ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Domenic Cipollone (2001). MORPHOLOGICALLY COMPLEX PREDICATES IN JAPANESE AND WHAT THEY TELL US ABOUT GRAMMAR ARCHITECTURE.

URL: http://ling.ohio-state.edu/information/osu_wpl/osuwpl-56/osuwpl56-nci.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 45&langcode=jpn (2018-10-21).

 

Example #1:

    (1) a. Taroo-ga it-ta
    Taroo-NOM go-PAST
    `Taroo went.'
Example #2:

    b. Hanako-ga Taroo-o ik-ase-ta
    Hanako-NOM Taroo-ACC go-CAUSE-PAST
    `Hanako made Taroo go.'
Example #3:

    c. Hanako-ga Taroo-ni ik-ase-ta
    Hanako-NOM Taroo-DAT go-CAUSE-PAST
    `Hanako made Taroo go.'
Example #4:

    (2) a. Taroo-ga miruku-o non-da
    Taroo-NOM milk-ACC drink-PAST
    `Taroo drank milk.'
Example #5:

    b.  Hanako-ga Taroo-o miruku-o nom-ase-ta
    Hanako-NOM Taroo-ACC milk-ACC drink-CAUSE-PAST
    `Hanako made Taroo drink milk.'
Example #6:

    c. Hanako-ga Taroo-ni miruku-o nom-ase-ta
    Hanako-NOM Taroo-DAT milk-ACC drink-CAUSE-PAST
    `Hanako made Taroo drink milk.'
Example #7:

    (3) a. Taroo-ga Ken-ni hon-o       age-ta
    Taroo-NOM Ken-DAT book-ACC give-PAST
    `Taroo gave a book to Ken.'
Example #8:

    b.  Hanako-ga Taroo-o Ken-ni hon-o         age-sase-ta
    Hanako-NOM Taroo-ACC Ken-DAT book-ACC give-CAUSE-PAST
    `Hanako made Taroo give a book to Ken.'
Example #9:

    c. Hanako-ga Taroo-ni Ken-ni hon-o         age-sase-ta
    Hanako-NOM Taroo-DAT Ken-DAT book-ACC give-CAUSE-PAST
    `Hanako made Taroo give a book to Ken.'
Example #10:

    (6) a. gohan-o tabe tabe
    rice-ACC eat eat
    `eating rice repeatedly'
Example #11:

    b. ? gohan-o tabe-sase tabe-sase
    rice-ACC eat-CAUSE eat-CAUSE
    `causing someone to eat rice repeatedly'
Example #12:

    (7) a. Sensei-ga imooto-ni                 purezento-o o-okuri-ni naru
    teacher-NOM (my) younger sister-DAT present-ACC send (HON)
    `The teacher will (honorably) send (my) younger sister a present'
Example #13:

    b. # Imooto-ga              sensei-ni purezento-o o-okuri-ni naru
    (my) younger sister-NOM teacher-DAT present-ACC send (HON)
    `(My) younger sister will (honorably) send the teacher a present'
Example #14:

    (8) a. Sensei-ga imooto-ni                 hon-o     o-yom-ase-ni naru
    teacher-NOM (my) younger sister-DAT book-ACC read-CAUSE (HON)
    `The teacher will make (my) younger sister read a book
Example #15:

    (9) a. Imooto-wa miruku-o/ -ga nom-u
    sister-TOP milk-ACC/ -NOM drink-NPAST
    `(My) younger sister drinks/will drink milk.'
Example #16:

    b. Imooto-wa miruku-o/-ga nom-e-ru
    sister-TOP milk-ACC/-NOM drink-POT-NPAST
    `(My) younger sister can drink milk.'
Example #17:

    (10) a. Okaasan-wa imooto-ni miruku-o/ -ga nom-ase-ru
    mother-TOP sister-DAT milk-ACC/ -NOM drink-CAUSE-NPAST
    `(My) mother makes/will make (my) younger sister drink milk.'
Example #18:

    b. Okaasan-wa imooto-ni miruku-o/-ga nom-ase-rare-ru
    mother-TOP sister-DAT milk-ACC/-NOM drink-CAUSE-POT-NPAST
    `(My) mother can make (my) younger sister drink milk.'
Example #19:

    (11) a. A: [Taroo-ga ik-u    yoo ni] shi-ta ka?
    Taroo-NOM go-NPAST (COMP) do-PAST QUES
    `Have (you) arranged for Taroo to go?'
Example #20:

    (12) a. A: [Taroo-ga it-te   kure-ru yoo ni] tanon-da ka?
    Taroo-NOM [go-GER give-NPAST (COMP)] ask-PAST QUES
    `Have (you) asked Taroo to go?'
Example #21:

    (13) a. A: Taroo-o ik-ase-ta      ka?
    Taroo-ACC go-CAUSE-PAST QUES
    `Have (you) caused Taroo to go?'
Example #22:

    b. B: ik-ase-ta       (yo)
    go-CAUSE-PAST EMPH
    `Yes, I have' lit. `Caused to go.'
Example #23:

    (14) a. Suzuki-sensei-ga Taroo-ni gakkoo-de hashir-ase-ta
    Suzuki-teacher-NOM Taroo-DAT school-LOC run-CAUSE-PAST
    Narrow scope: `Suzuki-sensei made Taroo [run at school]'
Example #24:

    b. Hanako-ga Taroo-ni hooki-de       yuka-o hak-ase-ta
    Hanako-NOM Taroo-DAT broom-INSTR floor-ACC sweep-CAUSE-PAST
    Narrow scope: `Hanako made Taroo [sweep the floor with a broom]'
Example #25:

    (15) a. Sensei-ga gakusei-ni san-satsu-no          hon-o     yom-ase-ta
    teacher-NOM students-DAT three-volumes-GEN book-ACC read-CAUSE-PAST
    read'
Example #26:

    b. watashi-wa nanninka-no       tomodachi-o suupaa-ni        ik-ase-ru
    I-TOP       a few people-GEN friends-ACC grocery store-to go-CAUSE-NPAST
    Narrow scope: `I will make several friends go to the grocery store'
Example #27:

    (16) a. Hanakoi -ga Taroo j -ni jibuni/ j -no shashin-o mi-sase-ta
    Hanako-NOM Taroo-DAT self -GEN photo-ACC see-CAUSE-PAST
    `Hanakoi made Taroo j see heri /his j picture.'
Example #28:

    b. Hanakoi -ga Taroo j -ni jibuni/ j -no shashin-o mise-ta
    Hanako-NOM Taroo-DAT self -GEN        photo-ACC show-PAST
    `Hanakoi showed Taroo j heri / his j picture.'
Example #29:

    (17) a. Ken-ga Suzuki-sensei-o     o-aruki-ni nar-ase-ta
    Ken-NOM Suzuki-teacher-ACC HON-walk-HON-CAUSE-PAST
    `Ken made Prof. Suzuki (honorably) walk.'
Example #30:

    b. #Suzuki-sensei-ga Ken-o o-aruki-ni nar-ase-ta
    Suzuki-teacher-NOM Ken-ACC HON-walk-HON-CAUSE-PAST
    #`Prof. Suzuki made Ken (honorably) walk.'
Example #31:

    (18) okaasan-ga kodomo-ni yasai-o          tabe-sase-ta
    mother-NOM child-DAT vegetables-ACC eat-CAUSE-PAST
    `The mother made the child eat the vegetables'
Example #32:

    (23) okaasan-ga kodomo-ni yasai-o          tabe-sase-ta
    mother-NOM child-DAT vegetables-ACC eat-CAUSE-PAST
    `The mother made the child eat the vegetables'
Example #33:

    (25) a. John-ga Mary-o Tookyoo-ni ik-ase-ta
    John-NOM Mary-ACC Tokyo-to go-CAUS-NPAST
    `John let Mary go to Tokyo'
Example #34:

    (26) a. Hanako-ga piano-o hontoo-ni hik-e-ru
    Hanako-NOM piano-ACC truly          play-POT-NPAST
    Wide scope: `Hanako truly can play the piano'
Example #35:

    b. Hanako-ga piano-o joozu-ni hik-e-ru
    Hanako-NOM piano-ACC skillfully play-POT-NPAST
    Narrow scope: `Hanako can play the piano skillfully'
Example #36:

    (27) a. watashi-wa [san-satsu-no hon] N P -o yom-e-ru
    I-TOP      [3-volumes-GEN book]-ACC read-POT-NPAST
    cannot.)'
Example #37:

    (29) a. watashi-wa hashir-i-ta-i
    I-TOP        run-RYK-DESID-NPAST
    `I want to run'
Example #38:

    b. watashi-wa kono hon-o/-ga       yom-i-ta-i
    I-TOP        this book-ACC/-NOM read-RYK-DESID-NPAST
    `I want to read this book'
Example #39:

    (30) a. watashi-wa Tookyoo-ni zettai-ni       ik-i-ta-i
    I-TOP      Tokyo-to absolutely        go-RYK-DESID-NPAST
    Wide scope: `I absolutely want to     go to Tokyo'
Example #40:

    b. watashi-wa Tookyoo-ni    hikooki-de        ik-i-ta-i
    I-TOP      Tokyo-to      airplane-INST     go-RYK-DESID-NPAST
    Narrow scope: `I want    to go to Tokyo    by airplane'
Example #41:

    (31) a. watashi-wa [san-satsu-no hon] N P -o yom-i-ta-i
    I-TOP      [3-volumes-GEN book]-ACC read-RYK-DESID-NPAST
    four.)'
Example #42:

    (32) a. watashi-wa hashir-ana-i
    I-TOP        run-NEG-NPAST
    `I will not/do not run'
Example #43:

    b. watashi-wa kono hon-o         yom-ana-i
    I-TOP        this book-ACC read-NEG-NPAST
    `I will not/do not read this book'
Example #44:

    (33) a. Taroo-wa hon-o      hotondo yom-ana-i
    Taroo-TOP books-ACC almost read-NEG-NPAST
    Wide scope: `Taroo almost never reads books'
Example #45:

    b. Taroo-wa hon-o      hayaku yom-ana-i
    Taroo-TOP books-ACC quickly read-NEG-NPAST
    Narrow scope: `Taroo doesn't read books quickly'
Example #46:

    (34) a. watashi-wa [san-satsu-no hon] N P -o yom-ana-i
    I-TOP      [3-volumes-GEN book]-ACC read-NEG-NPAST
    two.)'
Example #47:

    (35) a. (watashi-ni totte)        kono hon-ga yom-i-niku-i
    (I-DAT      according to) this book-NOM read-RYK-HARD-NPAST
    `This book is hard (for me) to read'
Example #48:

    b. (watashi-ni totte)        yakisoba-ga tsukur-i-yasu-i
    (I-DAT      according to) yakisoba-NOM make-RYK-EASY-NPAST
    `Yakisoba is easy (for me) to make'
Example #49:

    (36) a. piano-ga totemo             hik-i-niku-i
    piano-NOM very              play-RYK-HARD-NPAST
    Wide scope: `The             piano is very hard to play'
Example #50:

    b. piano-ga joozu-ni hik-i-niku-i
    piano-NOM skillfully play-RYK-HARD-NPAST
    Narrow scope: `The piano is hard to play skillfully'
Example #51:

    (37) a. [san-satsu-no hon] N P -ga yom-i-niku-i
    [3-volumes-GEN book]-NOM read-RYK-HARD-NPAST
    Narrow scope: `Three books are hard to read (...at one sitting.)'
Example #52:

    (42) a. Taroo-ga nani-o te-ni ire-ta no
    Taroo-NOM what-ACC obtain-PAST QUES
    `What did Taroo obtain ?'
Example #53:

    b. Taroo-ga naze sore-o te-ni ire-ta no
    Taroo-NOM why that-ACC obtain-PAST QUES
    `Why did Taroo obtain that (thing) ?'
Example #54:

    (43) a. [N P [S Taroo-ga nani-o te-ni ire-ta ] koto]-o sonnani okotteru       no
    Taroo-NOM        what-ACC obtain-PAST fact-ACC so much be angry-NPAST QUES
    Lit., `What are you so angry about the fact that Taroo obtained ?'
Example #55:

    b.  [N P [S Taroo-ga naze sore-o te-ni ire-ta ] koto]-o sonnani okotteru        no
    Taroo-NOM         why that-ACC obtain-PAST fact-ACC so much be angry-NPAST QUES
    Lit., `Why are you so angry about the fact that Taroo obtained that (thing) ?'
Example #56:

    (44) a. John-ga [[kodomo-ga batto-de garasu-o wat-ta] to] nagei-ta
    John-NOM child-NOM       bat-INST glass-ACC broke COMP regret-PAST
    `John regretted that the child broke the glass with the bat'
Example #57:

    b. [[John-ga [[kodomo-ga batto-de ei wat-ta] to] nagei-ta] garasui ]-wa taka-katta
    John-NOM child-NOM      bat-INST ei broke COMP regret-PAST glassi -TOP costly-PAST
    `The glass that John regretted that the child broke with the bat was expensive'
Example #58:

    c. [[John-ga [[ei batto-de garasu-o wat-ta] to] nagei-ta] kodomoi ]-wa kare da
    John-NOM ei bat-INST glass-ACC broke COMP regret-PAST childi -TOP   him COP
    `He's the child that John regretted broke the glass with the bat'
Example #59:

    d.  [[John-ga [[kodomo-ga ei garasu-o wat-ta] to] nagei-ta] battoi ]-wa kore da
    John-NOM child-NOM        ei glass-ACC broke COMP regret-PAST bati -TOP this COP
    `This is the bat that John regretted that the child broke the glass (with)'
Example #60:

    (45) [[kodomo-ga ei garasu-o wat-ta] battoi ]-wa kore da
    child-NOM      ei glass-ACC broke bati -TOP this COP
    `This is the bat that the child broke the glass (with)'
Example #61:

    (69) a. John-wa Biru-ni hashir-ase-ta                                    [persuasive causative]
    John-TOP Bill-DAT run-CAUSE-PAST
    `John made Bill run'
Example #62:

    b. John-wa Biru-o hashir-ase-ta                                       [coercive causative]
    John-TOP Bill-DAT run-CAUSE-PAST
    `John made Bill run'