The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Broschart, Jrgen and Carmen Dawuda Beyond Nouns and Verbs: Typological Studies in Lexical Categorisation

URL: http://www.phil-fak.uni-duesseldorf.de/sfb282/working_papers/BEYNOUNF.pdf

(Last accessed 2005-02-18).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 505&langcode=naq (2019-05-24).


Example #1:

    (1)      ?ao-pa
    `it is the/(a) man' [3]
Example #2:

    (2)      ?ao-p           ke
    man-3.SG.M:TH COP
    `it is the man' [3]
Example #3:

    (3)      kll?i-p              ke ?ao-pa
    he-3.SG.M:TH         COP man-3.SG.M:RH
    `he is the man'
Example #4:

    (4)   ?ao-p               ke kai-pa
    man-3.SG.M:TH COP big-3.SG.M.RH
    lit. `the man is a big one/is tall'
Example #5:

    (5)   ?ao-p               ke ra          nllae-pa
    man-3.SG.M:TH COP PRES sing-3.SG.M
    lit. `the man is a singing one/is singing'
Example #6:

    (6)   ?ao-p                   ke        ?a          k!?ao?ao
    man-3.SG.M:TH           COP1      COP2        hunter
    `the man is a hunter'
Example #7:

    (7)   ?ao-p                   ke        ?a          kai
    man-3.SG.M:TH           COP1      COP2        big
    `the man is tall'
Example #8:

    (8)   ?ao-p            ke k!?ao?ao      ko-?i
    man-3.SG.M:TH COP hunter          REC.PAST-COP3
    `the man has been a hunter'
Example #9:

    (9)   ?ao-p            ke kai           ko-?i
    man-3.SG.M:TH COP great           REC.PAST-COP3
    `the man has been great'
Example #10:

    (10) ?ao-p           ke         ?a         k=?an
    man-3.SG.M:TH COP1         COP2       know
    `the man knows'
Example #11:

    (11) ?ao-p           ke         k=?an             ko-?i
    man-3.SG.M:TH COP1         know              REC.PAST-COP3
    `the man has known'
Example #12:

    (12) ?ao-p             ke          ra                      nllae
    man-3.SG.M:TH COP1            COP2.PRES.IMPF          sing
    `the man is singing'
Example #13:

    (13) ?ao-p             ke         ko            nllae              ha-?i
    man-3.SG.M:TH COP1           COP2.REC.PAST sing               REC.ANT-COP3
    `the man has just been singing'
Example #14:

    (14) `ao-p             ke     tara-sa                   ra             muu
    man-3.SG.M:TH COP1 woman-3.SG.F:RH                 COP2.PRES.IMPF see
    `the man sees the woman'
Example #15:

    (15) ?ari-p            ke      //?ari   tara-sa   ko                           muu
    dog-3.SG.M:TH COP1 yesterday woman-3.SG.F:TH REC.PAST                     see
    `Yesterday, the dog saw the woman'
Example #16:

    (16) klli-p            ke //?ari      ko        muu-si
    he/she-3.SG.M:TH        COP1     yesterday REC.PAST saw-3.SG.F:OBJ
    `yesterday, he saw her'
Example #17:

    (17) klli-p              ke        //?ari    klli-sa          ko                  muu
    he/she-3.SG.M:TH COP1         yesterday he/she-3.SG.F:RH REC.PAST            see
    `yesterday, he saw her'
Example #18:

    (19) tara-s            ke       ?ao-p     xa ko     muu-he
    woman-3.SG.F:TH COP1 man-3.SG.M:TH of REC.PAST see-"PASS"
    `the woman was seen by the man' [18]
Example #19:

    (20) ?ao-pi               (?) ke      tara-sa           ko         muu-he
    man-3.SG.M:NTS DEM COP1 woman-3.SG.F.RH REC.PAST see-"PASS"
    `the mn it is who saw the woman'/'the woman was seen by the mn'
Example #20:

    (21) ?ao-p            xa ?     ke           tara-sa         ko       muu-he
    man-3.SG.M:TH of DEM COP1               woman-3.SG.F:RH REC.PAST see-"PASS"
    `by the man the woman was seen'
Example #21:

    (22) ?ao-pi                (?) /?ao-p           xa ?  ke ko haa-he
    man-3.SG.M:NTS DEM/man-3.SG.M:TH of DEM COP1 REC.PAST come-"PASS"
    Lit. `by the man it has come'/'the man has come'
Example #22:

    (23) kla-pi                   ?
    rain-3.SG.M:NTS DEM/COP1
    `rain, him it (is)'/'it is raining'
Example #23:

    (24) sa-ts        kha nii !uupee
    you-2s:FOC INT FUT run.away
    `will you run away?' [Hd 6]
Example #24:

    (26) ti    kai      ?ao-ta
    I      big      man-1.SG:TH
    `I, this great man'
Example #25:

    (27) hoa t     xuu-m
    all my thing-3.PL.COMM:TH
    `all my things'
Example #26:

    (29) ti-ta
Example #27:

    (30) ti    kai      ?ao-ta
    I      big      man-1.SG.TH
    `I, this great man'
Example #28:

    (31) hoa t     xuu-m
    all my thing-3.PL.COMM:TH
    `all my things'
Example #29:

    (32) nee !ona        xuu-m
    this three      thing-3.PL.COMM:TH
    `these three things'
Example #30:

    (33) nee ti     ? ix a      tara-s
    this my beautiful wife-3.SG.F:TH
    `this, my beautiful wife'
Example #31:

    (34) tara-s            ?ixa-s                         ti-s             nee-s
    wife-3.SG.F:TH beautiful-3.SG.F:TH               my-3.SG.F:TH      this-3.SG.F:TH
    `this, my beautiful wife'
Example #32:

    (35)      nllae=ra               ?ao-p
    sing=PRES.IMPF         man-3.SG.M:TH
    `the man who is singing'
Example #33:

    (36)      ?ao-p                ra               nllae-p                 ke
    man-3.SG.M:TH PRES.IMPF               sing-3.SG.M:TH          ASS
    `it is the mn who is snging'
Example #34:

    (37) ?ao-p            ke //?ari       tara-s       ko                        muu
    man-3sm:TH       ASS yesterday woman-3.SG.F:RH REC.PAST                  see
    `the man yesterday saw the woman'
Example #35:

    ?ao-p      ko      muu-si
    man-SG.M:RH REC.PAST see-3.SG.F:OBJ
    `as for the woman [tara-s], he [=p], i.e. the man [?ao-p], saw her yesterday'
Example #36:

    tara-s                ko
    woman-3.SG.F:RH         REC.PAST
    lit. `as for seeing her, yesterday he, the man, it is the woman (he) did'
Example #37:

    ?ao-p        tara-s
    man-3.SG.M:RH woman-3.SG.F:RH
    Lit. 'seeing her he did yesterday, i.e. the man the woman'
Example #38:

    (41) n//ae=p            ke ko
    sing=3.SG.M:TH ASS REC.PAST
    `as for singing, he did (it)'
Example #39:

    (42) n//ae=ra=p                            ke ?ao-p
    sing=PRES.IMPF=3.SG.M:TH              ASS man-3.SG.M:RH
    `being singing he is, i.e. the man'/'singing he is, the man'
Example #40:

    (43) muu-si=ko=p                                      ke ?ao-p
    see-3.SG.F:OBJ=REC.PAST=3.SG.M:TH                ASS man-3.SG.M:RH
    `having seen her, he is, i.e. the man'/'having seen her did the man'
Example #41:

    (44) n//ae=ra=p                           ke        ?ao-p
    sing=PRES.IMPF=3.SG.M:TH             ASS       man-3.SG.M:RH
    `the one singing/he, singing, is the man'
Example #42:

    (45) muu-si=ko=p                                     ke      ?ao-p
    see-3.SG.F:OBJ=REC.PAST=3.SG.M:TH               ASS     man-3.SG.M:RH
    `the one having seen her/he, having seen her, is the man'
Example #43:

    ko            pee
    REC.PAST      run.away
    `after (that) John had come, I ran away'
Example #44:

    ko       =?uu
    REC.PAST eat
    `when he saw her/while seeing her, the man was eating'
Example #45:

    (54) kai-se
Example #46:

    (55) ?ao=ta                 ke ?
    man=1.SG:TH            ASS COP2
    `a man I am'
Example #47:

    (56)     ?ao-t
    `I am a/the man'
Example #48:

    (57) * ?ao=ta=?
    `a man I am'
Example #49:

    (58)     * ta     ?a ?ao
    1.SG COP man
    `I am (a) man'
Example #50:

    (59) * ? ?i ti
    `it is me'
Example #51:

    (60) * ti        ?         ? i
    me        DEM        COP
    `me it is'
Example #52:

    (64) kII?i-p
Example #53:

    (65) *kII?i=pi              ?
    he/she-3.SG:NTS         DEM/COP
    `he, him it (is)',
Example #54:

    (66) klI?i=p
    `it is him',
Example #55:

    (69) ?ao=ta             ke ?
    man-1.SG:TH        ASS COP
    `a man I am'
Example #56:

    (70) ti=ta        ke         ?          ?ao
    I-1.SG:TH     ASS        COP         man
    `me, I am a man'
Example #57:

    (84) //?ari=p                ke             muu-si
    yesterday=3sm:TH        ASS            see-3.SG.F:OBJ
    `yesterday, he saw her'
Example #58:

    (85) //?ari=s                 ke              muu-pi
    yesterday=3.SG.F:TH      ASS             see-3.SG.M:OBJ
    `yesterday, she saw him'
Example #59:

    (86) haa=ko=p                            ke           ?ao-p
    come=REC.PAST=3.SG.M:TH ASS                      man-3.SG.M:RH)
    `the one who has just come is the man'