ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Ryo Otoguro (2006). Morphosyntax of Case.

URL: http://www.s.fpu.ac.jp/otoguro/papers/otoguro_thesis.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 4010&langcode=jpn (2018-07-19).

 

Example #1:

    (6.1)      a. yasusi no musuko ra wa mada daigakusei             da.
    Yasusi NO son      PL TOP still university student COP
    `Yasushi's sons are still university students.'
Example #2:

    b. zyosei tati ga ima no seizi no syuyaku da.
    woman PL GA now NO politics NO protagonist COP
    `Women are the protagonists in the current politics.'
Example #3:

    (6.7)      a. Ken ga      kasikoi.
    Ken         smart.PRES
    `Ken is     smart.'
Example #4:

    b. Ken ga      gakusei da.
    Ken         student COP
    `Ken is     a student.'
Example #5:

    d. Ken ga      ki kara otita.
    Ken         tree from fall.PAST
    `Ken fe    ll from the tree.'
Example #6:

    b. Ken ga hon o yonda.
    Ken     book read.PAST
    `Ken read the book.'
Example #7:

    c. Ken ga Ai ni hon o yatta.
    Ken     Ai book give.PAST
    `Ken gave a book to Ai.'
Example #8:

    (6.9)      a. Ai ga Ken ni atta.
    Ai Ken meet.PAST
    `Ai met Ken.'
Example #9:

    b. Ken ga Ai ni sitagatta.
    Ken Ai obey.PAST
    `Ken obeyed/followed Ai.'
Example #10:

    c. Ai ga Ken ni katta.
    Ken Ken win.PAST
    `Ai won/prevailed over Ken.'
Example #11:

    (6.10)    a. Ken ga ame ni nureta.
    Ken rain get wet.PAST
    `Ken got wet in the rain.'
Example #12:

    b. Ken ga hasika ni kakatta.
    Ken measles contract.PAST
    `Ken contracted measles.'
Example #13:

    c. Ken ga sake ni yotta.
    Ken alcohol get drunk.PAST
    `Ken got drunk.'
Example #14:

    (6.11)    a. Ai ga Ken to atta.
    Ai Ken meet.PAST
    `Ai met Ken.'
Example #15:

    b. Ai ga Ken to hanasita.
    Ai Ken speak.PAST
    `Ai talked with Ken.'
Example #16:

    c. Ai ga Ken to kekkon sita.
    Ai Ken marriage do.PAST
    `Ai married Ken.'
Example #17:

    (6.12)    a. ?watakusi wa sensei to ai        ni Harvard Square ni itta.
    I            teacher meet.INF to Harvard Square to go.PAST
    `I went to Harvard Square to see the teacher.'
Example #18:

    (6.14)      a. boku no ani             wa Tokyo ni sunde iru.
    my      elderly brother TOP Tokyo live be.PRES
    `My brother lives in Tokyo.'
Example #19:

    b. boku no hon wa tukue no ue ni aru.
    my      book TOP desk      top be.PRES
    `My book is on the desk.'
Example #20:

    (6.17)      a. watakusi wa sono saka o nobotta.
    I        TOP the slope climb.PAST
    `I climbed up the slope.'
Example #21:

    b. watakusi wa koosaten o watatta.
    I         TOP intersection cross.PAST
    `I crossed the intersection.'
Example #22:

    (6.18)      a. Ken ga kawa o oyoida.
    Ken river swim.PAST
    `Ken swam across the river/Ken swam up or down the stream.'
Example #23:

    b. Ken ga kawa de oyoida.
    Ken river      swim.PAST
    `Ken swam in the river.'
Example #24:

    (6.19)      a. watasi wa helicopter de yama        ni/*o nobotta.
    I      TOP helicopter by mountaim         climb.PAST
    `I climbed to the top of the mountaim by helicopter.'
Example #25:

    b. watasi wa Jeep de yama       ni/o nobotta.
    I      TOP jeep by mountaim       climb.PAST
    `I climbed the mountain by jeep.'
Example #26:

    (6.20)      a. Ken ga eki    kara ie     made aruita.
    Ken station        house to     walk.PAST
    `Ken walked from the station to the house.'
Example #27:

    b. sake wa kome kara tukurareru.
    sake TOP rice      make.PASS
    `Sake is made from rice.'
Example #28:

    (6.21)      a. Taroo ga Hanako ni/kara sono koto o kiita.
    Taro     Hanako           that thing hear.PAST
    `Taro heard about that thing from Hanako.'
Example #29:

    b. Taroo ga Yamada-sensei ni/kara eigo     o naratta.
    Taro      Yamada-Prof           English learn.PAST
    `Taro learnt English from Prof Yamada.'
Example #30:

    c. Taroo ga Yamada-sensei ni/kara hon o karita.
    Taro     Yamada-Prof           book borrow.PAST
    `Taro borrowed a book from Prof Yamada.'
Example #31:

    (6.22)      a. Taroo ga sensei no kenkyuusitu kara/*ni hon o karita.
    Taro     prof      office               book borrow.PAST
    `Taro borrowed a book from the professor's office.'
Example #32:

    b. Taroo ga kokyoo kara/*ni tayori o moratta.
    Taro     hometown             letter receive.PAST
    `Taro received a letter from his hometown.'
Example #33:

    (6.23)      a. sensei wa gakusei tati ni/kara present o okurareta.
    prof TOP student PL            present give.PASS.PAST
    `The professor was given a present by the students.'
Example #34:

    b. Ai ga sensei ni/kara homerareta.
    Ai prof              praise.PASS.PAST
    `Ai was praised by the professor.'
Example #35:

    (6.24)     a. Akiko ga kuma ni/*kara korosareta.
    Akiko bear               kill.PASS.PAST
    `Akiko was killed by a bear.'
Example #36:

    b. Ken wa John ni/*kara yatowarete iru.
    Ken TOP John          employ.PASS be.PRES
    `Ken is employed by John.'
Example #37:

    (6.26)     a. Mami ni/ga Hata-sensei ga osorosii.
    Mami       Hata-prof       fearful
    `Mami is fearful of Prof Hata.'
Example #38:

    b. Mami ga/*ni Ken ga suki da.
    Mami        Ken like COP
    `Mami likes Ken.'
Example #39:

    (6.27)   a. Taroo ga/*ni atama ga itai.
    Taroo        head      hurting
    `Taro has a headache.'
Example #40:

    b. Mami ga/*ni asi ga tumetai.
    Mami        foot     cold
    `Mami has cold feet.'
Example #41:

    (6.29)   a. boku ni/ga okane ga hituyoo da.
    I          money    necessity COP
    `I need money.'
Example #42:

    b. boku ga/*ni kono hon ga hosii.
    I            this book  want
    `I want this book.'
Example #43:

    (6.30)   a. Ken ni/ga eigo    ga wakaru.
    Ken       English    understand
    `Ken understands English.'
Example #44:

    b. Ken ga/*ni eigo    ga tokui da.
    Ken        English     good at COP
    `Ken is good at English.'
Example #45:

    (6.33)      a. Tarooi ga Hanako j o zibuni/ j no heya de sikatta.
    Taro      Hanako self             room at scold.PAST
    `Taro scolded Hanako in his own room.'
Example #46:

    b. sensei ni (wa) zibun ga wakara     nai.
    teacher (TOP) self      understand NEG
    `The teacher does not understand himself.'
Example #47:

    (6.34)      a. sensei ga oikini naru.
    teacher go.HON
    `The teacher goes.' (subject honorific)
Example #48:

    b. *otooto         ga sensei o otazune-ni natta.
    younger brother teacher visit.HON
    `My younger brother visited the teacher.'
Example #49:

    c. sensei ni (wa) eigo    ga owakarini naru
    teacher (TOP) English understand.HON
    `The teacher understands English.' (subject honorific)
Example #50:

    (i) zoo     ga hana ga nagai.
    elephant nose long
    `An elephant has a long nose.'
Example #51:

    (6.35)       a. Ken ga/*ni eigo   o wakaru.
    Ken        English understand
    `Ken understands English.'
Example #52:

    b. Mami ga Ken o suki da.
    Mami Ken like COP
    `Mami likes Ken.'
Example #53:

    c. boku ga mizu o nomi-tai.
    I        water drink-DESID
    `I want to drink water'
Example #54:

    (6.36)       a. ketueki centre de ketueki-gata siiru o o-hari-si-masu.
    blood centre blood-type seal HON-paste-do-POL.PRES
    `The blood centre will paste the seal of your blood type.'
Example #55:

    ( ii)   a. kimi ni (wa) rippa     na go-ryoosin ga oide-ni naru.
    you     (TOP) splendid COP HON-parents exist.HON
    `You have splendid parents'
Example #56:

    (6.37)        a. zikka kara kome o okutte kita.
    home       rice   send come.PAST
    `My family sent me some rice.'
Example #57:

    b. Taroo kara kuzi o hiita.
    Taro        lot    draw.PAST
    `Taro started to draw a lot.'
Example #58:

    (6.38)        a. kono koto wa watasi kara ano hito ni denwa o kakete okimasu.
    this fact TOP I            that person phone call do.POL
    `Regarding this, let me call that person.'
Example #59:

    b. anata ga ie      nai nara, watasi kara kotowatte okimasu.
    you      say.INF NEG if, I              refuse.INF do.POL
    `If you can't say it, I will refuse him myself.'
Example #60:

    (6.39)   a. Taroo wa gakusei desu.
    Taro     student COP.PRES
    `Speaking of Taro, he is a student.'
Example #61:

    b. ame wa hutte imasu              ga, yuki wa hutte imasen.
    rain      falling COP.POL.PRES but snow     falling COP.POL.NEG
    `It is raining, but it is not snowing.'
Example #62:

    (6.40)   a. susi wa nihonzin ga tukutta.
    sushi   Japanese make.PAST
    `A Japanese cooked sushi (but not others).'
Example #63:

    b. Tokyo e wa hikooki de iku.
    Tokyo LOC     airplane by go.PRES
    `We go to Tokyo by plane (but not to other places).'
Example #64:

    c. ano daigaku de wa kenkyuu dekinai
    that university LOC   research do.NEG
    `You can't do your research at that university (but you can at other places).'
Example #65:

    (6.41)   a. John ga gakusei desu.
    John      student COP.POL.PRES
    `It is John who is a student.'
Example #66:

    b. ame ga hutte imasu.
    rain      falling COP.POL.PRES
    `It is raining.'
Example #67:

    (6.42)    a. tegami ga kita.
    letter    come.PAST
    `It was mail that came'
Example #68:

    b. hon ga tukue no ue ni aru.
    book      desk      top LOC be.PRES
    `It is a book that is on the desk.'
Example #69:

    c. sora ga akai.
    sky       red
    `It is the sky that is red.'
Example #70:

    (6.43)    a. saru      ga ningen no senzo desu.
    monkey       human     ancestor COP.POL.PRES
    `It is the monkey that is the ancestor of man.'
Example #71:

    b. John ga nihongo o sitte iru.
    John    Japanese know be.PRES
    `John (and only John) knows Japanese.'
Example #72:

    c. John ga nihongo ga dekiru.
    John    Japanese able.PRES
    `John (and only John) can speak Japanese.'
Example #73:

    d. boku ga osusi ga tabe-tai.
    `I       sushi    eat-want.PRES
    `I (and only) I want to eat sushi.'
Example #74:

    (6.44)      a. New York ni koosoo-kentiku ga ooi.
    New York LOC high-rise-building many
    `In New York, there are many high-rise buildings.'
Example #75:

    (6.45)      Ken ga Ai ni gakkoo de kotosi present o watasita.
    Ken Ai to school LOC this year present hand.PAST
    `Ken gave a present to Ai at school this year.'
Example #76:

    vi. Ken ga Ai ni gakkoo de kotosi present o watasi mo sita.
    hand       do.PAST
    `Ken gave a present to Ai at school this year (as well as doing other things).'
Example #77:

    (6.46)      Taroo sae gakkoo ni itta.
    Taro      school to go.PAST
    `Even Taro went to school.'
Example #78:

    (6.48)       a. kare koso (ga) gityoo       ni husawasii.
    he             chairperson suitable
    `He (and only he) is suitable for the chairperson.'
Example #79:

    b. kare wa gityoo         ni koso      husawasii.
    he TOP chairperson         suitable
    `He is suitable for a chairperson (not other positions).'
Example #80:

    (i) gohan mo takenai.
    rice        boil.NEG.PRES
    `(I) can't boil rice (let alone cook something).'
Example #81:

    (6.49)      a. Taroo sika zyugyoo ni ikanakatta/*itta.
    Taro       class    to go.NEG.PAST/go.PAST
    `Only Taro went to the class.'
Example #82:

    b. Ken wa susi sika tabenakatta/*tabeta.
    Ken TOP sushi      eat.NEG.PAST/eat.PAST
    `Ken ate only sushi.'
Example #83:

    c. Igirisu kara sika tegami ga todokanakatta/*todoita.
    UK from           letter    arrive.NEG.PAST/arrive.PAST
    `Letters arrived only from the UK.'
Example #84:

    (6.50)      a. Taroo dake (ga) zyugyoo ni itta.
    Taro            class    to go.PAST
    `Only Taro went to the class.'
Example #85:

    b. Ken wa susi dake (o) tabeta.
    Ken TOP sushi         eat.PAST
    `Ken ate only sushi.'
Example #86:

    c. Igirisu kara dake / dake kara tegami ga todoita.
    UK from            /     from letter    arrive.PAST
    `Letters arrived only from/from only the UK.'
Example #87:

    (6.51)    a. mokuyoo made ga/*ga made teisyutukigen da.
    Thursday until               deadline      COP.PRED
    `The deadline is Thursday.'
Example #88:

    b. sono siai wa koohan         kara ga/*ga kara omosirokatta.
    the match TOP second half from                 exciting.PAST
    `The match got exciting from the second half '
Example #89:

    c. sensei    wa dai-5-syo kara o/*o kara sippitu sita.
    professor TOP chapter 5 from           writing do.PAST
    `The professor wrote chapter 5 and thereafter.'
Example #90:

    (6.53)    a. John dake ga sono    himitu     o sitteiru.
    John only    the    secret       know.PRES
    `Only John knows    the sec   ret.'
Example #91:

    (6.54)    a. sensei wa kokuban wa/*o wa/*wa o tukau.
    teacher TOP blackboard             use.PRES
    `The teacher uses the blackboard.'
Example #92:

    b. sono gakusei wa/*ga wa/*wa ga marathon ni sanka          sita.
    the student                       marathon participation do.PAST
    `The student participated in the marathon.'
Example #93:

    (6.55)   a. kono knife de wa/*wa de hito o korosenai.
    this knife                human kill.NEG.PRES
    `You can't kill a man with this knife.'
Example #94:

    b. Ken wa densya ni wa/*wa ni noru.
    Ken TOP train              ride.PRES
    `Ken takes a train.'
Example #95:

    (6.56)   a. nikugan de sae/*sae de ano UFO wa kakuni          dekita.
    naked eyes               that UFO TOP recognition able.PAST
    `That UFO was visible even with naked eyes.'
Example #96:

    b. Naomi wa kono mondai dake sura/*sura dake toki-owaranakatta.
    Naomi TOP this question                        solve-finish.NEG.PAST
    `Naomi didn't finish even this question only.'
Example #97:

    (6.57)   a. kare koso ga gityoo       ni husawasii.
    he           chairperson suitable
    `He (and only he) is suitable for the chairperson.'
Example #98:

    b. Naomi wa kono mondai sae mo toki-owaranakatta.
    Naomi TOP this question           solve-finish.NEG.PAST
    `Naomi didn't finish even this question.'
Example #99:

    (6.58)     otooto          sae mo ga watasi o keibetu     sita.
    younger brother even      I        despisement do.PAST
    `Even my younger brother despised me.'
Example #100:

    attoo          sita.
    overwhelming do.PAST
    `The boy's performance overwhelmed even the professional players.'
Example #101:

    (6.60)      a. sono oo wa musuko o sae syokei        sita.
    the king top son            execution do.PAST
    `The king executed even his son.'
Example #102:

    b. seihu      wa sono mondai o koso kaiketu subeki        da.
    government TOP the problem          solution do.should COP.PRES
    `The government should solve that problem.'
Example #103:

    (6.61)      a. *kare sika ga gakkoo ni konakatta.
    he           school    come.NEG.PAST
    `Only he came to school.'
Example #104:

    b. *Naomi wa kono mondai datte mo toki-owaranakatta.
    Naomi TOP this question            solve-finish.NEG.PAST
    `Naomi didn't finish even this question.'
Example #105:

    (6.68)   John ga Mary ni Ken o syookai  sita.
    John Mary Ken introduction do.PAST
    `John introduced Ken to Mary.'
Example #106:

    (6.74)     John ni/ga obake ga kowai.
    John        ghost     fearful
    `John is fearful of ghost.'
Example #107:

    (6.80)    a. Hanako ga hona o katta.
    Hanako book buy.PAST
    `Hanako bought a book.'
Example #108:

    (6.84)    a. [ Ken to Naomi ] ga sono keeki o tabeta.
    Ken and Naomi      the cake eat.PAST
    `Ken and Naomi ate the cake.'
Example #109:

    c. imooto         wa [ Ken to Naomi ] kara present o moratta.
    younger sister TOP Ken and Naomi from present receive.PAST
    `My younger sister received the present(s) from Ken and Naomi.'
Example #110:

    (6.101)       Taroo ni eigo   ga wakaru.
    Taro     English understand.PRES
    `Taro understands English.'
Example #111:

    (6.106)       a. ani             wa Tokyoo ni sunde iru.
    elderly brother TOP Tokyo LOC live be.PRES
    `My brother lives in Tokyo.'
Example #112:

    (6.107)    a. kodomo ga dooro de asonde iru.
    child       road LOC play be.PRES
    `Children are playing on the street.'
Example #113:

    (6.108)    a. Ken ga yama      o nobotta.
    Ken mountain climb.PAST
    `Ken climbed up the mountain.'
Example #114:

    (6.112)    a. Taroo ni wa eigo    ga wakaru.
    Taro        English understand.PRES
    `Taro understands English.'
Example #115:

    b. John wa musuko o nagutta.
    John TOP son        hit.PAST
    `John hit his son.'
Example #116:

    (6.115)    Hanako sae     John   wa nagutta.
    Hanako FOC     John   TOP hit.PAST
    b. `John hit   even   Hanako.'