ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Sun-Hee Lee (2002). Unbounded Dependency in Korean Tough Constructions.

URL: http://ling.ohio-state.edu/~shlee/lsk_tough.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 46&langcode=kor (2019-04-22).

 

Example #1:

    (2) a. i chaykj -i [ j ilk - ki         ]-ey swipta
    this book-Nom        read-NML -for easy
    `This book is easy in terms of reading.'
Example #2:

    b. i chaykj-i [         j ilk - ki ]-ka swipta
    this book-Nom          read-NML - Nom easy
    `This book is easy to read'
Example #3:

    (3) a. yengej -ka [ honcase        j paywu-ki     ]-ey elyepta
    English- Nom by oneself       learn-NML -for hard
    `In terms of learning by oneself, English is hard.'
Example #4:

    b. yengej -ka [ honcase         j paywu-ki  ]-ka elyepta
    English- Nom by oneself        learn-NML - Nom hard
    `English is hard to learn by oneself '
Example #5:

    (4) Maryj -ka [      j mal-ul    kel-ki  ]-ka/-ey elyepta
    Mary- Nom          talk- Acc do-NML -for      hard
    `Mary is hard to start talking (to)'
Example #6:

    (5) Lazarusj-ka [      j shyophingha-ki   ]-ka/ey swipta
    Lazarus-Nom          do shopping-NML - Nom/for easy
    `Lazarus is easy to do shopping (in)'
Example #7:

    (6) yenphilj -i    [    j kulssi-lul sseu-ki     ]-ka/ey himtulta
    a pencil-Nom          letters- Acc write-NML - Nom/for tough
    `A pencil is tough to write letters (with).'
Example #8:

    b. [kyewul-ey swuyeng-ul paywu-ki ]-ka himtulta
    winter-In swimming learn-NML - Nom tough
    `It is tough to learn swimming in winter.'
Example #9:

    (8) a. yengej -ka [ j kongpwu-lul ha-ki          ]-ey swipta
    English- Nom         study- Acc do-NML -for easy
    (lit.) `English is easy for doing study.'
Example #10:

    b.  yenge-ka       kongpwu-ey swipta
    English- Nom study- For easy
    `English is easy in terms of studying.'
Example #11:

    (9) a. yengej-ka     [ j kongpwu-lul ha-ki    ]-ka swipta
    English-Nom         study- Acc do-NML- Nom easy
    `English is easy to do study.'
Example #12:

    b. yenge-ka      kongpwu-ka swipta
    English- Nom study- Nom easy
    `English is easy to study.'
Example #13:

    (10) umsikj-i [ salamtul-i       j mek-ki ] -ey/ ka  mocaluta.
    food- Nom people- Nom         eat-NML -for/ Nom be lacking
    `There is not enough food for people to eat.'
Example #14:

    (11) a. i osj-i             [ John-i     j ip-ki]-ey/ ka    khuta
    this clothing- Nom John- Nom       wear-NML-for/Nom big
    `This clothing is too big for John to wear.'
Example #15:

    (12) a. i chaykj -i     [S pwumo-ka ai-eykey [VP j il-ulako] kwenha-ki]                -ey swipta
    this book-Nom parent- Nom child-to               read- Comp recommend-NML -for easy
    (lit.)`This book is easy for the parent in terms of recommending to the child to
Example #16:

    b. Kimj -i [VP salamtul-eykey [VP j hwecang-ulo ppopu-lako] seltukha-ki]             -ey swipta.
    Kim- Nom         people-to             president-as elect-NML persuade-NML -for easy
    (lit.) `Kimj is easy in terms of persuading people to elect j to be the presiden
Example #17:

    (13) i chayk-i [nayyong-ul ihayha-ki                  ]-ka elypeta
    this book-Nom content-Acc understand-NML - Nom hard
    `This book is hard to understand (its) content.'
Example #18:

    mit-ki ]         -ka elyepta
    believe- NML -Nom hard
    (lit.) `That thick and difficult book is hard to believe that Cholswu read its i
Example #19:

    (15) a. [ i chayk-uy nayyong-ul ihayha-ki ]              -ka elyepta
    this book-Gen content-Acc understand-NML - Nom hard
    `It is hard to understand the content of this book.'
Example #20:

    b. i chaykj -i [         j nayyong-ul ihayha-ki           ]-ka/-ey elypeta
    this book-Nom           content-Acc understand-NML - Nom/-for hard
    (lit.)`This book is hard to understand (its) content.'
Example #21:

    (17) a. i chaykj -i      [S pwumo-ka ai-eykey [VP kukes-j-ul ilula-ko] kwenha-ki]               -ey swipta
    this book-Nom parent- Nom child-to             it-acc    read- Comp recommend-NML -for easy
    (lit.)`This bookj is easy for the parent in terms of recommending it to the chil
Example #22:

    b. Kimj -i [VP salamtul-eykey [VP ku j-lul hwecang-ulo ppopula-ko] seltukha-ki]           -ey swipta.
    Kim- Nom         people-to          him    president-as elect-NML persuade-NML -for easy
    (lit.) `Kimj is easy in terms of persuading people to elect himj to be the presi
Example #23:

    (18) a.  yenge -ka [ kukes -ul paywu-ki] -ka/ey swipta
    English- Nom it- Acc       learn-NML -nom/for easy
    (lit.)`English is easy to learn it .'
Example #24:

    b.  John -i [ ku -lul soki-ki]-ka       elyepta
    John- Nom he- Acc deceive-NML- NOM hard
    (lit.)`John is hard to deceive him .'
Example #25:

    (20) a. ku aij-nun Mary-ka salamtul-eykey [ j cal posalphi-kess-tako] yaksokhayssta
    that child- Top Mary- Nom people-to              well take care-Fut-comp promised
    (lit.)`As for the child, Mary promised people to take care of well.'
Example #26:

    b.  ku aij-nun Mary-ka ku papoj-eykey [ j cal posalphi-kess-tako] yaksokhayssta
    that child- Top Mary- Nom that idiot-to             well take careFut-comp promised
    (lit.)`As for the childj, Mary promised that idiotj to take care of well j'
Example #27:

    c.  ku aij-nun Mary-ka ku papoj-eykey [ kuj-lul cal posalphi-kess-tako] yaksokhayssta
    that child- Top Mary- Nom that idiot-to         he-Acc well take careFut-comp promised
    (lit.) `As for the childj, Mary promised that idiotj to take care of himj well.'
Example #28:

    (21)  Minho -eykey-nun [ Mary-ka ku papo -eykey kakessta-ko yaksokhayssta].
    Minho- DAT- TO P     Mary- NOM that idiot-DAT go- COMP promised
    `As for Minho , Mary promised that idiot to go.'
Example #29:

    (22) a. Johnj-i      [ salamtul-eykey [ j hoycang-ulo chwuchenhala-ko] seltukha-ki]-ka elyepta
    John- NOM people-to                president-as recommen-COMP seltukha-NML-Nom hard
    (lit.)`Johnj is hard to persuade people to recommend j to be the president'
Example #30:

    b.  Johnj-i [ ku papoj-eykey [ j hoycang-ulo chwuchenhala-ko ] seltukha-ki]-ka         elyepta
    John- NOM that idiot-to               president-as recommend-Comp seltukha- NML- NOM hard
    (lit.)`Johnj is hard to persuade that idiotj to recommend j to be the president'
Example #31:

    c.  Johnj-i [ ku papoj-eykey [ kuj-lul hoycang-ulo chwuchenhala-ko] seltukha-ki]-ka    elyepta
    John- NOM that idiot-to          he-Acc president-to recommend-COMP persuade-NML-Nom hard
    (lit.)`Johnj is hard to persuade that idiotj to recommend himj to be the preside
Example #32:

    b.  i sosel -i    aitul-i        swuphil-lul ilk-ko elun-i         e ihayha-ki-ka            swipta
    this novel-NOM children- NOM essay- AC C read-and adult- NOM understand- NML- NOM easy
    (Intended) `This novel is easy for chilren to read an essay and for adults to un
Example #33:

    (25) i sosel -i      [ aitul-i       kukes ilk-ko elun-i           e ihayha-ki]-ka            swipta
    this novel-NOM children- NOM it         read-and adult- NOM understand- NML- NOM easy
    (Intended) `This novel is easy for chilren to read it and for adults to understa
Example #34:

    (27) a. na-nun [ John-i   nwukwu-lul ttayli-ess-nay] -ka kwungkumhata.
    I-TO P John- NOM who-AC C hit-PA S T- End - NOM wonder
    `I wonder who John hit.'
Example #35:

    b. Mary-ka [ Sora-ka wu-nunci] -lul molunta
    Mary- NOM Sora- NOM cry- End - AC C not know
    `Mary does not know that Sora cries.'
Example #36:

    i  John-uy pap-ul     mek-um
    John-GEN meal-AC C eat-NML
    `John's eating the meal.'
Example #37:

    ii. John-uy cwuk-um
    John-GEN death
    `John's death'
Example #38:

    (28) a. [S John-i     e tutko-iss-nun] umak
    John- NOM     listen- PRES- RE L music
    `the music that John is listening.'
Example #39:

    b. Mary-ka [S hanul-i cal poi-key]         yulichang-ul takassta
    Mary- NOM sky- NOM well be seen-Adv window- NOM wiped
    `Mary wiped the window clean to see the sky well.'