atulj -eykey cakii;j -uy os-ul    ip-key hay-ss-ta
    mother-Top son-Dat self-Gen clothes-Acc wear-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `The motheri had the sonj put on heri hisj own clothes.'
Example #507:

    488 a. Swunii-ka Chelswuj -eykey cakii;j -lul chingchan.ha-key hay-ss-ta
    I-Nom Chelswu-Dat self-Acc praise-Adv                   do-Pst-Dec
    `Swunii made Chelswuj praise herselfi himselfj .
Example #508:

    olli-key hay-ss-ta
    record-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `Chelswui made Swunij register himselfi herselfj for college.
Example #509:

    490 a. Kimi-ssi-nun ku yecaj -lul cakii;j -uy cha-eyse nayli-ess-ta
    Kim-Mr.-Top that woman-Acc self-Gen car-Loc bring-Pst-Dec
    `Mr. Kimi brought the womanj out of hisi *herj own car.'
Example #510:

    b. Emenii-nun atulj -eykey cakii;j -uy os-ul     ip-hi-ess-ta
    mother-Top son-Dat self-Gen clothes-Acc wear-Caus-Pst-Dec
    `The motheri had the sonj put on heri *hisj own clothes.'
Example #511:

    ssu-i-ess-ta
    write-Caus-Pst-Dec
    `The teacheri made the studentj write an essayinhisi;j own style.'
Example #512:

    b. Emenii-ka aij -eykey cakii;j -uy meli-lul kam-ki-ess-ta
    mother-Nom child-Dat self-Gen hair-Acc wash-Caus-Pst-Dec
    `The motheri made the childj wash heri;j hair.'
Example #513:

    hay-ss-ta
    do-Pst-Dec
    `Yenghii introduced Minswuj to Swunij in hisj heri;k room.'
Example #514:

    toy-ess-ta
    become-Pst-Dec
    `I was introduced to his brother by Minswu.'
Example #515:

    493 a. Nay-ka Johni-uy yeph-eyse Tomj -ul cakij -uy kapang-ulo mil-ess-ta
    I-Nom John-Gen side-Loc Tom-Acc self-Gen bag-with push-Pst-Dec
    `Near Johni, I pushed Tomj with selfj 's bag.
Example #516:

    cakii;j -wayeki.hay-ss-ta
    self-with talk-Pst-Dec
    `In Johni 's house, I talked about the article on Tomj with selfi;j .
Example #517:

    494 a. Nay-ka Johni-ul cakii-uy cip kunche-eyse po-ass-ta
    I-Nom John-Acc self-Gen house near-Loc see-Pst-Dec
    `I saw Johni near selfi's home.'
Example #518:

    b. Johni-uy kwake-ka cakii-lul koylophi-n-ta
    John-Gen past-Nom self-Acc ail-Pres-Dec
    `Johni's past ails selfi.'
Example #519:

    495 Nay-ka Bobi-eykey Johnj -i cakii;j -lul co.a.ha-n-ta-ko mal.hay-ss-ta
    I-Nom Bob-Dat John-Nom self-Acc like-Pres-Dec-Quot say-Pst-Dec
    `I said to Bobi that Johnj liked selfi;j .'
Example #520:

    496 Johni -i Tomj -ul cakii;j -uy pang-eyse mil-ess-ta
    John-Nom Tom-Acc self-Gen room-in push-Pst-Dec
    `Johni pushed Tomj in selfi;j 's room.'
Example #521:

    497 a. *Johni -ul cakii-ka piphan.hay-ss-ta
    John-Acc self-Nom criticize-Pst-Dec
    `Selfi criticized Johni .'
Example #522:

    b. *Tomi-uy chayk-ul cakii-ka po-ass-ta
    Tom-Gen book-Acc self-Nom see-Pst-Dec
    `Selfi sawTomi's book.'
Example #523:

    498 a. Chelswui-ka Swunij -eykey casini;j -uy sacin-ul cwu-ess-ta
    Chelswu-Nom Swuni-Dat self-Gen picture-Acc give-Pst-Dec
    `Chelswui gave a picture of selfi;j to Soonij .'
Example #524:

    ci-ess-ta
    PasAux-Pst-Dec
    `Youngsooi was locked by Chelswuj in selfi;j 's room.'
Example #525:

    i Swunii -eykey-nun casini-uy ttal-i               kuliw-ess-ta
    Swuni-Dat-Top self-Gen daughter-Nom miss-Pst-Dec
    `Swunii missed selfi's daughter.'
Example #526:

    499 a. Swunii-ka Chelswuj -eykey casini;j -ul chingchan.ha-key hay-ss-ta
    I-Nom Chelswu-Dat self-Acc praise-Adv                   do-Pst-Dec
    `Swunii made Chelswuj praise herselfi himselfj .
Example #527:

    olli-key hay-ss-ta
    record-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `Chelswui made Swunij register himselfi herselfj for college.
Example #528:

    ssu-i-ess-ta
    write-Caus-Pst-Dec
    `The teacheri made the studentj write an essay according to hisi;j own wishes.'
Example #529:

    toy-ess-ta
    PasCausAux-Pst-Dec
    `Mother was made by her son to return to her own house.'
Example #530:

    toy-ess-ta
    PasCausAux-Pst-Dec
    `Clothes were made to be put on the son by the mother.'
Example #531:

    502 a. Os-i          Mary-eykey ip-hi-e        ci-ess-ta
    Clothes-Nom Mary-Dat wear-Caus-Cmp PasAux-Pst-Dec
    `The clothes were made to be worn by Mary.'
Example #532:

    b. Mary-ka os-i           ip-hi-e         ci-ess-ta
    Mary-Nom clothes-Nom wear-Caus-Cmp PasAux-Pst-Dec
    `Mary was made to put on the clothes.'
Example #533:

    506 a. Nay-ka kimchi-lul mek-e po-ass-ta
    I-Nom kimchee-Acc eat-Cmp try-Pst-Dec
    `I tried eating kimchee.'
Example #534:

    b. Swuni-ka na-hanthey chayk-ul ilk-e cwu-ess-ta
    Swuni-Nom me-Dat book-Acc read-Cmp give-Pst-Dec
    `Swuni read a book for me.'
Example #535:

    olmki-e-tul      ci-ess-na         po-ci.yo
    carry-Cmp-Plur PasAux-Pst-Cmp seem-End
    `It seems that the big piano was carried into my house by the movers.'
Example #536:

    olmki-e-tul     ci-ess-na       po-ci.yo
    carry-Cmp-Plur PasAux-Pst-Cmp seem-End
    `It seems that manyboxes were carried at the same time by the mover.'
Example #537:

    509 Kwaca-ka mek-hi-e       ci-ess-ta
    cookie-Nom eat-Pass-Cmp PasAux-Pst-Dec
    `The cookie was eaten.'
Example #538:

    510 a. Kwaca-ka mek-hi-ess-ta
    cookie-Nom Pass-Pst-Dec
    `The cookie was eaten.'
Example #539:

    b. ??Kwaca-ka mek-e ci-ess-ta
    cookie-Nom eat-Cmp PasAux-Pst-Dec
    `The cookie was eaten.'
Example #540:

    i a. *Sey salam-i       salin toy-ess-ta
    three people-Nom murder become-Pst-Dec
    `Three people were murdered.'
Example #541:

    b.   Sey salam-i       salin tang.hay-ss-ta
    three people-Nom murder su er-Pst-Dec
    `Three people were murdered.'
Example #542:

    511 a. Haksayng-tul-i mwuncey-lul haykyel ha-yss-ta
    student-Plur-Nom problem-Acc solve do-Pst-Dec
    `The students solved the problem.'
Example #543:

    b. Mwuncey-ka haykyel toy-ess-ta
    problem-Nom solve become-Pst-Dec
    `The problem was solved.'
Example #544:

    512 a. Nay-ka haksayng-tul-eykey mwuncey-lul haykyel ha-key ha-yss-ta
    I-Nom student-Plur-Dat problem-Acc solve do-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `I made the students solve the problem.'
Example #545:

    b. Haksayng-tul-i mwuncey-lul haykyel ha-key toy-ess-ta
    student-Plur-Nom problem-Acc solve do-Adv become-Pst-Dec
    `The students were made to solve the problem.'
Example #546:

    wunpan-tul toy-ess-ta
    carry-Plur become-Pst-Dec
    `The big piano was carried into my house by the movers.'
Example #547:

    518 a. Swuni-ka Minswu-eykey cap-hi-ess-ta
    Swuni-Nom Minswu-Dat catch-Pass-Pst-Dec
    `Swuni was caughtby Minswu.'
Example #548:

    b. Ku chayk-i haksayng-tul-eykey ilk-hi-ess-ta
    that book-Nom student-Plur-Dat read-Pass-Pst-Dec
    `The book was read by the students.'
Example #549:

    519 a. Imkum-nim-i uysa-lul chingchan ha-si-ess-ta
    king-Hon-Nom doctor-Acc praise do-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The king praised the doctor.'
Example #550:

    b. Uysa-ka chingchan pat-ess-ta
    doctor-Nom praise receive-Pst-Dec
    `The doctor was praised.'
Example #551:

    520 a. Kangto-ka Swuni-eykeyse ton-ul     kangthal hay-ss-ta
    robber-Nom Swuni-from money-Acc take.away do-Pst-Dec
    `A robber took money away from Swuni.'
Example #552:

    i *Ai-tul-i        yenge-lul kaluchi-e      ci-ess-ta
    child-Plur-Nom English-Acc taught-PasCmp PasAux-Pst-Dec
    `The children were taught English.'
Example #553:

    toy-ess-ta
    PasCausAux-Pst-Dec
    `Mother was made by her son to return to her own house.'
Example #554:

    toy-ess-ta
    PasCausAux-Pst-Dec
    `Clothes were made to be put on the son by the mother.'
Example #555:

    i a. John-i Mary-eykeyse ice-cream-ul ppays-ess-ta
    John-Nom Mary-fromDat ice-cream-Acc grab.away-Pst-Dec
    `John grabbed ice cream away from Mary.'
Example #556:

    b. Mary-ka John-eykey ice-cream-ul ppays-ki-ess-ta
    Mary-Nom John-byDat ice-cream-Acc grab.away-Pass-Pst-Dec
    `Mary was grabbed away ice cream by John.'
Example #557:

    522 a. Swuni-ka Minswu-eykey chayk-ul cwu-ess-ta
    Swuni-nom Minswu-Dat book-Acc give-Pst-Dec
    `Swuni gave Minswu a book.'
Example #558:

    b. Swuni-ka Minswu-lul chayk-ul cwu-ess-ta
    Swuni-nom Minswu-Acc book-Acc give-Pst-Dec
    `Swuni gave Minswu a book.'
Example #559:

    b. John-i Mary-lul os-ul           ip-hi-ess-ta
    John-Nom Mary-Acc clothes-Acc wear-Caus-Pst-Dec
    `John made Mary put on the clothes.'
Example #560:

    c. *Ice-cream-i Mary-eykeyse John-eykey ppays-ki-ess-ta
    Ice-cream-Nom Mary-fromDat John-byDat grab.away-Pass-Pst-Dec
    `The ice cream was grabbed away from Mary by John.'
Example #561:

    524 a. Swuni-ka Minswu-eykey chayk-ul ilk-e   cwu-ess-ta
    Swuni-Nom Minswu-Dat book-Acc read-Cmp give-Pst-Dec
    `Swuni read a book for Minswu.'
Example #562:

    b. Swuni-ka Minswu-lul chayk-ul ilk-e              cwu-ess-ta
    Swuni-Nom Minswu-Acc book-Acc read-Cmp give-Pst-Dec
    `Swuni read a book for Minswu.'
Example #563:

    b. *Mary-ka os-ul          ip-hi-e         ci-ess-ta
    Mary-Nom clothes-Acc wear-Caus-Cmp PasAux-Pst-Dec
    `Mary was made to put on the clothes.'
Example #564:

    527 Mary-ka os-i           ip-hi-e         ci-ess-ta
    Mary-Nom clothes-Nom wear-Caus-Cmp PasAux-Pst-Dec
    `Mary was made to put on the clothes.'
Example #565:

    528 *Atul-i os-i          ip-key      toy-ess-ta
    son-Nom clothes-Nom put on-Adv PasCausAux-Pst-Dec
    `The son was made to put on the clothes.'
Example #566:

    mit-ess-ta
    believe-Pst-Dec
    `I believed that O cer Kim caught the thief.'
Example #567:

    mit-e         ci-ess-ta
    believe-Cmp PasAux-Pst-Dec
    `I believed that O cer Kim caught the thief.'
Example #568:

    530 a. Nay-ka Inho-lul chencay-la-ko mit-ess-ta
    I-Nom Inho-Acc genius-be-Cmp believe-Pst-Dec
    `I believed that Inho was a genius.'
Example #569:

    b. Na-ey.uy.hayse Inho-ka chencay-la-ko mit-e        ci-ess-ta
    I-by           Inho-Nom genius-be-Cmp believe-Cmp PasAux-Pst-Dec
    `Inho was believed by me to be a genius.'
Example #570:

    531 Mary-ka os-i           ip-hi-e         ci-ess-ta
    Mary-Nom clothes-Nom wear-Caus-Cmp PasAux-Pst-Dec
    `Mary was made to put on the clothes.'
Example #571:

    b. John-i Mary-lul os-ul           ip-hi-ess-ta
    John-Nom Mary-Acc clothes-Acc wear-Caus-Pst-Dec
    `John made Mary put on the clothes.'
Example #572:

    534 a. Sue-ka cha-ka cal talli-n-ta
    Sue-nom car-Nom well run-Pres-Dec
    `It's Sue whose car runs well.'
Example #573:

    b. Mary-ka emeni-ka yeyppu-si-ta
    Mary-Nom mother-nom pretty-Hon-Dec
    `It's Mary whose mother is pretty.'
Example #574:

    535 a. *Sensayngnim-i sonca-ka           yeyppu-si -ta
    Teacher-Nom grandchild-Nom pretty-Hon-Dec
    `The teacher's grandchild is pretty.'
Example #575:

    b. Sue-ka emeni-ka yeyppu-si -ta
    Sue-Nom mother-Nom pretty-Hon-Dec
    `Sue's mother is pretty.'
Example #576:

    536 a. *Kim-sensayng-nim -kkeyse ttal-i          yeyppu-si -ta
    Kim-teacher-Hon-HNom daughter-Nom pretty-Hon-Dec
    `It's Teacher Kim whose daughter is pretty.
Example #577:

    b. Swuni-ka emeni -kkeyse phyenchanh-usi -ta
    Swuni-Nom mother-HNom be.sick-Hon-Dec
    `It's Swuni whose mother is sick.
Example #578:

    i     Emeni-kkeyse mom-i pwulphyen.ha-si-ta
    mother-HNom body-Nom be.sick-Hon-Dec
    `Mother is sick.'
Example #579:

    537 a. *Chelswu-ka yenge-sensayngnim-i philyo.ha-si -ta
    Chelswu-Nom English-teacher-Nom need-SHon-Dec
    `Chelswu needs an English teacher.'
Example #580:

    b. Yenge-sensayngnim-i Chelswu-ka philyo.ha-si -ta
    English-teacher-Nom Chelswu-Nom need-SHon-Dec
    `The English teacher needs Chelswu.'
Example #581:

    538 a. Sensayngnim-kkeyse ton-i       philyo.ha-si-ta
    teacher-HNom         money-Nom need-SHon-Dec
    `The teacher needs money.'
Example #582:

    b. *Swuni-ka yenge-sensayngnim-kkeyse philyo.ha-ta
    Swuni-Nom English-teacher-HNom    need-SHon-Dec
    `Swuni needs an English teacher.'
Example #583:

    539 Minswu-ka Swuni-lul son-ul cap-ass-ta
    Minswu-Nom Swuni-Acc hand-Acc catch-Pst-Dec
    `Minswu caught Swuni by the hand.'
Example #584:

    Swuni-ka Minswu-eykey son-ul cap-hi-ess-ta
    Swuni-Nom Minswu-Dat hand-Acc catch-Pst-Dec
    `Swuni was caughtby the hand by Minswu.'
Example #585:

    ii *Chayk-i Minswu-eykey phyoci-lul           ccic-ki-ess-ta
    Book-Nom Minswu-Dat title.page-Nom tear-Pass-Pst-Dec
    `The title page of the book was torn by Minswu.'
Example #586:

    541 a. ?*Sensayngnim -i yenphil-i cwu-e ci-si -ess-ta
    teacher-Nom pencil-Nom give-Cmp PasAux-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The teacher was given the pencil.'O'Grady 1991:136
Example #587:

    ci-si -ess-ta
    PasAux-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The teacher was given the book.'Hong 1991b:173
Example #588:

    ci-si -ess-ta
    PasAux-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The teacher was dressed by Minswu.'K. Hong 1991b:171
Example #589:

    swuyetoy-si -ess-ta
    award become-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The principal was given an award by the government.' Kang 1986:86
Example #590:

    i        na-eykey cwu-e ci-n           immwu
    me-Dat give-Cmp PasAux-PstMod duty
    `a duty whichwas given to me'
Example #591:

    ii ?immwu-ka cwu-e ci-n                 sensayngnim
    duty-Nom give-Cmp PasAux-PstMod teacher
    `a teacher who was given this duty'
Example #592:

    ci-si -ess-ta
    PasAux-Hon-Pst-Dec
    to.'Hong 1991b:173
Example #593:

    544 Mary-hanthey-kaku sang-i       cwu-e ci-ess-ta
    Mary-Dat-Nom that prize-Nom give-Cmp PasAux-Pst-Dec
    `The prize was given to Mary.'
Example #594:

    545 a. ?Wangca -ka os-i         ip-hi-e          ci-ess-ta
    prince-Nom clothes-Nom wear-Caus-Cmp PasAux-Pst-Dec
    `The prince was made to wear the clothes.'
Example #595:

    b. ??Wangca -ka os-i            ip-hi-e          ci-si -ess-ta
    prince-Nom clothes-Nom wear-Caus-Cmp PasAux-SHon-Pst-Dec
    `The prince was made to wear the clothes.'
Example #596:

    wangca-nim-i polmo-lo cwu-e ci-*si -ess-ta
    prince-Hon-Nom hostage-as give-Cmp PasAux-Hon-Pst-Dec
    by our army.'
Example #597:

    kongcwu -ka cwu-e ci-ess-ta
    princess-Nom give-Cmp PasAux-Pst-Dec
    his bride.'
Example #598:

    sinpwu-lo kongcwu -ka cwu-e ci-si -ess-ta
    bride-as princess-Nom give-Cmp PasAux-SHon-Pst-Dec
    his bride.'
Example #599:

    548 a. ?Ai-ka      imkum-nim -uy os-i          ip-hi-e   ci-ess-ta
    child-Nom king-Hon-Gen clothes-Nom wear-Caus-Cmp PasAux-Pst-Dec
    `The child was made to wear the king's clothes.'
Example #600:

    ci-si -ess-ta
    PasAux-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The child was made to wear the king's clothes.'
Example #601:

    swuyetoy-si -ess-ta
    give become-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The principal was given an award by the government.'
Example #602:

    kwukmin-hwuncang-i        swuyetoy-si -ess-ta
    award.of.recognition-Nom give become-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The principal was given an award by the government.'
Example #603:

    550 a. ??Sensayngnim-i chayk-i cwu-e ci-ess-ta
    teacher-Nom book-Nom give-Cmp PasAux-Pst-Dec
    `The teacher was given a book.'
Example #604:

    b.???Sensayngnim-i chayk-i cwu-e ci-si -ess-ta
    teacher-Nom book-Nom give-Cmp PasAux-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The teacher was given a book.'
Example #605:

    c. *Sensayngnim-kkeyse chayk-i      cwu-e ci-si -ess-ta
    teacher-Nom          book-HNom give-Cmp PasAux-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The teacher was given a book.'
Example #606:

    d. *Sensayngnim-kkeyse chayk-i      cwu-e ci-ess-ta
    teacher-Nom          book-HNom give-Cmp PasAux-Pst-Dec
    `The teacher was given a book.'
Example #607:

    551 a. ?Wangca-nim -i os-i          ip-hi-e        ci-ess-ta
    prince-Hon-Nom clothes-Nom wear-Caus-Cmp PasAux-Pst-Dec
    `The prince was made to wear the clothes.'
Example #608:

    b. ??Wangca-nim -i os-i          ip-hi-e        ci-si -ess-ta
    prince-Hon-Nom clothes-Nom wear-Caus-Cmp PasAux-SHon-Pst-Dec
    `The prince was made to wear the clothes.'
Example #609:

    ci-si -ess-ta
    PasAux-SHon-Pst-Dec
    `The prince was made to wear the clothes.'
Example #610:

    d. ??Wangca-nim -kkeyse os-i          ip-hi-e      ci-ess-ta
    prince-Hon-Nom      clothes-Nom wear-Caus-Cmp PasAux-Pst-Dec
    `The prince was made to wear the clothes.'
Example #611:

    552 a. ?Ai-ka      imkum-nim -uy os-i          ip-hi-e   ci-ess-ta
    child-Nom king-Hon-Gen clothes-Nom wear-Caus-Cmp PasAux-Pst-Dec
    `The child was made to wear the king's clothes.'
Example #612:

    ci-si -ess-ta
    PasAux-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `The child was made to wear the king's clothes.'
Example #613:

    kongcwu -ka cwu-e ci-ess-ta
    princess-Nom give-Cmp PasAux-Pst-Dec
    his bride.'
Example #614:

    sinpwu-lo kongcwu -kkeyse cwu-e ci-si -ess-ta
    bride-as princess-Nom give-Cmp PasAux-SHon-Pst-Dec
    his bride.'
Example #615:

    554 Mary-ka os-i                 ip-hi-e         ci-ess-ta
    Mary-Nom clothes-Nom wear-Caus-Cmp PasAux-Pst-Dec
    `Mary was made to put on the clothes.'
Example #616:

    555 a. ??Mary-ka ip-hi-e          ci-ess-ta
    Mary-Nom wear-Caus-Cmp PasAux-Pst-Dec
    `Mary was made to put on the clothes.'
Example #617:

    b. Os-i         ip-hi-e         ci-ess-ta
    clothes-Nom wear-Caus-Cmp PasAux-Pst-Dec
    `The clothes were made to be put on by Mary.'
Example #618:

    556 Nay-ka khemphyute-lul catongcek-ulo ilum-ul kilok.ha-key hay-ss-ta
    I-Nom computer-Acc automatic-Adv name-Acc record-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `I made the computer automatically record the names.'
Example #619:

    557 Khemphyute-ka catongcek-ulo ilum-ul kilok.ha-key toy-ess-ta
    computer-Nom automatic-Adv name-Acc record-Adv become-Pst-Dec
    `The computer was made to automatically record the names.'
Example #620:

    558 *Khemphyute-ka catongcek-ulo ilum-i kilok.ha-key toy-ess-ta
    computer-Nom automatic-Adv name-Nom record-Adv become-Pst-Dec
    `The computer was made to automatically record the names.'
Example #621:

    559 ?Ilum-i catongcek-ulo khemphyute-ka kilok.ha-key toy-ess-ta
    name-Nom automatic-Adv computer-Nom record-Adv become-Pst-Dec
    `The computer was made to automatically record the names.'
Example #622:

    560 Ilum-i    catongcek-ulo kilok.ha-key toy-ess-ta.
    name-Nom automatic-Adv record-Adv become-Pst-Dec
    `The names were automatically made to be recorded.'
Example #623:

    561 Nay-ka Sewul-ey ka-key toy-myen,
    I-Nom Seoul-Dat go-Adv become-if
    `If it turns out that I go to Seoul,'
Example #624:

    568 Nay-ka Mary-lul os-ul         ip-hi-ess-ta
    I-Nom Mary-Acc clothes-Nom wear-Caus-Pst-Dec
    `I made Mary wear the clothes.'
Example #625:

    572 *Wuntong.senswu-ey.uyhayse talli-e ci-ess-ta
    athlete-by                  run-Cmp PasAux-Pst-Dec
    `There was running by the athletes.'
Example #626:

    mek-ci anh-ass-ta
    eat-Cmp NegAux-Pst-Dec
    `He made me eat kimchi, but I didn't eat it.'
Example #627:

    an         mek-ess-ta
    kimchi-Acc not        eat-Pst-Dec
    `He made tried to make me eat kimchi, but I didn't eat it.'
Example #628:

    577 Ku-ka na-eykey kimchi-lul an mek-i-ci     anh-ass-ta
    he-Nom me-Dat kimchi-Acc not eat-Caus-Cmp NegAux-Pst-Dec
    `He caused me to eat kimchi.'
Example #629:

    581 a. Sensayngnim-kkeyse na-eykey chayk-ul ilk-key hay-ss-ta
    teacher-HNom       me-Dat book-Acc read-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `The teacher made me read the book.'
Example #630:

    b. Nay-kachayk-ul ilk-key toy-ess-ta
    I-Nom book-Acc read-Adv PasCausAux-Pst-Dec
    `I was made to read the book.'
Example #631:

    584 Emeni-ka ai-eykey chayk-ul ppalli ilk-hi-ess-ta
    mother-Nom child-Dat book-Acc quickly read-Caus-Pst-Dec
    child read the book.'
Example #632:

    585 Pak-ssi-nun ai-lul namwu-ey twu-son-ulo ol-li-ess-ta
    Park-Mr.-Top child-Acc tree-to two-hand-with go.up-Caus-Pst-Dec
    `Mr. Park lifted the child up the tree with both Mr. Park's hands.'
Example #633:

    ci-ess-ta
    PasAux-Pst-Dec
    2. `The book was quickly made to be          read by the child by the mother.'
Example #634:

    ip-hi-e          ci-ess-ta
    wear-Caus-Cmp PasAux-Pst-Dec
    2. `The red dress was put on the child for a long time by the mother.'
Example #635:

    587 Mary-ka John-ul papo-la-ko sayngkak ha-n-ta
    Mary-Nom John-Acc fool-be-Cmp think do-Pres-Dec
    `Mary thinks John is a fool.'
Example #636:

    588 John-i     Mary-eyuyhay papo-la-ko sayngkak toy-n-ta
    John-Nom Mary-by           fool-be-Cmp think become-Pres-Dec
    `John is thought to be a fool by Mary.'
Example #637:

    589 a. Na-nun cak-un kochwu-ka mayp-tako mit-nun-ta
    I-Top small-Adj pepper-Nom hot-Cmp believe-Pres-Dec
    `I believe that small people are strong-willed.'
Example #638:

    b. ??Na-nun cak-un kochwu-lul mayp-tako mit-nun-ta
    I-Top small-Adj pepper-Acc hot-Cmp believe-Pres-Dec
    `I believe that small people are strong-willed.'
Example #639:

    mit-nun-ta.
    believe-Pres-Dec
    `In this case, I believe the subset is larger than the main thing.'
Example #640:

    mit-nun-ta.
    believe-Pres-Dec
    `In this case, I believe the subset is larger than the main thing.'
Example #641:

    591 a. Nay-ka Swuni-ka son-i          khu-tako mit-ess-ta.
    I-Nom Swuni-Nom hand-Nom be.big-Cmp believe-Pst-Dec
    `I believed Swuni to be generous.'
Example #642:

    b. *Nay-ka Swuni-lul son-i        khu-tako mit-ess-ta.
    I-Nom Swuni-Acc hand-Nom be.big-Cmp believe-Pst-Dec
    `I believed Swuni to be generous.'
Example #643:

    c. *Swuni-nun nay-ka son-ul khu-tako mit-ess-ta.
    Swuni-Top I-Nom hand-Acc be.big-Cmp believe-Pst-Dec
    `I believed Swuni to be generous.'
Example #644:

    tuli-ess-ta
    Hon.give-Pst-Dec
    `I introduced my mother to the teacher .'
Example #645:

    593 a. Nay-ka sensayngim-kkey chayk-ul tuli-ess-ta
    I-Nom teacher-HDat book-Acc Hon.give-Pst-Dec
    `I gave the book to the teacher.'
Example #646:

    b. Nay-ka Swuni-eykey chayk-ul cwu-ess-ta
    I-Nom Swuni-Dat book-Acc give-Pst-Dec
    `I gave Swuni a book.'
Example #647:

    594 a. Nay-ka sensayngim-kkey chayk-ul cwu-ess-ta
    I-Nom teacher-HDat book-Acc give-Pst-Dec
    `I gave the book to the teacher.'
Example #648:

    b. Nay-ka Swuni-eykey chayk-ul tuli-ess-ta
    I-Nom Swuni-Dat book-Acc Hon.give-Pst-Dec
    `I gave Swuni a book.'
Example #649:

    tuli-ess-ta
    give-Pst-Dec
    `I took the doctor to Teacher Lee for the doctor's the teacher's bene t.'
Example #650:

    598 *Na-nun I-sensayng-nim-kkey kanhowen-ul teyli-eta        cwu-ess-ta
    I-Top Lee-teacher-Hon-HDat nurse-Acc Hon.take-Cmp give-Pst-Dec
    `I took a nurse to Teacher Lee for the nurse's bene t.'
Example #651:

    599 Apeci-lul cap-a       tuli-ess-ta
    father-Acc hold-Cmp give-Pst-Dec
    `I held onto father for his bene t.'
Example #652:

    600 a. Manhi mek-e tuli-ess-ta
    a.lot eat-Cmp give-Pst-Dec
    `I ate a lot for them.'
Example #653:

    b. Phathi-ey ka        tuli-ess-ta
    party-Dat go-Cmp give-Pst-Dec
    `I went to the party for them.'
Example #654:

    ha-y        tuli-ess-ta
    do-Cmp      give-Pst-Dec
    `I made     Teacher Cho takeTeacher Lee to the station.' honors Teacher Cho
Example #655:

    tuli-ess-ta
    give-Pst-Dec
    `The nurse placed the sickchild in its mother's arms.'
Example #656:

    anki-e          tuli-ess-ta
    make.hold-Cmp give-Pst-Dec
    `The nurse placed my sick grandmother in my arms.'
Example #657:

    604 a. Nay-kaYengswu-eykey ku-ka kwuk-ul kkwuli-key hay-ss-ta
    I-Nom Yengswu-Dat he-Nom soup-Acc boil-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `I caused Yengswu to boil the soup.'
Example #658:

    b. Nay-kaYengswu-lul ku-ka kwuk-ul kkwuli-key hay-ss-ta
    I-Nom Yengswu-Acc he-Nom soup-Acc boil-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `I caused Yengswu to boil the soup.'
Example #659:

    605 *Nay-kaYengswu-ka ku-ka kwuk-ul kkwuli-key hay-ss-ta
    I-Nom Yengswu-Nom he-Nom soup-Acc boil-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `I caused Yengswu to boil the soup.'
Example #660:

    606 *Yengswu-ka ku-ka kwuk-ul kkwuli-ess-ta
    Yengswu-Nom he-Nom soup-Acc boil-Pst-Dec
    `Yengswu boiled the soup.'
Example #661:

    i a.       Salam-i     ttena-ss-ta
    person-Nom leave-Pst-Dec
    `The person left.'
Example #662:

    b. Haksayng-i sey-salam-i           ttena-ss-ta
    student-Nom three-person-Nom leave-Pst-Dec
    `Three students left.'
Example #663:

    609 Nay-ka haksayng-eykey seys-i        ttena-key hay-ss-ta
    I-Nom student-Dat three-Nom leave-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `I made three students leave.'
Example #664:

    610 Nay-ka haksayng-ul seys-i           ttena-key hay-ss-ta
    I-Nom student-Acc three-Nom leave-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `I made three students leave.'
Example #665:

    hay-ss-ta
    do-Pst-Dec
    `I had the teacher explain the problem.'
Example #666:

    selmyeng.ha-si-keyhay-ss-ta
    explain-Hon-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `I had the teacher explain the problem.'
Example #667:

    hay-ss-ta
    do-Pst-Dec
    `I had the teacher explain the problem.'
Example #668:

    selmyeng.ha-si-keyhay-ss-ta
    explain-Hon-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `I had the teacher explain the problem.'
Example #669:

    selmyeng.ha-si-keyhay-ss-ta
    explain-Hon-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `I had two teachers explain the problem.'
Example #670:

    selmyeng.ha-si-keyhay-ss-ta
    explain-Hon-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `I had two teachers explain the problem.'
Example #671:

    selmyeng.ha-si-keyhay-ss-ta
    explain-Hon-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `I had two teachers explain the problem.'
Example #672:

    selmyeng.ha-si-keyhay-ss-ta
    explain-Hon-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `I had two teachers explain the problem.'
Example #673:

    selmyeng.ha-si-keyhay-ss-ta
    explain-Hon-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `I had two teachers explain the problem.'
Example #674:

    selmyeng.ha-si-keyhay-ss-ta
    explain-Hon-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `I had two teachers explain the problem.'
Example #675:

    615 a. Ku pwun-eykey ku-ka na-nun o-key      hay-ss-ta
    That person-Dat he-Nom I-Top come-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `I made him come'.
Example #676:

    hay-ss-ta
    do-Pst-Dec
    `Since last year I made him study.
Example #677:

    617 Nay-ka haksayng-eykey seys-i               ttena-key hay-ss-ta
    I-Nom student-Dat three-Nom leave-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `I made three students leave.'
Example #678:

    619 ?* Nay-ka haksayng-eykey seys-ul ttena-key hay-ss-ta
    I-Nom student-Dat three-Acc leave-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `I made three students leave.'
Example #679:

    hay-ss-ta
    do-Pst-Dec
    `I made three male students read a book.'
Example #680:

    b. Kulikoye-haksayng-eykey-nun hana-lul chayk-ul ilk-key hay-ss-ta
    and female-student-Dat-Top one-Acc book-Acc read-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `And then I made one female student read a book.'
Example #681:

    621 a. Emeni-kkeyse ai-ka        chayk-ul ilk-key ha-si-ess-ta
    mother-HNom child-Nom book-Acc read-Adv do-Hon-Pst-Dec
    `Mother made the child read the book.'
Example #682:

    b. Mwul-un emeni-ka aki-eykey cwu-ess-ta
    water-Top mother-Nom baby-Dat give-Pst-Dec
    `Mother gave water to the baby.'
Example #683:

    626 Hakkyo-ey-nun sensayngnim-i ecey            o-si-ess-ta
    school-Dir-Top teacher-Nom yesterday come-Hon-Pst-Dec
    To the school, the teacher came yesterday.
Example #684:

    b. *Mwul-un Emeni-ka aki-lul cwu-ess-ta
    water-Top mother-Nom baby-Acc give-Pst-Dec
    `Mother gave water to the baby.'
Example #685:

    630 Ku chayk-un nay-ka emeni-lul tuli-ess-ta
    that book-Top I-Nom mother-Acc give-Pst-Dec
    `I gave mother the book .'
Example #686:

    631 Sensayngnim-un haksayng-i ttena-key hay-ss-ta
    teacher-Top       student-Nom leave-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    b. `The student made the teacher leave.'
Example #687:

    632 Emeni-nun ai-ka         ttek-ul       mek-key hay-ss-ta
    mother-Top child-Nom rice.cake-Acc eat-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    b. ?`The child had the mother eat rice cake.'
Example #688:

    633 Haksayng-tul-un seys-i        nay-ka ttena-key hay-ss-ta
    student-Plur-Top three-Nom I-Nom leave-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    a. `Three students made me leave.'
Example #689:

    634 Haksayng-tul-un seys-ul nay-ka ttena-key hay-ss-ta
    student-Plur-Top three-Acc I-Nom leave-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    b. `I made three students leave.'
Example #690:

    635 Haksayng-tul-uni nay-ka seys-ii               ttena-key hay-ss-ta
    student-Plur-Top I-Nom three-Nom leave-Adv do-Pst-Dec
    `I had three students leave.'