ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Heejeong Ko (2005). Syntactic Edges and Linearization.

URL: http://ling.snu.ac.kr/ko/publications/Papers/Ko_thesis_2005.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 4039&langcode=jpn (2018-09-26).

 

Example #1:

    (21)   a.     Tomodati-ga 2-ri       Sinzyuku-de Tanaka-sensei-ni         atta
    Friends-Nom 2-Cl       Shinjuku-in    Prof. Tanaka-Dat      met
    `Two friends met Professor Tanaka in Shijuku'
Example #2:

    b.     *Tomodati-ga       Sinzyuku-de Tanaka-sensei-ni      2-ri    atta
    Friends-Nom      Shinjuku-in   Prof. Tanaka-Dat    2-Cl     met
    `Two friends met Professor Tanaka in Shijuku'
Example #3:

    a.       John-wa       hon-o          san-satu        katta
    John-Top      book-Acc       3-Cl            bought
    `John bought three books'
Example #4:

    b.       John-wa       san-satu       hon-o           katta
    John-Top      3-Cl           book-Acc        bought
    `John bought three books'    (Watanabe 2004:4)
Example #5:

    (i) a. John-wa          hon    san-satu-o    katta
    John-Top        book 3-Cl-Acc        bought
    `John bought three books'
Example #6:

    b. John-wa           san-satu-no hon-o katta
    John-Top        3-Cl-Gen      book bought
    `John bought three books'
Example #7:

    ?*/* Gakusei-ga                Mary-ni         san-nin            biiru-o    ageta
    Student-Nom                Mary-Dat        3-Cl               beer-Acc   gave
    `Three students gave Mary beer' (N. Hasegawa, p.c.)
Example #8:

    a.     ?*Gakusei-ga          hako-ni        san-nin             koin-o     ireta
    Student-Nom          box-in         3-Cl                coin-Acc put
    `Three students put a coin/coins in a box.'
Example #9:

    b.     ?*Gakusei-ga            jaanaru-ni     huta-ri            ronbun-o        tookoosita
    Student-Nom         journal-to     2-Cl               paper-Acc       submitted
    `Two students submitted papers to a journal' (Y. Endo, p.c.)
Example #10:

    ?*Gakusei-ga            gatugatu     san-nin     susi-o         tabeta (koto)
    Student-Nom         greedily     3-Cl        sushi-Acc      ate       (fact)
    `Three students ate sushi greedily' (Kawashima 1998, citing Miyagawa 1989)
Example #11:

    *Gakusei-ga             hanmaa-de      san-nin            kurumi-o        watta
    Student-Nom            hammer-with 3-Cl                  walnut-Acc      cracked
    `Three students cracked walnuts with a hammer' (Koizumi 1994)
Example #12:

    a.     John-ga        hon-o          isoide             san-satu      katta
    John-Nom       book-Acc       quickly            3-Cl          bought
    `John quickly bought three books'      (Ishii 1998: 150)
Example #13:

    b.     Gakusei-ga     susi-o      gatugatu     mit-tu          tabeta (koto)
    Student-Nom sushi-Acc greedily          3-Cl            ate    (fact)
    `Students ate three pieces of sushi greedily' (K. Takezawa, p.c.)
Example #14:

    c.     Gakusei-ga              kurumi-o       hanmaa-de        mit-tu watta/kowasita
    Student-Nom             walnut-Acc     hammer-with 3-Cl         cracked/broke
    `Students cracked three walnuts with a hammer' (K. Takezawa, p.c.)
Example #15:

    Gakusei-ga             kyoo san-nin        hon-o      katta
    Students-Nom           today 3-Cl          book-Acc bought
    `Three students bought a book today' (Miyagawa 1989: 30, 44)
Example #16:

    Gakusei-ga       tosyokan-de            san-nin      hon-o     yondeita
    Student-Nom      library-in             3-Cl         book-Acc reading
    `Three students were reading books in the library' (Ueda 1990: 84)
Example #17:

    Gakusei-ga     [sono toki     [PRO san-nin [sakana-o tabe]-oe]-ta]
    Student-Nom that time                3-Cl       fish-Acc eat-finish-Past
    `Three students finished eating fish at that time' (Ura 1996; N. Hasegawa, Y. En
Example #18:

    a.     Gakusei-ga     [sakana-o      [PRO san-nin [tabe]-oe]-ta]
    Student-Nom fish-Acc                 3-Cl      eat-finish-Past
    `Three students finished eating fish at that time' (Ura 1996; N. Hasegawa, Y. En
Example #19:

    b.     *Gakusei-ga      sakana-o     san-nin         tabe-ta
    Student-Nom fish-Acc         3-Cl            eat-Past
    `Three students ate fish' (N. Hasegawa, Y. Endo p.c.)
Example #20:

    a.     Gakusei-ga     sono   ronbun-o       PRO      san-nin       kopii-si-wasure-ta
    Student-Nom that      paper-Acc               3-Cl          copy-do-forget-Past
    `Three students forgot to copy that paper' (N. Hasegawa, Y. Endo p.c.)
Example #21:

    b.     *Gakusei-ga           sono    ronbun-o        san-nin            kopii-si-ta
    Student-Nom          that    paper-Acc       3-Cl               copy-do-Past
    `Three students copied that paper' (N. Hasegawa, Y. Endo p.c.)
Example #22:

    (78)   John-wa           san-satu     hon-o           katta
    John-Top          3-Cl         book-Acc        bought
    `John bought three books'
Example #23:

    Huta-tu,        kodomo-ga       kozutumi-o          t        okutta
    2-Cl            child-Nom       package-Acc                  sent
    `The child sent two packages' (also attributed to Katagiri 1983)
Example #24:

    ?*Huta -ri,     hon-o           gakusei-ga    t     katta
    2-Cl          book-Acc        student-Nom         bought
    `Two students bought a book'
Example #25:

    *Huta-ri,       Tanaka-san-ni         gakusei-ga    t        omiyage-o     ageta
    2-Cl           Tanaka-Mr.-Dat        student-Nom            present-Acc   gave
    `Two students gave Mr. Tanaka a present'
Example #26:

    ?*Huta-ri,     naifu-de,        kodomo-ga            t   roopu-o        kitta
    2-Cl         knife-by         child-Nom                rope-Acc       cut
    `Two children cut the rope with a knife'
Example #27:

    Huta-ri,       kyoo,      gakusei-ga    t        nihongo-no     hon-o           katta
    2-Cl           today      student-Nom            Japanese-Gen book-Acc          bought
    `Today two students bought Japanese language books'
Example #28:

    Huta-ri,       ofisu-ni         gakusei-ga       t       kita
    2-Cl           office-to        student-Nom              came
    `Two students came to my office.'
Example #29:

    Huta-tu,       kono kagi-de           doa-ga         t      aita
    2-Cl           this     key-with      door-Nom              opened
    `Two doors opened with this key.'
Example #30:

    Yuube,         ni-dai          doroboo-ni       kuruma-ga   t         nusum-are-ta
    Last night     2-Cl            thief-by         car-Nom               steal-Pass-Past
    `Last night, two cars were stolen by a thief'
Example #31:

    *Huta-ri,      konpyuutaa-de          gakusei-ga     t      keisansita
    2-Cl           computer-by            student-Nom           calculated
    `Two students calculated by a computer.'
Example #32:

    *Huta-ri,      geragerato      kodomo-ga             t      waratta
    2-Cl          loudly          child-Nom                    laughed
    `Two children laughed loudly.'
Example #33:

    a.     Hanako-ga      sono/ano       hon-o             san-satu       katta   (koto)
    Hanako-Nom these              book-Acc          3-Cl           bought fact
    `Hanako bought these three books'
Example #34:

    b.     *Hanako-ga            san-satu        sono/ano         hon-o           katta    (koto)
    Hanako-Nom           3-Cl            these            book-Acc        bought fact
    `Hanako bought these three books'
Example #35:

    c.     *San-satu      Hanako-ga              sono/ano         hon-o           katta    (koto)
    3-Cl          Hanako-Nom             these            book-Acc        bought fact
    `Hanako bought these three books' (S. Miyagawa, p.c.)
Example #36:

    a.      Hanako-ga     san-satu        takai            hon-o        katta   (koto)
    Hanako-Nom 3-Cl               expensive        book-Acc     bought fact
    `Hanako bought three expensive books' (cf. (89a))
Example #37:

    b.      San-satu      Hanako-ga       takai            hon-o        katta   (koto)
    3-Cl          Hanako-Nom expensive             book-Acc     bought fact
    `Hanako bought three expensive books' (cf. (89b))
Example #38:

    c.      Hanako-ga     takai           hon-o            san-satu     katta   (koto)
    Hanako-Nom expensive          book-Acc         3-Cl         bought fact
    `Hanako bought three expensive books' (cf. (89c), S. Miyagawa, p.c.)
Example #39:

    (95)   a.     John-ga     gakusei-tati-o       san-nin     [ PRO Boston-e     iku-yooni ] settokusita
    John-Nom student-Pl-Acc          3-Cl               Boston-to   go-C        persuaded
    `John persuaded three students to go to Boston'
Example #40:

    Mae-ni (pro) kat-ta            koto na-i         keredo,
    Before     I    buy-Past       fact not-Pres but
    `I have never bought an espresso machine before but',
Example #41:

    a.     ?*/# Boku-ga esupuresso masin-o                 mata hito-tu kai-masu
    I-Nom espresso       machine-Acc           again one-Cl        buy-Fut
    ?*`I will buy an espresso machine, (and an espresso machine was in the possessio
Example #42:

    b.      Boku-ga       esupuresso masin-o               hito-tu      mata     kai-masu
    I-Nom         espresso      machine-Acc        one-Cl      again     buy-Fut
    department before)' [restitutive reading]
Example #43:

    a.   ?* Kondo-wa       boku-ga pizza-o         mata hito-tu             tyuumon-su-ru-yo
    This.time-Top I-Nom       pizza-Acc again one-Cl                 order-do-Pres-Assertive
    `This time, I will order a pizza again.'
Example #44:

    b.     Kondo-wa         boku-ga pizza-o           hito-tu      mata       tyuumon-su-ru-yo
    This time-Top I-Nom         pizza-Acc      one-Cl       again      order-do-Pres-Assertive
    `This time, I will order a pizza again.' (N. Hasegawa, p.c.)
Example #45:

    John-ga        hon-o           Mary-ni           san-satu       age-ta
    John-Nom       book-Acc        Mary-Dat          3-Cl           give-Past
    `John gave three books to Mary' (adapted from Hoji 1985; K. Takezawa, p.c.)
Example #46:

    (116) a. John-ga      Mary-ni      kuruma-o      mata      kat-ta
    John-Nom Mary-Dat        car-Acc      again      buy-Past
    'John bought a car for Mary' (restitutive, repetitive)
Example #47:

    b. John-ga     Mary-ni       mata      kuruma-o kat-ta
    John-Nom Mary-Dat         again     car-Acc        buy-Past
    'John bought a car for Mary' (?restitutive, repetitive)
Example #48:

    c. John-ga      mata     Mary-ni        kuruma-o kat-ta
    John-Nom again        Mary-Dat       car-Acc      buy-Past
    'John bought a car for Mary' (*restitutive, repetitive) (K. Takezawa, p.c.)
Example #49:

    (117) a. John-ga      Mary-ni       kuruma-o     iti-dai     mata     kat-ta
    John-Nom Mary-Dat          car-Acc     one-Cl       again buy-Past
    'John bought one car for Mary' (restitutive, repetitive)
Example #50:

    b. John-ga    Mary-ni       kuruma-o mata           iti-dai      kat-ta
    John-Nom Mary-Dat         car-Acc       again     one-Cl      buy-Past
    'John bought one car for Mary' (*restitutive, repetitive) (K. Takezawa, p.c.)
Example #51:

    a.     Taroo-ga      hadaka-de      hon-o            yonda
    Taro-Nom      naked-DE       book-Acc         read
    `Taro read a book naked'
Example #52:

    b.     Hanako-ga     kimono-sugata-de       odotta
    Hanako-Nom kimono-dress-DE           danced
    `Hanako danced in kimono' (Koizumi 1994: 27)
Example #53:

    a.     Taroo-ga      katuo-o        nama-de          tabeta
    Taro-Nom      bonito-Acc     raw-DE           ate
    `Taro ate the bonito raw'
Example #54:

    b.     Hanako-ga     kuruma-o       tyuuko-de                 katta
    Hanako-Nom car-Acc           secondhand-DE             bought
    `Hanako bought a car used' (Koizumi 1994: 27)
Example #55:

    (122) a.      John-ga     sita no wa [sono hako-no naka-ni         ringo-o     ireru]-koto da
    John-Nom did NL Top that box-Gen inside-in apple-Acc put -NL Cop
    `What John did is put an apple in that box'
Example #56:

    b.     *John-ga      [sono hako-no naka-ni ringo-o]        sita no wa [ireru]-koto da
    John-Nom that box-Gen        inside-in apple-Acc did NL Top put-NL               Cop
    `What John did an apple in the box is put'
Example #57:

    c.     *John-ga [sono hako-no naka-ni] sita no wa [ringo-o                  ireru]-koto da
    John-Nom that box-Gen inside-in did NL Top apple-Acc put-NL                    Cop
    `What John did in the box is put an apple'
Example #58:

    (125) a.        Taroo-wa      sinroo-ni           hanataba-o       watasi-ta
    Taro-Top      bridegroom-Dat      bouquet-Acc      hand-Past
    `Taro handed a bouquet to the bridegroom'
Example #59:

    b.      Hanako-mo      soo-si-ta
    Hanako-also    so-do-Past
    `Hanako did so, too (handed a bouquet to the bridegroom)'
Example #60:

    c.      Hanako-wa      sinpu-ni        soo-si-ta
    Hanako-Top bride-Dat           so-do-Past
    `Hanako did so to the bride (handed a bouquet to the bride)'
Example #61:

    (126) a.     Hanako-ga      kimono-sugata-de       suika-o            tabeta
    Hanako-Nom kimono-dress-DE            watermelon-Acc     ate
    `Hanako ate watermelon in kimono'
Example #62:

    b.      Ziroo-mo      soo-si-ta
    Jiro-also     so-do-Past
    `Jiro did so, too (ate watermelon (in kimono))'
Example #63:

    (127) a.     Hanako-ga      Sentra-o       sinsya-de         katta
    Hanako-Nom Sentra-Acc         new-DE            bought
    `Hanako bought a sentra new'
Example #64:

    b.     Ziroo-mo       soo-si-ta
    Jiro-also      so-do-Past
    `Jiro did so, too (bought a Sentra new, too)
Example #65:

    (128) a.     Hanako-ga      sinsya-de      Sentra-o          katta
    Hanako-Nom new-DE             Sentra-Acc        bought
    `Hanako bought a Sentra new'
Example #66:

    b.     *Ziroo-wa      tyuuko-de      soo-si-ta
    Jiro-Top      used-DE        so-do-Past
    `Jiro did so used'
Example #67:

    (132) a.        Gakusei-ga            san-nin         hadaka-de    katuo-o      tabeta
    Student-Nom           3-Cl            naked-DE     bonito-Acc   ate
    `Three students ate the bonito naked'
Example #68:

    b.       ?Gakusei-ga           hadaka-de       san-nin      katuo-o      tabeta
    Student-Nom          naked-DE        3-Cl         bonito-Acc   ate
    `Three students ate the bonito naked'
Example #69:

    (133) a.       Gakusei-ga             san-nin                nama-de    katuo-o        tabeta
    Student-Nom            3-Cl                   raw-DE     bonito-Acc     ate
    `Three students ate the bonito raw'
Example #70:

    b.      *Gakusei-ga            nama-de                san-nin    katuo-o        tabeta
    Student-Nom           raw-DE                 3-Cl       bonito-Acc     ate
    `Three students ate the bonito raw'
Example #71:

    a.   Gakusei-ga    san-nin sita no wa        [sono hako-no naka-ni ringo-o        ireru]-koto da
    Student-Nom 3-Cl        did NL Top      that    box-Gen inside-in apple-Acc put   -NL Cop
    `What three student did is put an apple in that box'
Example #72:

    b.   *Gakusei-ga   sita no wa [san-nin sono hako-no naka-ni         ringo-o     ireru]-koto da
    Student-Nom did NL Top 3-Cl          that box-Gen inside-in apple-Acc put- NL        Cop
    `What three students did is put an apple in that box' (Koizumi 1994: 34)
Example #73:

    a.     Hanako-ga      kimono-sugata-de       suika-o                tabeta
    Hanako-Nom kimono-dress-DE            watermelon-Acc         ate
    `Hanako ate watermelon in kimono'
Example #74:

    b.     Hanako-ga      suika-o                kimono-sugata-de       tabeta
    Hanako-Nom watermelon-Acc             kimono-dress-DE        ate
    `Hanako ate watermelon in kimono'
Example #75:

    a.     Taroo-ga       katuo-o            san-biki          nama-de        tabeta
    Taro-Nom       bonito-Acc         3-Cl              raw-DE         ate
    `Taro ate three pieces of bonito raw.'
Example #76:

    b.     Taroo-ga       katuo-o            nama-de           san-biki       tabeta
    Taro-Nom       bonito-Acc         raw-DE            3-Cl           ate
    `Taro ate three pieces of bonito raw.'
Example #77:

    c.      Taroo-ga      nama-de        katuo-o         san-biki        tabeta
    Taro-Nom      raw-DE         bonito-Acc      3-Cl            ate
    `Taro ate three pieces of bonito raw.' (S. Miyagawa, p.c.)
Example #78:

    a.     John-ga        Mary-ni        sinsya-de        kuruma-o       mata kat-ta
    John-Nom       Mary-Dat       new-DE           car-Acc        again buy-Past
    `John bought a new car for Mary again' (restitutive, repetitive)
Example #79:

    b.     John-ga        Mary-ni        sinsya-de        mata      kuruma-o kat-ta
    John-Nom       Mary-Dat       new-DE           again     car-Acc     buy-Past
    `John bought a new car for Mary again' (?restitutive, repetitive)
Example #80:

    c.     John-ga        mata      Mary-ni         sinsya-de       kuruma-o kat-ta
    John-Nom       again     Mary-Dat        new-DE          car-Acc     buy-Past
    `John bought a new car for Mary again' (*restitutive, repetitive)
Example #81:

    a.    John-ga     Mary-ni      kuruma-o sinsya-de         mata      kat-ta
    John-Nom Mary-Dat        car-Acc      new-DE       again       buy-Past
    'John bought a new car for Mary' (restitutive, repetitive)
Example #82:

    b.     John-ga    Mary-ni      kuruma-o mata sinsya-de kat-ta
    John-Nom Mary-Dat car-Acc             again    new-DE       buy-Past
    'John bought a new car for Mary' (?restitutive, repetitive)
Example #83:

    c.    John-ga     mata Mary-ni           kuruma-o     sinsya-de       kat-ta
    John-Nom again Mary-Dat          car-Acc        new-DE         buy-Past
    'John bought a new car for Mary' (*restitutive, repetitive)
Example #84:

    a.    John-ga     Mary-ni      kuruma-o sinsya-de       iti-dai      mata kat-ta
    John-Nom Mary-Dat        car-Acc      new-DE      one-Cl      again      buy-Past
    'John bought one new car for Mary' (restitutive, repetitive)
Example #85:

    b.     John-ga    Mary-ni      kuruma-o sinsya-de mata             iti-dai       kat-ta
    John-Nom Mary-Dat car-Acc             new-DE     again       one-Cl      buy-Past
    'John bought one new car for Mary' (*restitutive, repetitive)
Example #86:

    (i) a. Hanako-ga         sinsya-de    Sentra-o       katta
    Hanako-Nom new-DE             Sentra-Acc bought
    `Hanako bought a Sentra new'
Example #87:

    b. *Ziroo-wa         tyuuko-de soo-si-ta
    Jiro-Top        used-DE    so-do-Past
    `Jiro did so used'
Example #88:

    a.      John-ga        kabe-o           massiro-ni/*-de      nutta
    John-Nom       wall-Acc         purewhite-NI/DE      painted
    `John painted the wall white'
Example #89:

    b.      John-ga        teeburu-o        kirei-ni/*-de        huita
    John-Nom       table-Acc        clean-NI/DE          wiped
    `John wiped the table clean' (Takezawa 1993)
Example #90:

    a.      John-ga        sakana-o         nama-*ni/-de         tabeta
    John-Nom       fish-Acc         raw-NI/DE            ate
    `John ate the fish raw'
Example #91:

    b.      John-ga        hadaka-*ni/-de           sakana-o     tabeta
    John-Nom       nude-NI/DE               fish-Acc     ate
    `John ate the fish nude'
Example #92:

    a.      John-ga        aisukuriimu-o         kotikoti-ni     kooraseta
    John-Nom       ice cream-Acc         solid-NI        froze
    `John froze the ice cream solid'
Example #93:

    b.      John-ga        sakana-o              makkuro-ni              kogasita
    John-Nom       fish-Acc              deep.black-NI           burned
    `John burned the fish black'
Example #94:

    a.      Aisukuriimu-ga        kotikoti-ni    kootta
    Ice cream-Nom         solid-NI       froze
    `The ice cream froze solid'
Example #95:

    b.      Sakana-ga      makkuro-ni            kogeta
    Fish-Nom       deep.black-NI         burned
    `The fish burned black'
Example #96:

    a.      John-ga       kutakuta-ni            tukareta
    John-Nom      exhausted-NI           tired
    `John became tired'
Example #97:

    b.      John-ga       dorodarke-ni           natta
    John-Nom      muddy-NI               became
    `John became muddy'
Example #98:

    a.      *John-ga      kutakuta-ni            odotta
    John-Nom     exhausted-NI           danced
    `John danced until (he was) exhausted'
Example #99:

    b.      *John-ga      dorodarake-ni          asonda
    John-Nom      muddy-NI               played
    `John played until (he was) muddy'
Example #100:

    a.      John-ga       kutakuta-de            odotta
    John-Nom      exhausted-DE           danced
    `John danced when (he was) exhausted'
Example #101:

    b.      John-ga       dorodarake-de          asonda
    John-Nom      muddy-DE               played
    `John played when (he was) muddy'
Example #102:

    a.      *John-ga      kuruma-o        makka-ni         ni-dai         nutta
    John-Nom     car-Acc         red-NI           2-Cl           painted
    `John painted two cars red'
Example #103:

    b.      *John-ga      kodomo-o        rippa-ni          san-nin    sodateta
    John-Nom     child-Acc       admirable-NI      3-Cl       raised
    `John raised three children to be admirable'
Example #104:

    a.      *Kuruma-o      John-ga        makka-ni         ni-dai         nutta
    Car-Acc       John-Nom       red-NI           two-Cl         painted
    `John painted two cars red'
Example #105:

    b.      *Kodomo-o       John-ga       rippa-ni          san-nin       sodateta
    Child-Acc      John-Nom      admirable-NI      three-Cl      raised
    `John raised three children to be admirable' (S. Miyagawa, p.c.)
Example #106:

    a.      *Kuruma-o      makka-ni       John-ga          ni-dai         nutta
    Car-Acc       red-NI         John-Nom         two-Cl         painted
    `John painted two cars red'
Example #107:

    b.     *Kodomo-o        rippa-ni        John-ga          san-nin   sodateta
    Child-Acc       admirable-NI John-Nom            3-Cl      raised
    `John raised three children to be admirable' (S. Miyagawa, p.c.)
Example #108:

    a.     Kuruma-o        ni-dai         John-ga           makka-ni       nutta
    Car-Acc         two-Cl         John-Nom          red-NI         painted
    `John painted two cars red'
Example #109:

    b.     Kodomo-o         san-nin      John-ga            rippa-ni        sodateta
    Child-Acc        3-Cl         John-Nom           admirable-NI    raised
    `John raised three children to be admirable' (S. Miyagawa, p.c.)
Example #110:

    (i) ?? Makka-ni kuruma-o John-ga               ni-dai nutta
    Red-NI      car-Acc       John-Nom 2-Cl         painted
    `John painted two cars red'
Example #111:

    John-ga         makka-ni        kuruma-o        nutta
    John-Nom        red-NI          car-Acc         painted
    John painted the/a car read' (K. Takezawa, p.c.)
Example #112:

    a.     Shatu-ga        san-mai         dorodarake-ni             yogoreta
    Shirt-Nom       3-Cl            muddy-NI                  became.dirty
    `Three shirts became dirty with dirt'
Example #113:

    b.     *Shatu-ga       dorodarake-ni           san-mai           yogoreta
    Shirt-Nom      muddy-NI                3-Cl              became.dirty
    `Three shirts became dirty with dirt' (K. Takezawa, p.c.; Takezawa 2000)
Example #114:

    a.       Gakusei-ga           san-nin         kutakuta-ni       tukareta
    Student-Nom          3-Cl            exhausted-NI      tired
    `Three students became tired'
Example #115:

    b.      *Gakusei-ga            kutakuta-ni            san-nin           tukareta
    Student-Nom           exhausted-NI           3-Cl              tired
    `Three students became tired' (K. Takezawa, p.c.)
Example #116:

    a.      Gakusei-ga     san-nin dorodarke-ni           natta
    Student-Nom 3-Cl          exhausted-NI        became
    'Three students became muddy'.
Example #117:

    b.      *Gakusei-ga      dorodarke-ni         san-nin natta
    Student-Nom     exhausted-NI         3-Cl      became
    'Three students became muddy'. (K. Takezawa, p.c.)
Example #118:

    a.     Taro-ga        sakana-o         hanbun-ni        nama-de     kit-ta
    Taro-Nom       fish-Acc         half-NI          raw-DE      cut-Past
    `Taro cut raw fish into half'
Example #119:

    b.     *Taro-ga       nama-de          sakana-o         hanbun-ni   ni-hiki        kit-ta
    Taro-Nom     raw-DE           fish-Acc         half-NI     2-Cl           cut-Past
    `Taro cut two pieces of raw fish into half' (K. Takezawa, p.c.)
Example #120:

    Taro-ga        hanbun-ni        sakana-o         nama-de     ni-hiki        kit-ta
    Taro-Nom       half-NI          fish-Acc         raw-DE      2-Cl           cut-Past
    `Taro cut two pieces of raw fish into half' (K. Takezawa, p.c.)
Example #121:

    a.       John-ga       kuruma-o        makka-ni        nutta
    John-Nom      car-Acc         red-NI          painted
    'John painted the/a car red'   (K. Takezawa, p.c.)
Example #122:

    b.       John-ga       makka-ni        kuruma-o        nutta
    John-Nom      red-NI          car-Acc         painted
    'John painted the/a car read' (K. Takezawa, p.c.)
Example #123:

    a.      John-ga        kuruma-o        Mary-ni         ni-dai             ageta
    John-Nom       car-Acc         Mary-NI         two-Cl             gave
    `John gave two cars to Mary'
Example #124:

    b.      John-ga        hon-o           tukue-no ue-ni            zyus-satu        oita
    John-Nom       book-Acc        desk-Gen on-ni            ten-Cl           put
    `John put ten books on the desk' (K. Takezawa, p.c.)
Example #125:

    a.      Kodomo-ga       huta-ri    mise-ni     kita
    Child-Nom       2-Cl       shop-to     came
    `Two children came to the shop'
Example #126:

    b.      Kodomo-ga       mise-ni       huta-ri         kita
    Child-Nom       shop-to       2-Cl        came
    `Two children came to the shop' (K. Takezawa, p.c.)
Example #127:

    a.      Tegami-ga      san-tuu        uti-ni             todoita
    Letter-Nom     3-Cl           home-at            arrived
    `Three letters arrived at home'
Example #128:

    b.      Tegami-ga      uti-ni         san-tuu            todoita
    Letter-Nom     home-at        3-Cl               arrived
    `Three letters arrived at home' (K. Takezawa, p.c.)
Example #129:

    ?*2-ri,          hon-o         gakusei-ga     t      katta
    2-Cl           book-Acc      student-Nom           bought
    `Two students bought a book'
Example #130:

    2-ri      kyoo   gakusei-ga     t     nihongo-no     hon-o           katta
    2-Cl      today student-Nom           Japanese-Gen book-Acc          bought
    `Today two students bought Japanese language books'
Example #131:

    (ii) ?*Subete Hanako-ga                hon-o               katta   (koto)
    All       Hanako-Nom           book-Acc            bought fact
    `Hanako bought all the books' (Kawashima 1998)
Example #132:

    (277) A:         (Ecey)         mwusun         il-i            iss-ess-ni?
    Yesterday     what           thing-Nom       exist-Past-Q
    `What happened (yesterday)?'
Example #133:

    (278) A:         (Ecey)         mwusun         il-i            iss-ess-ni?
    Yesterday     what           thing-Nom       exist-Past-Q
    `What happened (yesterday)?'
Example #134:

    (i)     *Tinamini,      gakusei-ga       mado-o     ###    huta-ri watta
    Incidentally, student-Nom      window.glass-Acc 2-Cl        broke
    `Incidentally, two students broke window glass'
Example #135:

    (ii)    *Tinamini,      gakusei-ga huta-ri          ###    mado-o                        watta
    Incidentally, student-Nom 2-Cl                   window.glass-Acc              broke
    `Incidentally, two students broke window glass'
Example #136:

    a.     *Mazu          gakusei-ga       mado-o              huta-ri        watta
    First,        student-Nom      window.glass-Acc 2-Cl              broke
    `First, two students broke window glass'
Example #137:

    b.     *Tugini        sensei-ga        Mary-o              san-nin        sikatta
    Next          teacher-Nom      Mary-Acc            3-Cl           scolded
    `Next, three teachers scolded Mary'
Example #138:

    c.     *Sorekara     oyatati-ga        sake-o              zyuu-nin       nonda
    Then,         parent-Nom       sake-Acc            10-Cl          drank
    '10 parents drank sake' (N. Hasegawa, p.c.)
Example #139:

    c.     Dai-san-ni, dansaa-ga        isyoo-o             huta-ri-dake    motte-ki-ta
    Third,       dancer-Nom      stage.dress-Acc 2-Cl-only           have-come-Past
    `Third, only two dancers brought a (proper) dance dress.' (N. Hasegawa, Y. Endo,