ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Jila Ghomeshi, (2001). Control and Thematic Agreement.

URL: http://www.umanitoba.ca/linguistics/ghomeshi/persianCJL.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 554&langcode=pes (2018-10-23).

 

Example #1:

    (b)      (mæn) yad-æm=ræft                              (ke)       [ be-r-æm ].
    (I)     memory-1SG.CL=go.PAST.3SG (COMP) [ SBJ-go-1SG ]
    `I forgot to go.'
Example #2:

    (d)      (mæn) tæsmim=gereft-æm               (ke)      [ be-r-æm ].
    (I)     decision=get.PAST-1SG (COMP) [ SBJ-go-1SG ]
    `I decided to go.'
Example #3:

    (e)      (mæn) mi-xa-m              (ke )         [ be-r-æm ].
    (I)      DUR-want-1SG (COMP)             [ SBJ-go-1SG ]
    `I want to go.'
Example #4:

    (6)     (a)      sima   dust=dar-e         [ ketab be-xun-e ].
    Sima friend=have-3SG [ book SBJ-read-3SG ]
    `Sima likes to read books.'
Example #5:

    (b)      sima [ ketab xundæn ] -o           dust=dar-e.
    Sima [ book reading ] -OM friend=have-3SG
    `Sima likes reading books.'
Example #6:

    (7)     (a)      sima   mi-xad            [ sib-o         be-xor-e ].
    Sima DUR-want.3SG [ apple-OM SBJ-eat-3SG ]
    `Sima wants to eat the apple.'
Example #7:

    (b)      sima     sib-o      mi-xad.
    Sima apple-OM DUR-want.3SG
    `Sima wants the apple.'
Example #8:

    (i)      ? sima [ xundæn-e     ketab ] -o      tamum kærd
    Sima    reading+EZ book -OM         finish   do.PAST.3SG
    `Sima finished reading the book.'
Example #9:

    (9)      (a)       mi-dun-æm         (ke)      [ færda          nasser    mi-ad ].
    DUR-know-1SG (COMP) [ tomorrow Nasser                  DUR-come.3SG ]
    `I know that Nasser is coming tomorrow.'                       [Hashemipour 1989
Example #10:

    (b)       fekr=mi-kon-æm            (ke)            [ færda     nasser   bi-ad ].
    thought=DUR-make-1SG (COMP) [tomorrow Nasser SBJ-come.3SG ]
    `I think that Nasser is coming tomorrow.'                      [Hashemipour 1989
Example #11:

    (i)      sima sib-o         mi-xad
    Sima apple-OM DUR-want.3SG
    `Sima wants the apple.'
Example #12:

    (ii)     sima mi-xad             ( ke)     azær(*-o)      be-mun-e
    Sima DUR-want.3SG ( COMP) Azar(*-OM) SBJ-stay-3SG
    `Sima wants Azar to stay.'
Example #13:

    (b )   aræs    mi-tun-e          (ke)     [ pro bi-ad ].
    Arash DUR-can-3SG (COMP) [                 SBJ-come.3SG ]
    `Arash can come.'
Example #14:

    (12)    (a)      fekr=mi-kon-æm                (ke)         [ bi-ad ].
    thought=DUR-make-1SG (COMP) [SBJ-come.3SG ]
    `I think he'll come.'
Example #15:

    (b )     goft-æm        (ke)         [ bi-ad ].
    say.PAST-1SG (COMP) [ SBJ-come.3SG ]
    `I told him to come.'
Example #16:

    (c)      entezar=dar-æm             (ke)      [ bi-ad ].
    expectation=have-1SG (COMP) [ SBJ-come.3SG ]
    `I expect him to come.'
Example #17:

    (13)    (a)    * mi-tun-æm           (ke)      [ bi-ad ].
    DUR-be.able-1SG (COMP) [ SBJ-come.3SG ]
    * `I can him come.'
Example #18:

    (b )   * yad-æm=ræft                              (ke)       [ bi-ad ].
    memory-1SG.CL=go.PAST.3SG (COMP) [ SBJ-come.3SG ]
    * `I forgot him to come.'
Example #19:

    (e)      mi-xa-m           (ke)      [ bi-ad ].
    DUR-want-1SG (COMP) [ SBJ-come.3SG ]
    `I want him to come.'
Example #20:

    (20)     (a)      lazem-e           (ke)          [ be-r-æm ].
    necessary-3sg (COMP) [ SBJ-go-1SG ]
    `It is necessary that I go.'
Example #21:

    (b)      mi-tun-æm                (ke)     [ be-r-æm ].
    DUR-be.able-1sg          (COMP) [ SBJ-go-1SG ]
    `I can go.'
Example #22:

    (c)    * mi-tun-æm             (ke)       [ lazem         bas-e         (ke)       [ be-r-æm ] ].
    DUR-be.able-1sg (COMP) [ necessary SBJ.be-3SG (COMP) [ SBJ-go-1SG ] ]
    * `I can be necessary to go.'
Example #23:

    (d)      fekr      mi-kon-æm          (ke)      [ lazem       bas-e        (ke)       [ be-r-æm ] ]
    thought DUR-make-1sg (COMP) [ necessary SBJ.be-3SG (COMP) [ SBJ-go-1SG]]
    `I think it is necessary that I go.'
Example #24:

    (22)    (a)     bayæd     ræft.
    must      go
    `One must go.'
Example #25:

    (b)     mi-s-e                ræft.
    DUR-become-3SG go
    `It is possible to go.'
Example #26:

    (23)    (a)   ? bayæd     fekr=kærd (ke)         [ sima bærænde     mi-s-e ].
    must      thought= do (COMP) [ Sima winner           DUR-become.3SG ]
    ? `One must think that Sima will win.'
Example #27:

    (b)      mi-s-e                goft (ke)        [ æli ketab-o      na-xunde         bud ].
    DUR-become-3SG say (COMP) [ Ali book+OM NEG-read.PART be.3SG ]
    `One might say that Ali hadn't read the book.'
Example #28:

    (24)    (a)    * bayæd     tunest (ke)        [ bærænde      be-s-e ]
    must      be.able (COMP) [ winner           SBJ-become.3SG ]
    ? `One must be able to win.'
Example #29:

    (26)    (a)     sima      fekr=mi-kon-e              (ke)          [ be-s-e      ræft ]
    Sima thought= DUR-do-3SG (COMP) [ SBJ-become-3SG go ]
    `Sima thinks that it's possible to go.'
Example #30:

    (b)     mi-dun-am            (ke)      [ bayæd        ræft ]
    DUR-know-1SG (COMP) [ must                    go
    `I know that one must go.'
Example #31:

    (b)     xab-emun=amæd.
    sleep-1pl.CL=come.PAST.3SG
    `We were sleepy.'
Example #32:

    (c)     sær-æm =dærd=mi-kon-e.
    head-1SG.CL =ache=DUR-do-3SG
    `I have a headache.'
Example #33:

    (46)            yad-et=ræft                         (ke)    ketab-o     be-xun-i.
    memory-2SG.CL=go.PAST.3SG (COMP) book-OM SBJ-read-2SG
    `You forgot to read the book.'
Example #34:

    (47)     (a)     (mæn) ketab-o       mi-xun-æm.
    (I)     book-OM DUR-read-1SG
    `I am reading the book.'
Example #35:

    (b)     (mæn) ketab-o       mi-xund-æm.
    (I)     book-OM DUR-read.PAST-1SG
    `I was reading the book.'
Example #36:

    (b)     (mæn) dasàt-æm                 ketab-o         mi-xund-æm.
    (I)    have.PAST-1SG book-OM DUR-read.PAST-1SG
    `I was reading the book.'
Example #37:

    (b)     sima    (ketab-o)      dar-e            (ketab-o)    mi -xun-e.
    Sima    (book-OM) have-3SG (book-OM) DUR-read-3SG
    `Sima is reading the book.'
Example #38:

    (50)    (a)     sima   næ-bayæd ketab-o               be-xun-e.
    Sima NEG-must book-OM SBJ-read-3SG
    `Sima musn't read the book.'
Example #39:

    (51)    (a)     sima   ketab-o      næ-dar-e .
    Sima book-OM NEG-have-3SG
    `Sima doesn't have the book.'
Example #40:

    (b)     sima    ketab-o       ne-mi-xun-e.
    Sima     book-OM NEG-DUR-read-3SG
    `Sima is not reading the book.'
Example #41:

    (52)          ? sima    dar-e         ketab-o       ne-mi-xun-e.
    Sima    have-3SG      book-OM NEG-DUR-read-3SG
    `Sima is not reading the book.'
Example #42:

    (55)    (a)     lazem=budæn
    necessary=be
    `to be necessary'
Example #43:

    (b)     be=næzær=amadæn/residæn
    to=view=come/arrive
    `to seem/appear'
Example #44:

    (c)     momken=budæn
    possible=be
    `to be possible'
Example #45:

    (d)     ehtemal=dastæn
    possibility=have
    `to be possible'
Example #46:

    (b )    momken-e       [ (ke)       dust-a-mun          bi-y-an
    possible-3SG [ (COMP) friend-PL-1PL.CL SBJ-come-3PL here ]
    `Our friends might come here.'
Example #47:

    (64)              mærd-i-ke           amæd                   bæradær-e     mæn-æst.
    man-REL-COMP come.PAST.3SG brother-EZ                    me-3SG
    `The man who came is my brother.'                                      [Lazard 1
Example #48:

    (65)              ræft-æm [ (ke)         un    ketab-o       be-xær-æm ].
    went-1SG [ (COMP) that book-OM SBJ-buy-1SG ]
    `I went to buy that book.'                                             [Lazard 1
Example #49:

    (66)              ki       be-næzær=mi-y-ad           [ ke      ti xeyli bahusà bas-e        ]
    who to=view=DUR-come-3SG [ COMP                 very smart SBJ.be-3SG ]
    Lit: `Who seems that (he) is very smart.'                              [Karimi 1
Example #50:

    (i)               qæhve=ke        mi-xor-id?
    coffee-EMPH DUR-drink-2SG
    `You take coffee, don't you?'                                             [Lazar