ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

James H. Yoon (2004). NON-NOMINATIVE (MAJOR) SUBJECTS AND CASE STACKING IN KOREAN*.

URL: http://www.linguistics.uiuc.edu/jyoon/Papers/yoo.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3996&langcode=kor (2019-06-24).

 

Example #1:

    (1) a. Cheli-eykey ton-i/*ul            iss-ta/eps-ta
    C-DAT         money-NOM/*ACC exist-DECL/not.exist-DECL
    `Cheli has/does not have money.'
Example #2:

    b. Cheli-eykey ton-i/*ul        philyoha-ta
    C-DAT         money-NOM/*ACC necessary-DECL
    `Cheli needs money.'
Example #3:

    c. Cheli-eykey Yenghi-ka/*lul          mwusep-ta
    C-DAT           Y-NOM/*ACC          fearsome-DECL
    `Cheli is afraid of Yenghi.'
Example #4:

    (2) a. Salamtul-i        yeki iss-ta
    persons-NOM       here exist-DECL
    `There are people here.'
Example #5:

    b. Manhun ton-i             philyoha-ta
    much       money-NOM necessary-DECL
    `A lot of money is needed.'
Example #6:

    c. Ku       salam-un       mwusep-ta
    That     person-TOP     fearsome-DECL
    `That person is scary.'
Example #7:

    (3) a. Cheli-eykey ton-i           manh-ta
    C-DAT           money-NOM much-DECL
    `Cheli has a lot of money.'
Example #8:

    b. Changmwun-ey seli-ka                kkin-ta
    window-LOC         frost-NOM        collect-DECL
    `Frost builds on the window.'
Example #9:

    (4) a. Cheli-ka manhun ton-ul/*i             philyo-lo han-ta
    C-NOM much             money-ACC/*NOM need-INST do-DECL
    `Cheli needs a lot of money.'
Example #10:

    b. Cheli-ka Yenghi-lul/*ka         mwusew-e       han-ta
    C-NOM Y-ACC/*NOM                fear-COMP      do-DECL
    `Cheli is afraid of Yenghi.'
Example #11:

    (5) Chelik-eykey-nun [casink-uy chinkwutul]-i        mwusep-ta
    C-DAT-TOP            self-GEN friends-NOM        fearsome-DECL
    `Cheli is afraid of his friends.'
Example #12:

    (6) [PROk tayhakwensayng-i-myenseto]         Chelik-eykey-nun sillyek-i         eps-ta
    graduate.student-COP-COMP C-DAT-NOM                   ability-NOM not.exist-DECL
    `Though he is a graduate student, Cheli's academic abilities are marginal.'
Example #13:

    sayngkakhan-ta
    think-DECL
    `I think that only Cheli has that kind of problem.'
Example #14:

    (10)   a. Kim-sensayngnim-kkey-(nun)          Swuni-ka philyoha-si-ta
    K-teacher-DAT.HON-(TOP)             S-NOM necessary-HON-DECL
    `Professor Kim needs Swuni.'
Example #15:

    b. *?Swuni-eykey-(nun) Kim-sensayngnim-i/kkeyse                philyoha-si-ta
    S-DAT-(TOP)        K-teacher-NOM/NOM.HON                  necessary-HON-DECL
    `Swuni needs Professor Kim.'
Example #16:

    (11)   a. Cheli-eykey/ka     ton-i           manh-ta/iss-ta/eps-ta
    C-DAT/NOM          money-NOM a.lot-DECL/exist-DECL/not.exist-DECL
    `Cheli has/doesn't have (a lot of) money.'
Example #17:

    b. Cheli-eykey/ka      Yenghi-ka       mwusep-ta
    C-DAT/NOM           Y-NOM           fearsome-DECL
    `Cheli is afraid of Yenghi.'
Example #18:

    c. Cheli-eykey/ka   ton-i     philyoha-ta
    C-DAT/NOM        money-NOM necessary-DECL
    `Cheli needs money.'
Example #19:

    (12)   a. Cheli-eykey-ka     ton-i          manh-ta
    C-DAT-NOM          money-NOM a.lot-DECL
    `It is Cheli who has a lot of money.'
Example #20:

    b. Cheli-hanthey-ka Yenghi-ka        mwusep-ta
    C-DAT-NOM            Y-NOM        fearsome-DECL
    `It is Cheli who is scared of Yenghi.'
Example #21:

    c. Cheli-hanthey-ka       ton-i     philyoha-ta
    C-DAT-NOM              money-NOM necessary-DECL
    `It is Cheli who needs money.'
Example #22:

    (15)     Cheli-eykey-ka         ton-i     manh-ta
    Cheli-DAT-NOM          money-NOM a.lot-DECL
    `Cheli has a lot of money'
Example #23:

    Cheli-eykey-ka  ton-i     manh-ta
    Cheli-DAT-FOCUS money-NOM a.lot-DECL
    `Cheli has a lot of money.'
Example #24:

    b. Cheli-hanthey-ka     ton-i         manh-ta
    C-DAT-NOM            money         a.lot-DECL
    `Cheli has a lot of money.'
Example #25:

    c. %Yoon kyoswunim-eykey/kkey-ka                  Yenghi-ka mwusew-usi-ta
    Y professor-DAT/HON.DAT-NOM                   Y-NOM fearsome-HON-DECL
    `Professor Yoon is afraid of Yenghi'
Example #26:

    g. *?haksayngtul-i ton-i        seys-eykey            philyoha-ta
    students-NOM money-NOM three-DAT                 necessary-DECL
    `Three students need money.'
Example #27:

    (20)   a. %cipan-eyse-ka           Swuni-eykey namphyen-i           mwusep-ta
    house-LOC-NOM S-DAT                   husband-NOM       fearsome-DECL
    `It is in the house that Swuni is scared of her husband.'
Example #28:

    b. %ku kulus-eyse-ka              mwul-i           sayn-ta
    that bowl-LOC-NOM             water-NOM        leak-DECL
    `It is from that bowl that water is leaking.'
Example #29:

    c. ecey-pwuthe-ka            nalssi-ka             coh-a     ci-ess-ta
    yesterday-FROM-NOM weather-NOM                  good-COMP become-PST-DECL
    `The weather turned nice from yesterday.'
Example #30:

    (21)   sensayngnimtul-kkeyse-man-i               kulen     il-ul    ha-l-swu iss-ta
    teachers-NOM.HON-only-NOM.PL              that.kind work-ACC do-possible-DECL
    `It is only teachers who can do that kind of work.'
Example #31:

    (22)   a. nwukwu-hanthey-ka ton-i        manh-ni?
    Who-DAT-NOM          money-NOM a.lot-Q
    `Who has a lot of money?'
Example #32:

    Ani.   Yenghi-eykey-ka (Chelswu-ka) coh-un              kes   kath-a
    No.    Y-DAT-NOM        C-NOM       good-ADN            thing seem-DECL
    `Swuni seems to like Chelswu. No. Yenghi seems to like Chelswu.'
Example #33:

    c. Na-eykey-man-i         paym-i          mwusep-ta
    I-DAT-only-NOM         snake-NOM       fearsome-DECL
    `Only I am afraid of snakes.'
Example #34:

    (23)   a. sopangswutul-eykey kyewul-palam-i             mwusep-ta
    firemen-DAT           winter-wind-NOM         fearsome-DECL
    [existential/generic]
Example #35:

    b. sopangswutul-i kyewul-palam-i             mwusep-ta
    firemen-NOM         winter-wind-NOM       fearsome-DECL
    [existential /generic]
Example #36:

    c. sopangswutul-eykey-ka kyewul-palam-i              mwusep-ta
    firemen-DAT-NOM           winter-wind-NOM         fearsome-DECL
    `Firemen fear the wintry chill.'
Example #37:

    (24)   cipan-eyse-ka        kyewul-ey-ka            Swuni-eykey namphyen-i           mwusep-ta
    house-LOC-NOM winter-LOC-NOM S-DAT                          husband-NOM fearsome-DECL
    `It is in her house that it is during the winter that Swuni is afraid of her hus
Example #38:

    (25)   kyoswunim-eykey-*(ka) ani-la         haksayngtul-eykey      ton-i     philyohata
    professor-DAT-NOM       NEG.COP students-DAT                money-NOM necessary
    `The students need money, not the professors.'
Example #39:

    Pihayngki-ka        747-i           khu-ta
    Airplane-NOM 747-NOM                big-DECL
    `As for airplanes, the 747 is big.'
Example #40:

    Na-nun      Yenghi-lul    apeci-ka       pwuca-la-ko                     sayngkakhanta
    I-TOP       Y-ACC         father-NOM rich.person-DECL-COMP               think
    `I consider Yenghi's father a rich man.'
Example #41:

    (28)   Pangan-ulo-*(ka)                 macnun panghyang-i-ta
    room.inside-towardPOST-NOM correct          direction-COP-DECL
    `Toward the room is the correct direction.'
Example #42:

    (31)   a. Cheli-eykey-ka/*lul         mwuncey-ka         manh-ta
    C-DAT-NOM/*ACC              problem-NOM        a.lot-DECL
    `It is Cheli who has a lot of problems.'
Example #43:

    b. Swuni-ka Cheli-eykey-(man)-ul/*i          senmwul-ul ponay-ss-ta
    S-NOM C-DAT-(only)-ACC/*NOM present-ACC send-PST-DECL
    `It was only to Cheli that Swuni sent presents.'
Example #44:

    c. Austin-eyse-ka/*lul       Cheli-ka kongpwu-lul cal            hay-ss-ess-ta
    A-LOC-NOM/*ACC            C-NOM study-ACC well do-PERF-PST-DECL
    `It was while he was in Austin that Cheli did well in his studies.'
Example #45:

    (34)   Mary-eykey-man-ul/*?i John-i chayk-ul cwu-ess-ta
    M-dat-only-acc/*nom        J-nom book-acc give-pst-decl
    `It was only to Mary that John gave the book.'
Example #46:

    (35)   Cheli-eykey emeni-ka/*lul             ku-hwu    phyengsayng-ul         kuliw-ess-ta
    C-DAT           mother-NOM/*ACC after-that whole.life-ACC              missed
    `After that time, Cheli missed his mother his whole life.'
Example #47:

    (37)   a. Cheli-ka1 o-ass-ta
    C-NOM come-PST-DECL
    `Cheli came.'
Example #48:

    b. Cheli-eykey-ka2 mwuncey-ka            manh-ta
    C-DAT-FOC          problem-NOM        a.lot-DECL
    `It is Cheli who has a lot of problems.'
Example #49:

    (38)   a. Cheli-ka pap-ul1 meknun-ta
    C-nom       meal-acc eat-decl
    `Cheli is having his meal.'
Example #50:

    b. Cheli-ka Yenghi-eykey-man-ul2         senmwul-ul hay-ss-ta
    C-nom      Y-dat-only-foc             present-acc do-pst-decl
    `It was only to Yenghi that Cheli sent the present.'
Example #51:

    c. Cheli-nun Yenghi-lul3 apeci-ka             pwucala-ko      sayngkakhan-ta
    C-top      Y-top          father-nom       rich-comp       think-decl
    `Cheli thinks of Yenghi that her father is rich.'
Example #52:

    (40)   I       hakkyo-nun enehak.kwa-nun              coh-ta
    this    school-TOP linguistics.dept-TOP good-DECL
    `As for this university, the linguistics department is tops (but psychology is s
Example #53:

    (41)   Cheli-nun [Yenghi-lul [apeci-ka            pwucala-ko]] sayngkakhan-ta (=38)
    C-TOP      Y-ACC          father-NOM rich-COMP think-DECL
    `Cheli thinks of Yenghi that her father is rich.'
Example #54:

    (42)   Cheli-eykey-ka mwuncey-ka             manh-ta (=37b)
    C-DAT-NOM          problem-NOM        a.lot-DECL
    `It is Cheli who has a lot of problems.'
Example #55:

    (43)   Cheli-nun haksayngtul-ul       seys-ul/i           kaceng-i     cohta-ko    mitnunta
    C-TOP      students-ACC        three-ACC/NOM family-NOM good-COMP believed
    `Cheli thinks that of the students, three of them come from good families.'
Example #56:

    b. Chelik-nun      kuk-lul   [Yenghi-ka tk coahanta-ko] sayngkakhan-ta
    C-TOP           he-ACC Y-NOM            like-COMP think-DECL
    `Cheli thinks that Yenghi likes him.'
Example #57:

    (46)   a. Cheli-nun kkoch-ul        cangmi-ka      yepputa-ko       mitnun-ta
    C-TOP       flower-ACC flower-NOM pretty-COMP believe-DECL
    `Cheli believes that among flowers, the rose is the prettiest.'
Example #58:

    b. Pihayngki-ka        747-i           khu-ta
    airplane-NOM        747-NOM         big-DECL
    `As for airplanes, the 747 is big.'
Example #59:

    (47)   a. Phokwu-lo/*ka/*lo-ka                       ku     tali-ka    mwuneci-ess-ta
    heavy.rain-INST/*NOM/*INST-NOM that               bridge-NOM collapse-PST-DECL
    `It was due to heavy rain that the bridge collapsed.'
Example #60:

    b. Uyca-ey/*ka/*ey-ka                  Cheli-ka   anc-ass-ta
    chair-LOC/*NOM/*LOC-NOM C-NOM                  sit-PAST-DECL
    `It was on a chair that Cheli sat.'
Example #61:

    c. I       pang-eyse/*ka/*eyse-ka                     Cheli-ka    nao-ass-ta
    this    room-FROM/*NOM/*FROM-NOM                   C-NOM       come.out-PST-DECL
    `It was from this room that Cheli came out.'
Example #62:

    (48)   a. Cheli-eykey/ka/eykey-ka      ton-i philyoha-ta
    C-DAT/NOM/DAT-NOM money-NOM necessary-DECL
    `It is Cheli who needs money.'
Example #63:

    b. Semyukongcang-eyse/i/eyse-ka                  pwul-i   na-ss-ta
    textile.factory-LOC/NOM/LOC-NOM fire-NOM break.out-DECL
    `It was in the textile factory that a fire broke out.'
Example #64:

    ani-ess-ta
    neg-PST-DECL
    `It wasn't from this room that Cheli came out.'
Example #65:

    ani-ess-ta
    neg-PST-DECL
    `It wasn't due to the heavy rainfall that the bridge collapsed.'
Example #66:

    (50)   a. caki pang-eyse/?i/eyse-ka                  Cheli-eykey-n kongpwuha-ki-ka      elyepta
    self     room-LOC/NOM/LOC-NOM C-DAT-TOP study-NML-NOM                         difficult
    `It is in his room that Cheli finds it difficult to study.'
Example #67:

    elyepta
    difficult
    `It is that tool with which I find it difficult to fix the car.'
Example #68:

    (51)   a. cipan-eyse/?i/eyse-ka              Swuni-eykey namphyen-i             mwusep-ta
    inside-LOC/NOM/LOC-NOM S-DAT                        husband-NOM       fearsome-DECL
    `It is inside the house that Swuni is afraid of her husband.'
Example #69:

    b. Austin-eyse/*?i/eyse-ka       Bill-i      kongpwu-lul cal          hay-ss-ess-ta
    A-LOC/NOM/LOC-NOM B-NOM study-ACC well do-PERF-PST-DECL
    `It was while he was in Austin that Bill did well in his studies.'
Example #70:

    c. ecey-pwuthe/*ka/pwuthe-ka                 nalssi-ka           coha-ci-ess-ta
    yesterday-FROM/NOM/FROM-NOM weather-NOM                       good-become-PST-DECL
    `It was from yesterday that the weather started to get better.'
Example #71:

    (52)   a. * cipan-eyse-ka         kyewul-ey-ka           Swuni-eykey namphyen-i             mwusepta
    house-LOC-NOM winter-LOC-NOM S-DAT                           husband-NOM        fearsome
    `It is in the house that it is during the winter that Swuni is afraid of her hus
Example #72:

    b. *cipan-eyse-ka         kyewul-ey-ka           Swuni-eykey-ka namphyen-i           mwusepta
    house-LOC-NOM winter-LOC-NOM S-DAT-NOM                         husband-NOM fearsome
    husband.'
Example #73:

    elyep-ta
    difficult-DECL
    `It is in LA that it is difficult for immigrants to run a restaurant.'
Example #74:

    elyep-ta
    difficult-DECL
    `It is in LA that it is for immigrants that running a restaurant is difficult.'
Example #75:

    (56)   Austin-eyse-ka    Bill-i      kongpwu-lul cal         hay-ss-ess-ta (=51b)
    A-LOC-NOM         B-NOM study-ACC well do-PERF-PST-DECL
    `It was while he was in Austin that Bill did well in his studies.'
Example #76:

    (57)   a. Cheli-ka apeci-ka           pwuca-i-si-ta
    C-NOM father-NOM rich-COP-HON-DECL
    `As for Cheli, his father is rich/It is Cheli whose father is rich.'
Example #77:

    b. Apenim-i        sonmok-i     pwuleci-si-ess-ta
    Father-NOM wrist-NOM break-HON-PST-DECL
    `Father's wrist was broken.'
Example #78:

    c. Pihayngki-ka         747-i           khu-ta
    airplane-NOM         747-NOM         big-DECL
    `As for/it is airplanes (that) the 747 is big.'
Example #79:

    (58)   a. Ku     ai-ka(SUBJ) elkwul-i              acwu yeppu-*si-ta
    that child-NOM face-NOM                  very pretty-HON-DECL
    `That child's face is very pretty.'
Example #80:

    b. Ku     ai-ka           emenim-kkeyse(SUBJ)           acwu mi.in-i-si-ta
    that child-NOM mother-HON.NOM                        very pretty-COP-HON-DECL
    `That child's mother is very pretty.'
Example #81:

    (59)   a. Cheli-nun ku       ai-lul       elkwul-i     acwu yeppu-ta-ko sayngkakhanta
    C-TOP      that    child-ACC face-NOM very pretty-DECL-COMP think
    `Cheli thinks of that child that her face is pretty.'
Example #82:

    sayngkakhanta
    think
    `Cheli thinks of that child that her mother is very pretty.'
Example #83:

    (60) ? cohun      nokcha-kai(MS) ilponsalamtul-i(GS) ei culkye-masi-n-ta
    good       green.tea-NOM Japanese-NOM                     enjoy-drink-PRS-DECL
    `As for good green tea/it is good green tea (that) the Japanese enjoy drinking.'
Example #84:

    sayngkakhan-ta
    think-DECL
    `Cheli thinks of Professor Kim that he is rich.'
Example #85:

    ha-si-ki]-ka                  elyew-usi-ta
    do-HON-NML-NOM                difficult-HON-DECL
    `It is at home that it is difficult for Professor Kim to do work.'
Example #86:

    c. Austin-eyse-ka (MS) sensayngnim-kkeyse(GS) kacang hayngpokha-si-ess-ta
    A-LOC-NOM               teacher-HON.NOM           most happy-HON-PST-DECL
    `It was in Austin that the teacher was the happiest.'
Example #87:

    manh-ta
    a.lot-decl
    `It is President Kim whose sons are causing a lot of problems.'
Example #88:

    hayngpokha-si-ess-ta-ko                sayngkakhan-ta
    happy-HON-PST-DECL-COMP                think-DECL
    `Cheli thinks that it was in Austin that the teacher was the happiest.'
Example #89:

    (57)   c. Pihayngki-ka        747-i          khu-ta
    airplane-NOM        747-NOM        big-DECL
    `It is airplanes (FOC) that the 747 is big.' (pragmatically odd)
Example #90:

    a. Cheli-eykey (GS) ton-i          philyoha-ta
    C-DAT            money-NOM necessary-DECL
    `Cheli needs money'
Example #91:

    b. Cheli-eykey-kai (MS) [ei (GS) ton-i              philyoha-ta]
    C-DAT-NOM                        money-NOM necessary-DECL
    `It is Cheli who needs money.'
Example #92:

    (65)   a. Pangan-ulo-*(ka)         macnun panghyang-i-ta (=28)
    room.inside-LOC-NOM correct          direction-COP-DECL
    `Toward the room is the correct direction.'
Example #93:

    b. ?Cikum-pwuthe-*(ka)       mwuncey-lul yakiha-n-ta
    Now-FROM-NOM             issue-ACC     raise-PRS-DECL
    `The problem is (what to do) from now.'
Example #94:

    c. Keki-lul        ka-nun       tey-nun       Seoul-lo-pwuthe-*(ka)     ceyil   cohta
    There-ACC go-ADN NML-TOP                   S-LOC-FROM-NOM            most    good
    `To go there it is best to leave from Seoul.'
Example #95:

    Seoul-lo-pwuthe-ka(MS)          ceyil coh-ta
    S-LOC-FROM-NOM                  most good-DECL
    `For beginners, to go there, it is best to leave from Seoul.'
Example #96:

    yakiha-lkesi-ta
    raise-FUT-DECL
    `From now on, the things we put off in the past will create problems.'
Example #97:

    (68)   macnun panghyang-un            pangan-ulo-i-ta
    correct    direction-TOP       room.inside-LOC-COP-DECL
    `The correct direction is toward the room.'
Example #98:

    (69)   a. Pihayngki-ka         747-i       khu-ta
    airplane-NOM         747-NOM big-DECL
    `It is airplanes that the 747 is big.' (pragmatically odd)
Example #99:

    b. *747-i         pihayngki-ka         khu-ta
    747-NOM       airplane-NOM         big-DECL
    `As for the 747, the airplane is big.' (pragmatically odd)
Example #100:

    (70)   a. * Phokwu-lo-ka               ku      tali-ka        mwuneci-ess-ta
    heavy.rain-INST-NOM that           bridge-NOM collapse-PST-DECL
    `It was due to heavy rain that the bridge collapsed.'
Example #101:

    b. *Uyca-ey-ka          Cheli-ka anc-ass-ta
    chair-LOC-NOM C-NOM sit-PST-DECL
    `It was in the chair that Cheli sat.'
Example #102:

    c. *I       pang-eyse-ka           Cheli-ka nao-ass-ta
    this room-FROM-NOM C-NOM come.out-PST-DECL
    `It was out of this room that Cheli came out.'
Example #103:

    (71) ? i       uyca-ey-ka               Kim-taythonglyeng-i        anc-usi-ess-ess-ta
    this    chair-LOC-NOM            Kim-president-NOM          sit-HON-PST-PERF-DECL
    `It was in this chair that President Kim sat.'
Example #104:

    (73)   Cheli-ka chinkwu-ka [apeci-ka               tani-nun hoysa]-ka             manghayssta
    C-NOM friend-NOM father-NOM go-ADN company-NOM go.bankrupt
    went bankrupt.' (one possible reading)
Example #105:

    (74)    a. cipan-eyse-ka            kyewul-ey-ka             Swuni-eykey namphyen-i         mwusepta
    house-LOC-NOM            winter-LOC-NOM S-DAT                    husband-NOM fearsome
    `It is in the house that it is during the winter that Swuni is afraid of her hus
Example #106:

    mwusepta
    fearsome
    husband'
Example #107:

    (75)   a. Austin-eyse-ka    Bill-i      kongpwu-lul cal         hay-ss-ess-ta
    A-LOC-NOM         B-NOM study-ACC well do-PST-PERF-DECL
    `It was while he was in Austin that Bill did well in his studies.'
Example #108:

    b. *cangmachel-ey-ka           nay-ka      manhun chayk-ul         ilk-ess-ta
    rainy.season-LOC-NOM I-NOM             many      book-ACC      read-PST-DECL
    `It was during the rainy season that I read many books.' (Youn 1998, ex. (68))
Example #109:

    (76) ?cangmachel-ey-ka                salamtul-i     chayk-ul         manhi ilk-nun-ta
    rainy.season-LOC-NOM            people-NOM book-ACC             a.lot read-PRS-DECL
    `It is during the rainy season that people read a lot.'
Example #110:

    (77)   a. *Cheli-nun Yenghi-lul pap-ul           cikum ha-n-ta-ko                    sayngkakhanta
    C-TOP       Y-ACC      meal-ACC now do-PRS-DECL-COMP                      think
    `Cheli believes of Yenghi that she is cooking now.'
Example #111:

    sayngkakhanta
    think
    `Cheli thinks of Yenghi that she always cooks at home.'
Example #112:

    (78)   Cheli-ka Yenghi-lul(MO) son-ul(GO)          cap-ass-ta
    C-NOM Y-ACC                  hand-ACC       catch-PST-DECL
    `Cheli caught Yenghi by the hand.'
Example #113:

    (79)   a. Cheli-ka Yenghi-eykey-man-uli(MO) ei ton-ul           ponay-ss-ta
    C-NOM Y-DAT-ONLY-ACC                        money-ACC send-PST-DECL
    `It was only to Yenghi that Cheli sent money.'
Example #114:

    b. Cheli-nun cemsim-ul(MO) cacangmyen-ul                 mek-ess-ta
    C-TOP      lunch-ACC          noodle.name-ACC         eat-PST-DECL
    `As for lunch, Cheli had cacangmyen.'
Example #115:

    (i) pihayngki-ka    etten    kicong-i    ceyil      khu-ni?
    Airplane-nom    which model-nom most            big-Q
    `Among airplanes (Topic), which model is the largest?'
Example #116:

    (i) Mary-uy       John-eykey-uy      phyenci
    M-gen         J-dat-gen          letter
    `Mary's letter to John'
Example #117:

    (i) manyak Cheli-hanthey-ka          ton-i        manhta-myen        wuli-nun           iceykkes      sok-ass-ta
    if        C-dat-nom              money-nom a.lot-cond            we-top             till.now      deceive-pst-decl
    `If Cheli in fact has a lot of money, we were being fooled till now.'
Example #118:

    (i) apenim-ccok-eyse      na-eykey     sakwa-lul                mence ha-si-ess-ta
    father.hon-side-from I-dat         apology-acc              first do-hon-pst-decl
    `Father(honorific) apologized to me first.'
Example #119:

    (i) 5000-phawuntu phokthan-ulo-man-i ce              tongkwultul-i     phakoy-toy-lkesi-ta
    5000-pound         bomb-inst-only-nom those caves-nom              destroy-pass-mod-decl
    `It is only with 5000lb bombs that those caves will be destroyed.'