ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Abdoulaye, Mahamane L. (1992). ASPECTS OF HAUSA MORPHOSYNTAX IN ROLE AND REFERENCE GRAMMAR.

URL: http://wings.buffalo.edu/linguistics/people/students/dissertations/abdoulaye/hausadiss.pdf

(Last accessed 2005-02-28).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 567&langcode=hau (2021-10-23).

 

Example #1:

    (8)         Abd yaa              fa           nfi    gidaa.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF         indeed       head-II home
    'Abdu indeed headed home.'
Example #2:

    (12)        yaa          fa           nfi       gidaa.
    3ms.PERF indeed           head-II    home
    'he headed home.'
Example #3:

    b.   kaamn            Abd
    catch-DN-of Abdu
    'Abdu's arrest' or 'an arrest by Abdu'
Example #4:

    (37)   a.   Kafr teebr taa                 kare.
    leg-of table        3fs.PERF     break-IV
    'The table's leg broke.'
Example #5:

    b.   Abd yaa             kary       Kafr teebr.
    Abdu 3ms.perf break-I            leg-of table
    'Abdu broke the table's leg.'
Example #6:

    (38)    a.   yaa           faar       jiimr         faata.
    3ms.PERF begin-I          tan-DN-of      leather
    'He began tanning the leather.'
Example #7:

    b.   *yaa          faar      t             jemi      faata.
    3ms.PERF      begin-I 3fs.SUB           an-II      leather
    *'He began tanning the leather.'
Example #8:

    (39)         yaai          soo      yi/j         tai    MaraaDi.
    3ms.PERF want          3ms.SUB go           Maradi
    'He wanted to go to Maradi.', 'He wanted him to go to Maradi.'
Example #9:

    (40)    a.   yaa          sa        Knsh     suuyr           gujiyaa.
    3ms.PERF put            himself    fry-DN-of        peanuts
    'He put himself into frying the peanuts.'
Example #10:

    b.   yaa          sa      Indoo suuyr              gujiyaa.
    3ms.PERF put          Indo      fry-DN-of       peanuts
    'He made Indo fry the peanuts.'
Example #11:

    (41)    a.   yaa             bar       Indoo      t            yi    kwaanaa.
    3ms.PERF        let -II   Indoo      3fs.SUB       do    sleep
    'He let Indoo sleep.'
Example #12:

    b.   *yaa          bar      knsh      y            yi      kwaanaa.
    3ms.PERF let-II himself            3ms.SUB       do      sleep
    'He allowed himself to sleep.'
Example #13:

    (42)    a.   Kafr teebr taa                kryu          (g   Abd).
    leg-of table        3fs.PERF break-VII         (with Abdu)
    'The table's leg is broken by Abdu.'
Example #14:

    A: Abd yaa              TAFI        MARAADI.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF go-III             Maradi
    'Abdu went to Maradi.'
Example #15:

    garkaa.
    garden
    'Suddenly there was a boy running fast out of the garden.'
Example #16:

    b.   kwai     wani         bbban malmii  lookcin              da...
    there.be some.m great            eacher       at ime-of        old.times
    'There was a great teacher in the ancient times...
Example #17:

    c.   d kwai ruwaa  tuluu./ baab                        ruwaa       tuluu.
    there.be water in pot/               NEG.there.be water        in   pot
    'There is water in the pot./ There is no water in the pot.'
Example #18:

    da.
    old.times
    'There used to be a very tough queen in the ancient times.'
Example #19:

    (50)    a.   ruwaa sun              jnyee.
    water    3p.PERF draw-IV
    'The water has all receded.' (water is plural in Katsinanci)
Example #20:

    (51)    a.   Abd Indoo taa                tuura     *( shi)      makarantaa.
    Abdu Indo        3fs.PERF push-I         3ms          school
    '(As for) Abdu Indo sent him to school.'
Example #21:

    b.   littaafi Indoo taa              baada    (shi)     wje.
    book       Indo     3fs.PERF give-I        (3ms)     out
    '(As for) the book Indo gave it out.'
Example #22:

    (52)   a.   shii    Abd yana            zuwa MaraaDi gobee.
    3ms Abdu 3ms-CONT go-DN Maradi                tomorrow
    'As for Abdu he is going to Maradi tomorrow.'
Example #23:

    b.   shii    Abd Indoo taa                tuura      shi makarantaa.
    3ms Abdu Indo           3fs.PERF push-I           3ms school
    'As for Abdu Indo sent him to school.'
Example #24:

    (53)   a.   maalm yaa              iki         (*ita)   Blkii.
    teacher 3ms.PERF send-II             (3fs)    Balki
    'The teacher send away Balki.'
Example #25:

    b.   maalm yaa               ikee      ta        (ita)     Blkii.
    teacher 3ms.PERF         send-II 3fs          (3fs)     Balki
    'The teacher send her away, Balki.'
Example #26:

    (54)   a.   *[ABIN WAASAA] shii                   Abd    yake                 yi.
    thing-of play               3ms       Abdu    3ms.REL CONT          do-VN
    'As for Abdu, it is a toy that he is making.'
Example #27:

    (55)   a.   Indoo         ABDU        ta            tuura     makarantaa.
    Indo          Abd        3fs.PERF push-I          school
    'Indo, (it is) Abdu that she sent to school.'
Example #28:

    b.   *Indoo shii       Abd ta               tuura      shi makarantaa.
    Indo      3ms     Abd 3fs.PERF push-I              3ms school
    *'Indo, as for Abdu, she sent him to school.'
Example #29:

    c.   ?Abd ita        Indoo taa              tuura      shi      makarantaa.
    Abdu     3fs     Indo     3fs.PERF push-I           3ms      school
    *'Abdu, as for Indo, she sent him to school.'
Example #30:

    (56)        *shii Abd ita         Indoo taa             tuura shi          makarantaa.
    3ms Abdu 3fs Indo 3fs.PERF push-I 3ms                            school
    *'As for Abdu, as for Indo, she sent him to school.'
Example #31:

    (57)   a.   shii littaafn       fa     Indoo taa                 baada       ?( shi)    wje.
    3ms book-DEF MOD Indo                3fs.PERF         give-I       (3ms)      out
    'As for the book, Indo indeed gave it out.'
Example #32:

    b.   littaafi Indoo taa                 baada     (shi)      wje.
    book      Indo     3fs.PERF         give-I     (3ms)      out
    'As for the book Indo gave it out.'
Example #33:

    (58)   a.   Abdu ? yana            zuwa        MaraaDi.
    Abdu      3ms.CONT go-DN              Maradi
    'Abdu? He is going to Maradi.'
Example #34:

    b.   Abdu ?    Abd      yaa              tfi           makarantaa.
    Abdu       Abdu      3ms.PERF         go-III         school
    'Abdu? Abdu went to school.'
Example #35:

    c.   icce? an            baad        icce      wje.
    plant IMP.PERF give-I             plant      out
    'The plant? Someone gave it out.'
Example #36:

    d.   ftaa?            ai       mukn      fta         wani           lookcii.
    going.out-VN indeed 1p-HAB go.out-III some                        time
    'As for going out, we indeed do go out sometimes.'
Example #37:

    (59)    a.   Aali ne             Abd     zi          ba     gooro.
    Ali       cop.m Abdu          FUT-3ms give         kolanuts
    'It is (to) Ali that Abdu is going to give kolanuts.'
Example #38:

    b.   wa cee (ce)       Abd zi                  kaamawaa?
    who cop.f (cop) Abdu FUT-3ms                  catch-I-VN
    'Who is Abdu going to catch?'
Example #39:

    c.   mi    nee (ne)      Abd zi                 kaamawaa?
    what cop.m (cop) Abdu FUT-3ms                  catch-I-VN
    'What is Abdu going to catch?'
Example #40:

    d.   mootar suwa nee/            cee    Abd         zi           tuukawaa?
    car-of p-who cop.m/ cop.f Abdu                   FUT-3ms       drive-I-VN
    'Whose car is Abdu going to drive?'
Example #41:

    kasuwaa]?
    market
    'Who is it [that she!] that Abdu saw at the market?'
Example #42:

    ta                  koree             sh]?
    3fs.REL PERF        chase.away-II      3ms
    'Who is it that drunk beer (that) was chased away by Indo?'
Example #43:

    c.   mi    nee ne       na Indoo (d)           Abd zi                 Dauka?
    what cop.m cop of Indo              (that) Abdu FUT-3ms               take-DN
    'What is it belonging to Indo that Abdu is going to take?'
Example #44:

    d.   mi       nee ne       wannn?
    what      cop.m cop     this
    'What is this?
Example #45:

    (62)        yaaro shii        ne       Abd       ya                  ikaa.
    boy       3ms cop.m          Abdu       3ms.REL PERF        send-II
    'The boy, it is him that Abdu sent.'
Example #46:

    (63)   a.     Aali Abd           za ya      ba       gooro.
    Ali Abdu            FUT-3ms give          kolanuts
    'It is to Ali that Abdu is going to give the kolanuts to.'
Example #47:

    b.     wa Abd       za ya          aiki      kasuwaa?
    who Abdu       FUT-3ms         send-DN market
    'Who is Abdu going to send to the market?
Example #48:

    c.     mi    Abd     zy         yi?
    what Abdu       FUT-3ms do
    'What is Abdu going to do?'
Example #49:

    d.     mootar suwa        Abd za ya                  saidawaa?
    car-of 3p-who       Abdu FUT-3ms                 sell-VN
    'Whose car is Abdu going to sell?'
Example #50:

    kasuwaa]?
    market
    *'Who that she! did Abdu see at the market?'
Example #51:

    ta                  koree        sh]?
    3fs.REL PERF        chase.away-II 3ms
    *'Who that drunk beer was chased away by Indo?'
Example #52:

    c.   *mi    na    Indoo (d)        Abd      zi                Dauka?
    what    of    Indo     (that) Abdu        FUT-3ms            take-DN
    *'What belonging to Indo that Abdu is going to take?'
Example #53:

    d.   *mi    wannn?
    what    this
    *'What this?'
Example #54:

    ya                  ikaa.
    3ms.REL PERF        send
    'It is the boy that Indoo called (that) Abdu send somewhere.'
Example #55:

    ya                   ikaa.
    3ms.REL PERF         send
    'The boy that Indoo called (it is him that) Abdu send somewhere.'
Example #56:

    (67)    a.   Shii ku          Aali mi        Abd zi               baa      sh ?
    2ms MOD Aali what                 Abdu FUT-3ms           give     3ms
    'As for Ali, what is Abdu going to give him?'
Example #57:

    daawoo
    return-VI
    'The boy that the soldiers sent (somewhere) came back.'
Example #58:

    b. sooj      sun           iki    yaaro.
    soldiers 3p-PERF         send-II boy
    'The soldiers sent the boy (somewhere).'
Example #59:

    tfiyrsh.
    going-of-3ms
    'The boy that the soldiers send (here and there) is gone.'
Example #60:

    b. sooj      suna        aikn           yaaro.
    soldiers 3p-CONT send-DN-of boy
    'The soldiers are sending the boy (here and there).'
Example #61:

    (70)    a. yaaro wand        sooj     za su aiki       yaa tfiyrsh.
    boy     3ms-that soldiers FUT-3p send-DN 3ms.PERF going-of-3ms
    'The boy that the soldiers are to send is gone.'
Example #62:

    b. sooj      za su     aikn        yaaro.
    soldiers FUT-3p send-DN boy
    'The soldiers are going to send the boy.'
Example #63:

    suka  daawowaa.
    3p-EVE return-VI-VN
    'Indo let the door open just in case the children come back.'
Example #64:

    yaa                  daawoo.
    3ms.PERF             return-VI
    'The boy that the soldiers did not send (somewhere) came back.'
Example #65:

    b. sooj       b s              iki     yaaro          ba.
    soldiers NEG PERF 3p send-II            boy             NEG
    'The soldiers did not send the boy (somewhere).'
Example #66:

    tfiyrsh.
    going-of-3ms
    'The boy that the soldiers are not sending is gone.'
Example #67:

    b. sooj      ba su              aikn          yaaro.
    soldiers NEG.CONT 3p           send-DN        boy
    'The soldiers are not sending the boy.'
Example #68:

    (74)    a. bincin      d      (ab/ ke)    b s                        ci    ba.
    food-DEF that (cop/ REL CONT) NEG.PERF 3p                      eat   NEG
    'The food that they did not eat.'
Example #69:

    b. bincin      d       (ab/ ke)              ba su                ci.
    food-DEF that (cop/ REL CONT) NEG.CONT 3p                          eat
    'The food that they are not eating/ they don't eat.'
Example #70:

    (75)    a. aikn d      (ak/ ke)            k            ganii         k      reena.
    work that (cop/ REL CONT) 2ms.SUB see-DN                       2ms.SUB belittle-I
    'A work (of the type) you would see and belittle.'
Example #71:

    b. k          ga       aiki     k                reena.
    2ms.SUB see-II work            2ms.SUB           belittle-I
    'You would see a work and belittle it.'
Example #72:

    (76)    a. yaaro ya              jee     kasuwaa.
    boy     3ms.POT         go      market
    'The boy will go to the market.
Example #73:

    b. yaaro wand         zaa y       jee       kasuwaa.
    boy     3ms-that FUT-3ms go                 market
    'The boy that will go to the market.
Example #74:

    (77)    a. yaaro yakn           jee    kasuwaa.
    boy      3ms.HAB go           market
    'The boy usually goes to the market.
Example #75:

    b. yaaro wand         yake                     zuwa      kasuwaa.
    boy      3ms-that 3ms-REL CONT                 go-VN      market
    'The boy that usually goes to the market.
Example #76:

    (78)     a. yaaro nee            sooj       suk               ikaa.
    boy        cop.m soldiers 3p-REL PERF                send-II
    'It is a boy that the soldiers sent (somewhere).'
Example #77:

    b. yaaro nee            sooj       suke      aiki.
    boy        cop.m soldiers 3p-REL CONT send-DN
    'It is a boy that the soldiers are sending.'
Example #78:

    (79)     a. yaaro nee          (as/ ke)             sooj   bs ikaa  ba.
    boy        cop.m (cop/ REL CONT) soldiers NEG perf-3p send-II NEG
    'It is a boy that the soldiers did not send (somewhere).'
Example #79:

    b. yaaro nee            (as/ ke)             sooj      basu               aiki.
    boy        cop.m (cop/ REL CONT) soldiers              NEG.CONT-3p         send-DN
    'It is a boy that the soldiers are not sending.'
Example #80:

    k      reena.
    2ms.SUB belittle-I
    'It is Abdu's work (that) you would see and belittle.'
Example #81:

    (81)    a. yaaro nee           sooj        za su       aiki.
    boy      cop.m       soldiers     FUT-3p       send-DN
    'The boy that the soldiers are to send is gone.'
Example #82:

    b. MaraaDi ne              suka         sbkaa.
    Maradi       cop.m       3p-EVE        land
    'It is in Maradi that they may settle.'
Example #83:

    (82)    a. yaaro nee           * ya/         zaa y          jee      kasuwaa.
    boy       cop.m      3ms.POT/ FUT-3ms               go       market
    'The boy that will go to the market.
Example #84:

    b. yaaro nee          * yakn       jee/ yake  zuwa kasuwaa.
    boy        cop.m 3ms-HAB go/ 3ms-REL CONT go-VN market
    'It is a boy that usually goes to the market.
Example #85:

    mun             daaktaa     mak.
    1p.PERF         wait-I       MA- 2fs
    'If we knew you were coming, we would have waited for you.'
Example #86:

    zuwa            sai    muk        daaktaa       mak.
    come-VN          then   1p-REL PERF wait-I         MA-2fs
    'Because we knew you were coming, we waited for you.'
Example #87:

    sai     muk        daaktaa           mak.
    then    1p-REL PERF wait-I             MA-2fs
    'Because we knew you were coming, we waited for you.'
Example #88:

    daaktaa m         cn         binci    ba.
    wait -I  MA         eat-DN      food      NEG
    'Even if we knew you were coming we wouldn't have put off eating anyway.'
Example #89:

    b m       daaktaa           m     cn        binci    ba.
    NEG 1p.PERF wait-I             MA     eat-DN     food      NEG
    'Although we knew that you were coming, we did not put off eating.'
Example #90:

    zama       kuurayee]]        sun           kooma       mutanee.
    become-III hyenas             3p.PERF       return-I     people
    humans.'
Example #91:

    kuurayee (*su          kooma       mutanee      gobe).
    hyenas    3p.POT         return       people        tomorrow
    humans tomorrow).'
Example #92:

    *suk       tfi           daaji?
    3p-REL PERF go-III         bush
    'Who thinks that the children went into the bush?'
Example #93:

    b. mi    suk              ce yara      sun/ ?suk                         syaa?
    what 3p-REL PERF say children 3p.PERF/ 3p-REL PERF                         buy-II
    'What did they say the children bought?'
Example #94:

    daaji?
    bush
    'Who thinks that it is the children who went into the bush?'
Example #95:

    b. mi    suk                ce yara       (ne)     suk syaa?
    what 3p-REL PERF say children (cop.p) 3p.REL PERF buy
    'What did they say it is the children who bought [it]?'
Example #96:

    *take       rashn                laafiya.
    3fs-REL CONT lack-of               health
    'I am sorry that Maryama is sick.'
Example #97:

    sn          Aish.
    love-of      Aisha
    'I was surprised that it is Ali who loves Aisha.'
Example #98:

    take                  rashn         laafiya.
    3fs-REL CONT           lack-of        health
    'I am sorry that it is Maryama who is sick.'
Example #99:

    sai     y                  saukoo       y                       ci     gyDaa.
    then    3ms.REL PERF        come.down-VI 3ms.REL PERF             eat    peanuts
    peanuts.'
Example #100:

    iso.             suk                faaD suk           yi              gaisuwaa.
    announcement      3p-REL PERF         fall-III 3p-REL PERF do              greeting
    announced. They reached the ground and greeted.'
Example #101:

    (93)        lookcin      (*wan )d suk                      zoo
    time-DEF (3ms)that 3p-REL PERF come
    'At the time when they arrived' (for Tuller, lit: 'time that they come')
Example #102:

    (95)    a. yara      sun           ci     tuwoo.
    children 3p.PERF         eat tuwoo
    'The children ate staple-food.'
Example #103:

    (96)        yara        suk                ci       tuwoo.
    children     3p.REL PERF         eat      tuwoo
    'Then the children ate staple food.'
Example #104:

    (97)    a. yara      suk             tard     Indoo taa            Kaar  binci.
    children 3p-REL PERF find-I           Indo     3fs.PERF finish-IV food
    '(Then) the children found Indo has finished cooking the food.'
Example #105:

    b. yara       sun        tard       Indoo taa             Kaar binci.
    children 3p-PERF find-I            Indo     3fs.PERF finish-IV food
    'The children found Indo has finished cooking the food.'
Example #106:

    sai  y                    saukoo       y                       ci     gyDaa.
    then 3ms.REL PERF          come.down-VI 3ms.REL PERF             eat    peanuts
    down and eat some peanuts.'
Example #107:

    gyDaa.
    peanuts
    and eat some peanuts.'
Example #108:

    (99)    a. [jiy]         yara     sun        zoo      sun             Duki      gooro.
    [yesterday] children 3p.PERF come 3p.PERF                    take-II    kolanuts
    'Yesterday the children came and took the kolanuts.'
Example #109:

    zoo      sun           Duki      gooro.
    come     3p.PERF       take-II    kolanuts
    'When Abdu returned, the children came and took the kolanuts.'
Example #110:

    riK        zowaa       ganimm.
    keep-I      come-VN      see-DN-of-1p
    '(During the period) when he was in love with Balki, Ali kept visiting us.'
Example #111:

    sun          zoo       sun           Duki      gooro.
    3p.PERF      come      3p.PERF       take-II    kolanuts
    '(At the time) when Abdu returned, the children came and took the kolanuts.'
Example #112:

    (101)   a. yara       sun        zoo       sun              Duki      gooro.
    children 3p.PERF come            3p.PERF          take-II    kolanuts
    'The children came and took the kolanuts.'
Example #113:

    b. yara       sun        zoo       suk                  Duki       gooro.
    children 3p.PERF come            3p.REL PERF           take-II     kolanuts
    'The children came and took the kolanuts.'
Example #114:

    c. yara       suk             zoo      suk                  Duki       gooro.
    children 3p.REL PERF come 3p.REL PERF                       take-II     kolanuts
    '(Then) the children came and took the kolanuts.'
Example #115:

    d. *yara      suk             zoo      sun         Duki            gooro.
    children 3p.REL PERF come 3p.PERF take-II                          kolanuts
    '(Then) the children came and took the kolanuts.'
Example #116:

    (102)   a. yara       suk             zoo       suna         neeman                  gooro.
    children 3p.REL PERF come 3p-CONT searching-DN                               kolanuts
    '(Then) the children came looking for the kolanuts.'
Example #117:

    b. yara       suk              zoo      s            Duki                gooro.
    children 3p.REL PERF come 3p.SUB                     take-II              kolanuts
    '(Then) the children came to take the kolanuts.'
Example #118:

    (103)   a. yaa           sa     yara         sun            ci      binci.
    3ms.PERF put          children      3p.PERF        eat     food
    'He made the children eat.'
Example #119:

    b. yaa           sa yara            suk                  ci     binci.
    3ms.PERF put children              3p.REL PERF           eat    food
    'He made the children eat.'
Example #120:

    c. ya                sa yara             suk                   ci     binci.
    3ms.REL PERF put children               3p.REL PERF            eat    food
    '(Then) he made the children eat.'
Example #121:

    d. * ya               sa yara            sun          ci         binci.
    3ms.REL PERF put children               3p.PERF      eat        food
    'He made the children eat.'
Example #122:

    e. ya                  sa    mutanee sun              yi aikn        banzaa.
    3ms.REL PERF put           people       3p.PERF      do work-of zero
    '(Then) he acted in such a way that people's work became worthless.'
Example #123:

    yaa            mut?
    3ms.PERF       die
    'Who is it that was said you have left under the circumstances of his death?'
Example #124:

    baroo          ya                  mut?
    let/leave-VI   3ms.REL PERF        die
    'Who is it that was said you have left him and he died?' (this reading only)
Example #125:

    baroo          yaa            mut?
    let/leave-VI   3ms.PERF       die
    'Who is it that was said you have left under the circumstances of his death?'
Example #126:

    kwabo-kwabo.
    penny-penny
    'If the children come, I'll give them a penny each.'
Example #127:

    kwabo-kwabo.
    penny-penny
    'If the children come, I'll give them a penny each.'
Example #128:

    kwabo-kwabo.
    penny-penny
    'If the children have arrived, I'll give them a penny each.'
Example #129:

    kwabo-kwabo.
    penny-penny
    'If the children come, I'll give them a penny each.'
Example #130:

    takrdr.
    letter-DEF
    'When the morning comes I will show you the letter.'
Example #131:

    k           hana       mas       kallon        tele    yu.
    2p.SUB       refuse-I    MA-3p      watching      TV        today
    'I told them not to enter. If they (dare) enter, do not let them watch TV today.
Example #132:

    kwabo-kwabo.
    penny-penny
    'Once the children have come, I'll give them a penny each.'
Example #133:

    kwabo-kwabo.
    penny-penny
    'When the children come, I'll give them a penny each.'
Example #134:

    muk               daaktaa    mak.
    1p.REL PERF        wait-I      MA-2fs
    'When we learned that you were coming, we waited for you.'
Example #135:

    shgaa            makarantaa
    enter-III-VN      school
    'any child that is in age of starting school'
Example #136:

    makarantaa
    school
    'any child that is in age of starting school'
Example #137:

    wasans.
    play-of-3p
    'The boy, who is smarter than they are, run home with their toy-plane.'
Example #138:

    ta                   sbka.
    3fs-REL PERF         graduate-III
    'She was bought a bike since the time she graduated.'
Example #139:

    taa            sbka.
    3fs.PERF       graduate-III
    'She was bought a bike because she graduated.'
Example #140:

    daf       binci.
    cook-I     food
    'Even as we arrived, Indoo has finished cooking the food.'
Example #141:

    d       gwrraa      many     many.
    with     kolanuts     big       big
    'As we were sitting there and here comes a kolanuts seller with huge kolanuts.'
Example #142:

    ba      Indoo    haushii.
    give     Indo     bad.feelings
    'The fact that Abdu bought beer for her son gave Indo bad feelings.'
Example #143:

    ba     Indoo    haushii.
    give    Indo     bad.feelings
    'The fact that Abdu bought beer for her son is giving Indo bad feelings.'
Example #144:

    ya                  ba         Indoo   haushii.
    3ms.REL PERF        give        Indo    bad.feelings
    'The fact that Abdu bought beer for her son is what gave Indo bad feelings.'
Example #145:

    (ya)ke             ba      Indoo      haushii.
    3ms-REL CONT        give     Indo       bad.feelings
    feelings.'
Example #146:

    (ya)na          ba      Indoo     haushii.
    3ms-CONT         give     Indo      bad.feelings
    'The fact that Abdu bought beer for her son is giving Indo bad feelings.'
Example #147:

    (ne)      (ya)ke                ba    Indoo      haushii.
    cop.m      3ms-REL CONT           give   Indo       bad.feelings
    feelings.'
Example #148:

    (ta/ya)na             ba      Indoo    haushii.
    3fs/3ms-CONT           give     Indo     bad.feelings
    'The fact that Abdu bought beer for her son is giving Indo bad feelings.'
Example #149:

    yaa             ba       Indoo     haushii.
    3ms.PERF        give      Indo      bad.feelings
    lit. 'when the Abdus' bought beer for her son it gave Indo bad feeling.'
Example #150:

    (nee)      ya                   ba      Indoo     haushii.
    cop.m      3ms.REL PERF         give     Indo      bad.feelings
    lit. 'it is when the Abdus' bought beer her son that gave Indo bad feeling.'
Example #151:

    (2)         Aud yaa               nemi         aiki.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF search-II              work
    'Audu searched for a job.'
Example #152:

    (3)     a. Abd      (ya)na          neemar              aiki.
    Abdu      (3ms)-CONT search-II-VN              work
    'Audu is searching for a job.'
Example #153:

    b. aiki      nee      Abd       (ya)ke                  neemaa.
    work be.m           Abdu       (3ms)-REL CONT           search-II-VN
    'It is a job that Audu is searching for .'
Example #154:

    c. Abd     *(ya)         nemi         aiki.
    Abdu     3ms.POT search-II            work
    'Audu will search for a job.'
Example #155:

    (4)         (Abd) yaa                zoo.
    Abdu      3ms.PERF        come-VI
    'Abdu/ he came.'
Example #156:

    (5)     a. Abd     yaa               nfi        gidaa.
    Abdu     3ms.PERF          head-II     home
    'Abdu headed home.'
Example #157:

    b. yaa          nfi           gidaa.
    3ms.PERF head-II            home
    'He headed home.'
Example #158:

    (8)     a. (Abd) yana               yank      kazaa.
    Abdu       3ms-CONT slit-IV           chicken
    'Abdu/ he is killing the chicken.'
Example #159:

    faadr           sarkii.
    court-of         emir
    'Then the people/ they rose up, mind you, and headed for the emir's palace.'
Example #160:

    (10)    a. (Aali dai)      yaa                san         Abd.
    Ali     indeed 3ms.PERF            know-II     Abdu
    'Ali indeed knows Abdu.'
Example #161:

    (11)    a. Indoo an                 koomoo      gidaa.
    Indo      IMP.PERF       come-VI     home
    'Indo is back home.'
Example #162:

    b. su Indoo an                    koomoo gidaa.
    3p Indo        IMP.PERF        come-VI home
    'Indo is back home.' or 'Indo and others are back home.'
Example #163:

    c. Indoo taa            koomoo          gidaa.
    Indo      3fs.PERF come-VI           home
    'Indo is back home.'
Example #164:

    (12)    a. daDa an                kaam       Abd.
    so      IMP.PERF catch-I Abdu
    'So! Abdu is arrested.' (lit. unspecified arrested Abdu.)
Example #165:

    b. daDa Abd b                             samu       jarbaawa     ba.
    so       Abdu NEG IMP.PERF                 obtain-II   exam           NEG
    'So! Abdu failed his exam.'
Example #166:

    (13)    a. Abd hln          an            samu biya           ko.
    Abdu I.guess IMP-PERF obtain pay                        is.it.so
    'I can guess it, Abdu you have just been paid.'
Example #167:

    b. Abd hln          kaa           samu biya           ko.
    Abdu I.guess 2ms-PERF obtain pay                        is.it.so
    'I can guess it, Abdu you have just been paid.'
Example #168:

    (14)        Abd yaa/ sun           tfi     Kano       tre        d   bansh.
    Abdu 3ms/ 3p.PERF go-III Kano                together    with fahter-of-3ms
    'Abdu went to Kano with his father.'
Example #169:

    (15)        Abd yana/           suna kokoowa ((d) shii)                 d   Aali.
    Abdu 3ms-CONT/ 3p-CONT wrestling      ((with) 3ms)                with Ali
    'Audu wrestling with Ali'
Example #170:

    (16)         Abd    sun          tfi        Kano.
    Abdu    3p.PERF go-III           Kano
    'Abdu went to Kano.'
Example #171:

    (17)     a. Abd yana              can     yana kokoowa                    d        Aali.
    Abdu 3ms-CONT there 3ms-CONT wrestling                             with      Ali
    'Audu is there wrestling with Ali.'
Example #172:

    b. Abd yana               can        suna          kokoowa       d        Aali.
    Abdu 3ms-CONT there                 3p-CONT        wrestling       with      Ali
    'Audu is there wrestling with Ali.'
Example #173:

    c. Abd suna            can    suna  kokoowa               d       Aali.
    Abdu 3p-CONT there 3p-CONT wrestling                        with     Ali
    'Audu is there wrestling with Ali.'
Example #174:

    d. *Abd suna              can      yana kokoowa                  d   Aali.
    Abdu       3p-CONT       there 3ms-CONT wrestling                  with Ali
    'Audu is there wrestling with Ali.'
Example #175:

    (18)     a. ?Abd suna           can yana             kooya m yara    kratuu.
    Abdu 3p-CONT there 3ms.CONT teach                  MA children reading
    'Abdu is there teaching to read to the children.'
Example #176:

    kratuu.
    reading
    'Abdu is there with the children teaching them to read.'
Example #177:

    (19)    a. Abd yaa             tattr yaransh            sun            tfi   goonaa.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF gather children-of-3ms 3p.PERF                     go-III farm
    'Abdu gathered all his children and went to the farm.'
Example #178:

    b. kin         ji      matar    Abd yaa             koree t!
    2fs.PERF hear wife-of Abdu 3ms.PERF chase.away-IV 3fs
    'Have you heard it, that Abdu chased away his wife!'
Example #179:

    (20)    a. [             sami       gooro  Poitiers]         yana d    wyaa.
    IMP.SUB obtain-II kolanuts at Poitiers                3ms-be with difficulty
    'It is difficult to find kolanuts in Poitiers.'
Example #180:

    b. [ti yana d         wyaa       [             sami    gooro  Poitiers]].
    3ms-be with difficulty IMP.SUB obtain-II                 kolanuts at Poitiers
    'It is difficult to find kolanuts in Poitiers.'
Example #181:

    (21)    a. maalmr nan            tana d        wyaa.
    teacher-of there 3fs-be with            difficulty
    'that teacher is hard.'
Example #182:

    b. *yana d           wyaa maalmr            nan.
    3ms-be with difficulty teacher-of             there
    'that teacher is hard.'
Example #183:

    (22)    a. tana d          wyaa maalmr            nan.
    3fs-be with difficulty teacher-of           there
    'that teacher is hard.'
Example #184:

    (20)    a. [           sami        gooro] [ Poitiers] yana              d   wyaa.
    IMP.SUB obtain-II kolanuts at Poitiers 3ms-be                     with difficulty
    'to find kolanuts in Poitiers is difficult.'
Example #185:

    (25)    a. [maalmr] tana d            wyaa [    gaane     ta].
    teacher-DEF 3fs-be with difficulty IMP.SUB understand 3fs
    'The teacher is hard to understand.'
Example #186:

    (27)    a. [          gaane            ta     maalmr]  yana d wyaa.
    IMP.SUB understand-IV 3fs teacher-DEF 3ms-be with difficulty
    'To understand her (the teacher) is difficult.'
Example #187:

    (29)    a. yaa             kmaat [Aisha t                 gam     aiknt].
    3ms.PERF fit-III            [Aisha     3fs.SUB     finish-I work-3fs]
    'It fits that Aisha finishes her work.'
Example #188:

    b. *[Aisha t           gam      aiknt] yaa  kmaat.
    [Asha     3fs.SUB finish-I work-3fs] 3ms.PERF fit-III
    'That Aisha finishes her work fits.'
Example #189:

    (30)        *Aisha taa               kmaat      gam        aiknt.
    Aisha       3fs.PERF fit-III           finish-I    work-of-3fs
    'Aisha fits finishing her work.'
Example #190:

    (32)    a. [Aisha t               gam     aiknt] yaa                 kmaat. (=29b)
    [Aisha        3fs.SUB finish-I work-3fs] 3ms.PERF              fit-III
    'It fits that Aisha finishes her work.'
Example #191:

    (33)    a. ganin      Abd      yaa      kmaat.
    seeing-of Abdu       3ms.PERF fit-III
    'Seeing Abdu is appropriate.'
Example #192:

    b. haknga/        wannn yaa                     kmaat.
    way-of-this/ this           3ms.PERF           fit-III
    'This way/ this is appropriate.'
Example #193:

    (34)    a. t          gam      aiknt           yaa      kmaci            Aisha.
    3fs.SUB finish-I work-of-3fs            3ms.PERF suit-II            Aisha
    'That she finish her work suits Aisha.'
Example #194:

    b. wnnan yaa                kmacee       t.
    that       3ms.PERF suit-II              3fs
    '(doing) that suits her.'
Example #195:

    (35)    a. Abd (ya)na             daf        shnkaafaa.
    Abdu (3ms)-CONT cook-I               rice
    'Audu is cooking some rice.'
Example #196:

    b. aiki      nee       Abd      (ya)ke               neemaa.
    work cop.m           Abdu      (3ms)-REL CONT        search-II-VN
    'It is a job that Audu is searching for.'
Example #197:

    soo     armee         bana.
    want    marriage      this.year
    'Indo took a loan in case her daughter would want to marry this year.'
Example #198:

    d. Abd     ?(ya)kn     nemi         aiki    duk raanii.
    Abdu     3ms-HAB search-II job               all    dry season
    'Audu usually searchs for a job in the dry season.'
Example #199:

    (36)    a. aiki      nee      yara     *(su)k     nemaa.
    work be.m boys                3p-REL PERF search-II
    'It is a job that the boys searched for.'
Example #200:

    b. Abd      za *(ya)       neeman       aiki.
    Abdu      FUT-3ms         search-VN-II work
    'Audu is going to look for a job.'
Example #201:

    c. sun         ce    Abd           *(y)         zamna.
    3p.PERF say        Abdu           3ms.SUB       sit-I
    'They asked that Abdu sit.'
Example #202:

    (37)    a. Abd (ya)na        gidaa    ynzu.
    Abdu 3ms-be         home     now
    'Abdu is at home presently.'
Example #203:

    b. naa    ne      Abd      *(ya)k         ynzu-u?
    where cop.m Abdu           3ms-be          now-Q
    'Where is Abdu presently?'
Example #204:

    (38)    a. aiki     nee        Abd      (ya)ke             yi.
    work cop.m           Abdu      3ms-CONT            do-VN
    'It is work that Abdu is doing.'
Example #205:

    b. aiki     nee       Abd      *(ya)ke.
    work cop.m          Abdu      3ms-CONT
    'It is work that Abdu is (doing).' (lit 'It is work that Abdu is at)
Example #206:

    (40)    a. Abd      (ya)na         daf          shnkaafaa.
    Abdu      (3ms)-CONT cook-I             rice
    'Audu is cooking some rice.'
Example #207:

    aiki               gidan        sarkii]].
    work        at       house-of     emir
    'I saw the boy who works at the emir's house.'
Example #208:

    zuwa]]]?
    come-DN
    'Who did Ali say are coming?'
Example #209:

    d. yaarn nan, pro *(ya)na                 aiki           gidan       sarkii]].
    boy-of there           3ms-CONT          work at          house-of    emir
    'As for that boy, he works at the emir's house.'
Example #210:

    iiko     d      yawa.
    power     with    a.lot
    'The teachersi think theyi have a lot of power.'
Example #211:

    zagi       miji.
    insult      husband
    insult one's husband!'
Example #212:

    wuKaa.
    knife
    'Kalala is there struggling to sharpen the knife.'
Example #213:

    mataa]].
    wife
    So, people, who did you see (who) has a wife?'
Example #214:

    (42)     a. yara (su)na        jiifr                     kren       Indoo.
    kids    3p-CONT throw-II-DN-of                  dog-of      Indo
    'Some kids are throwing at Indo's dog.'
Example #215:

    b. yara shKffai       (su)na        jiifr                    kren       Indoo.
    kids    malicious 3p-CONT            throw-II-DN-of            dog-of      Indo
    'The malicious kids are throwing at Indo's dog.'
Example #216:

    c   leebra waDnd         Abd ya              kiraa               (su)na jira.
    laborers who-p-that Abdu 3msREL PERF call                        3p-CONT waiting
    'The laborers that Abdu called are waiting.'
Example #217:

    d. mootr Kann                 Abd (ta)na d       faaDii sosai.
    car-of younger brother-of Abdu 3fs-be with largeness very
    'The car of Abdu's younger sibling is very large.'
Example #218:

    (43)     a. shii     *(ya)na        wank          mootrsh.
    3ms      3ms-CONT wash                  car-of-3ms
    'He is washing his car.'
Example #219:

    b. nii     *(i)na            zuwa.
    1s      1s-CONT            going
    'I am going.'
Example #220:

    c. ita      *(ta)na zuwa.
    3fs      3fs-CONT going
    'she is going.'
Example #221:

    (44)    a. Abd (ya)na          wank          mootrsh.
    Abdu 3ms-CONT wash                   car-of-3ms
    'Abdu is washing his car.'
Example #222:

    b. Abd fa           (ya)na         wank           mootrsh.
    Abdu indeed 3ms-CONT wash                         car-of-3ms
    'Abdu is indeed washing his car.'
Example #223:

    c. Abd dai         ?(ya)na         wank           mootrsh.
    Abdu indeed 3ms-CONT wash                         car-of-3ms
    'Abdu indeed is washing his car.'
Example #224:

    d. Abd lallee        *(ya)na            wank      mootr-sh.
    Abdu in fact       3ms-CONT            wash       car-of-3ms
    'Abdu in fact is washing his car.'
Example #225:

    (45)    a. S1:     naa          ji     Abd d        Aali sun              tfi     Kano.
    1s.PERF hear Abdu and Ali                 3p.PERF        go-III   Kano
    'I heard that Abdu and Ali went to Kano.'
Example #226:

    sane   ma         Aali    ba.
    know-IV MA          Ali     NEG
    'Abdu indeed went, but I don't know about Ali.'
Example #227:

    (46)    a. S1:     an              ce Abdu        baa ya      sn        Blki.
    IMP.PERF say Abdu               NEG.CONT 3ms love-DN-of Balki
    'It is said that Abdu doesn't love Balki.'
Example #228:

    (47)            Kalala (ya)na can (ya)na               faamaa d waashn wuKaa
    Kalala 3ms-be there 3ms-CONT struggle with sharpening-of knife
    'Kalala is there struggling to sharpen the knife.'
Example #229:

    (49)    a. Kalala (ya)na can            Blki (ta)na          mash        aski.
    Kalala 3ms-be there Balki 3fs-CONT MA-3ms hair-cut
    'Kalala is there at Balki's house where she is cutting his hair.'
Example #230:

    b. ??Kalala (ya)na can Abd na               wank m Indoo                  rigaa.
    Kalala     3ms-be there Abdu CONT wash-IV MA Indo                           gown
    ??'Kalala is there Abdu is washing Indo's gown.'
Example #231:

    waashn               wuKaa.
    sharpening-of         knife
    'Kalala is at Balki's house struggling to sharpen the knife.'
Example #232:

    waashn       wuKaa.
    sharpening-of knife
    'Kalala is in the room struggling to sharpen the knife.'
Example #233:

    waashn wuKaa.
    sharpening-of  knife
    'Kalala is in the room struggling to sharpen the knife.'
Example #234:

    yawa.
    a lot
    'The teachersi think theyi have a lot of autority.'
Example #235:

    (51)         Kalala (ya)na gidan             Blki tana                mash       aski.
    Kalala 3ms-be house-of Balki 3fs-CONT MA-3ms                            hair-cut
    'Kalala is at Balki's house where she is cutting his hair.'
Example #236:

    (52)    a. shii    Abd *(ya)na          sn              Blki.
    3ms Abdu 3ms-CONT want-DN                       Balki
    'As for Abdu, he loves Balki.'
Example #237:

    (53)    a. (shii) Abd bin               wasaa] *(ya)ke                 yi.
    3ms Abdu thing-of play                    3ms.REL CONT          do-VN
    'As for Abdu, it is a toy that he is making.'
Example #238:

    b. [bin        wasaa] (*shii) Abd          yake                yi.
    thing-of play          3ms      Abdu       3ms.REL CONT         do-VN
    'It is a toy that Abdu is making.'
Example #239:

    (55)    a. (shii) Abd [an               ce [*(ya)na             sn       Blki]].
    3ms Abdu IMP.PERF say 3ms-CONT                          want-DN   Balki
    'As for Abdu, it was said that he loves Balki.'
Example #240:

    b. [an            ce [shii      Abd      *(ya)na sn     Blki]].
    IMP.PERF say 3ms              Abdu      3ms-CONT want-DN Balki
    'As for Abdu, it was said that he loves Balki.'
Example #241:

    c. [an            ce [Abd       (ya)na          sn          Blki]].
    IMP.PERF say Abdu              3ms-CONT         want-DN      Balki
    'It was said that Abdu loves Balki.'
Example #242:

    (57)        (shii) Abd gobe             *(ya)na    zuwa aiki.
    3ms Abdu tomorrow 3ms-CONT going work
    'As for Abdu, he is going to work tomorrow.'
Example #243:

    (59)    a. Abd (nee)         (ya)k            wank        mootrsh.
    Abdu cop.m 3ms-REL CONT wash                      car-of-3ms
    'It is Abdu who is washing his car.'
Example #244:

    b. Abd nee       [aka              ce [(ya)ke    wank mootrsh]].
    Abdu cop.m IMP-REL PERF say 3ms-REL CONT wash car-of-3ms
    'It is Abdu who was said to be washing his car.'
Example #245:

    c. Abd [aka                   ce [(ya)na         wank       mootrsh]].
    Abdu IMP-REL CONT say 3ms-CONT wash                          car-of-3ms
    'It is Abdu who was said to be washing his car.'
Example #246:

    d. shii (nee) (ya)ke                   wank     mootrsh.
    3ms cop.m 3ms-REL CONT               wash      car-of-3ms
    'It is he who is washing his car.'
Example #247:

    e. Abd nee            lallee   (ya)ke         wank          mootrsh.
    Abdu cop.m in fact 3ms-REL CONT wash                        car-of 3ms
    'It is in fact Abdu who is washing his car.'
Example #248:

    zton       [(ya)na     aiki                   gidan      sarkii]].
    thinking    3ms-REL CONT work              at     house-of   emir
    'I saw the boy who Indo thinks he works at the emir's house.'
Example #249:

    b. suwa    nee      [Aali ya                       ce [*(su)na zuwa]]?
    3p-who cop.p Ali 3ms.REL PERF                    say 3p-CONT come-DN
    'Who did Ali say are coming?'
Example #250:

    c. wa nee ne      [Aali ya                        ce [(ya)na zuwa]]?
    who cop cop. Ali         3ms.REL PERF            say 3ms-CONT come-DN
    '?Who did Ali say is coming?'
Example #251:

    mataa]]?
    wife
    'So, people, who did you see (who) has a wife?'
Example #252:

    wank       mootrsh]].
    wash-IV     car-of-3ms
    'It is Abdu who was reported to Indo to be washing his car.'
Example #253:

    wank            mootrsh]].
    wash-IV car-of-3ms
    'It is Abdu who was reported to her to be washing his car.'
Example #254:

    zuwa]]?
    come-DN
    'Who did Ali reported to Indo that he is coming?'
Example #255:

    zuwa]]?
    come-DN
    'Who did Ali reported to you that he is coming?'
Example #256:

    mootarsh].
    car-of-3ms
    'It is Abdu who is at Indo's house washing his car.'
Example #257:

    mootarsh].
    car-of-3ms
    'It is Abdu who is at her house washing his car.'
Example #258:

    c. ?Abd nee         [ke          can] [(ya)na wank                mootarsh].
    Abdu cop.m REL CONT there 3ms-CONT wash-IV                         car-of-3ms
    'It is Abdu who is there washing his car.'
Example #259:

    (64)    a. Abd yana              sn             teebr.
    Abdu 3ms-CONT want-DN-of                teebr
    'Abdu wants the table.'
Example #260:

    b. teebr Abd yana                so.
    teebr Abdu 3ms-CONT want-DN
    'As for the table, Abdu wants [it].'
Example #261:

    c. teebr Abd --na            so.
    teebr Abdu --CONT want-DN
    'As for the table, Abdu wants [it].'
Example #262:

    d. wa --ke              sn                teebr?
    who --REL CONT want-DN-of                 table
    'Who wants the table?'
Example #263:

    (i)     a. shii     Abd b                ?/    sh            samu       jarbaawa ba.
    (3ms) Abdu NEG.PERF IMP/ 3ms                          obtain-II   exam       NEG
    'As for Abdu, he did not pass his exam.'
Example #264:

    b. Abd nee          *ake /                  yake                  wank   mootrsh.
    Abdu cop.m IMP-REL CONT/                   3ms-REL CONT           wash    car-of-3ms
    'It is Abdu who is washing his car.'
Example #265:

    c. shii   *an /          yaa                 samu        jarbaawa.
    3ms IMP.PERF/ 3ms.PERF                    obtain-II    exam
    'He passed his exam.'
Example #266:

    a. gr1: sun             nun      lemuu. (C-form)
    3p.PERF ripen-I lemon
    'They ripened the lemon.'
Example #267:

    b. gr2:    sun          nni        lemuu. (C-form)
    3p.PERF      ripen-II lemon
    'They ripened lemon.'
Example #268:

    c. gr3:    lemuu     yaa             nna. (A-form)
    lemon      3ms.PERF        ripen-III
    'The lemon ripened.'
Example #269:

    d. gr4:    sun        nun         lemuu. (C-form)
    3p.PERF ripen-IV        lemon
    'They completely ripened the lemon.'
Example #270:

    e. gr5:    sun          nunar d lemuu. (C-form)
    3p.PERF      ripen V lemon
    'They ripened the lemon.'
Example #271:

    f. gr6:    sun         nunoo     lemuu. (C-form)
    3p.PERF ripen-VI lemon
    'They ripened lemon and came back.'
Example #272:

    g. gr7:    lemuu     yaa            nnu. (A-form)
    lemon      3ms.PERF ripen-VII
    'The lemon is well ripened.'
Example #273:

    (15)    a. Abd yaa             kaam        tumkyaa ()            goonaa.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF seize-I             sheep    (at)           field
    'Abdu grabbed a sheep in the field.'
Example #274:

    b. tumkyaa ce          Abd ya                       kaama ()       goonaa.
    sheep          cop.f Abdu 3ms.REL PERF              seize-I (at)     field
    'It is a sheep that Abdu grabbed in the field.'
Example #275:

    (16)    a. Abd yaa              nemi aiki ()             can.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF look-II work (at)                   there
    'Abdu looked for a job there.'
Example #276:

    b. aiki, Abd yaa              nemaa        ()     can.
    job,    Abdu 3ms.PERF look-II              (at)    there
    'A job? Abdu did look for one there.'
Example #277:

    (18)          Abd yaa              tankoo m          Indoo.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF reply-VI MA                Indo
    'Abdu replied to Indo and came.'
Example #278:

    (21)     a. yara       sun         zamna ()         kujerar maalm.
    children 3p.PERF sit-I              (on) chair-of teacher
    'The children sat on the teacher's chair.'
Example #279:

    b. yara       sun          zamn      kujerar       maalm.
    children 3p.PERF sit-I              chair-of       teacher
    'The children sat on the teacher's chair.'
Example #280:

    (22)     a. yaa           gitta/     mootsa/ juuya/      karktaa.
    3ms.PERF cross-I/ move-I/ rotated-I / bend-I
    'He/it crossed in front/ moved/ rotated/ bent.'
Example #281:

    yaaro/     karkt      yaaro.
    child/      bend-I       child
    'Indo put the child accross/ moved the child/ turned the child/ bent the child.'
Example #282:

    (23)     a. aiki   yaa           jaa/           jaaya.
    work 3ms.PERF pull/                  pull-I
    'The work has progressed.'
Example #283:

    b. ruwaa sun              jaaya.
    water    3p.PERF pull-I
    'The water (flood) has withdrawn.'
Example #284:

    (26)     a. yaa           Door kaayaa                 moota.
    3ms.PERF load-I goods             on        truck
    'He loaded the goods on the truck.'
Example #285:

    b. yaa           Doora        moota.
    3ms.PERF load-I on truck
    'He loaded (the goods) on the truck.'
Example #286:

    (29)    a. sun          gyaar    mootar Abd        d   kle.
    3p.PERF repair-I       car-of     Abdu    with wrench
    'They repaired Abdu's car with a wrench.'
Example #287:

    b. sun          gyaara m Abd moota d                   kle.
    3p.PERF repair-I MA Abdu car                with         wrench
    'They repaired Abdu his car with a wrench.'
Example #288:

    c. *sun         gyaar Abd moota d                kle.
    3p.PERF repair Abdu car                with       wrench
    'They repaired Abdu his car with a wrench.'
Example #289:

    d. *sun         gyaar kle        ()  mootar         Abd.
    3p.PERF repair wrench (on) car                       Abdu
    'They repaired Abdu's car with a wrench.'
Example #290:

    (31)    a. Abd yaa              ji/        *jiy   mirya. (C-form)
    Abdu 3ms.PERF hear/              hear    voice
    'Abdu heard a voice.'
Example #291:

    b. Abd yaa                 ji/      jiya. (A-form)
    Abdu 3ms.PERF            hear/    hear-I
    'Abd heard (sth.).
Example #292:

    (33)    a. Abd yaa                  bnki     icce    d       moota.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF             hit-II    tree     with     car
    'Abdu hit a tree with the car.'
Example #293:

    b. Abd yaa            bank moota                   icce.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF ram-I            car at               tree
    'Abdu rammed the car into a tree.'
Example #294:

    (36)     a. taa          kiraa/      krayi    Abd.(C-form)
    3fs.PERF call/           call-II    Abdu.
    'She called Abdu.
Example #295:

    b. taa          jiraa k/       jrayee        k      awa   biyu.(B-form)
    3fs.PERF wait 2fs/           wait-II         2fs     hour   two
    'She waited for you for two hours.'
Example #296:

    c. Abd nee            suk                  rigyaa/      rgyaaya. (A-form)
    Abdu cop.m 3p-REL PERF                    precede/     precede-II
    'It is Abdu that they preceded.'
Example #297:

    saamu/       saki/     faDi.
    obtain/ release/         tell
    'You don't know what they know/ have left/ obtained/ released/ told.'
Example #298:

    (38)    a. sun         ci/ cyi masraa, kuma sun      shaa/ shyi                      giya.
    3p.PERF eat/ eat -II corn       and 3p.PERF drink/ drink-II                  beer
    'They ate corn and drank beer.'
Example #299:

    giya.
    beer
    'They are eating corn and drinking beer.'
Example #300:

    suke       so.
    3p-REL CONT want
    'It is something better than it that they want.'
Example #301:

        hmaada.
    in   desert
    *'They more or less searched for the ten people who were lost in the desert.'
Example #302:

    Bace         hmaada.
    lose-IV in     desert
    'They more or less searched for the ten people who were lost in the desert.'
Example #303:

    (47)    a. Abd yaa                gajiyar d      shaanuu.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF tire              V       cows
    'Abdu tired the bulls.'
Example #304:

    b. *Abd yaa               gajar     d    shaanuu.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF tire                V     cows
    'Abdu tired the bulls.'
Example #305:

    (51)    a. tntabraa taa           dra/      hra/         tma.
    pigeon       3fs.PERF land-III/ fly-III/          jump-III
    'The pigeon landed/ took off/ jumped.'
Example #306:

    bisa    shgifa.
    on      house
    'The pigeon rested on a branch/ flew inside/ jumped on the roof.'
Example #307:

    (63)    a. Abd yaa               fDi     mgana         gban         sarkii.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF tell-II matter                   at front-of     emir
    'Abdu told the matter before the emir.'
Example #308:

    b. Abd yaa               faDa m sarkii             mgana.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF tell               MA emir           matter
    'Abdu told the emir the matter.'
Example #309:

    (64)    a. tfiya taa              faasa.
    trip      3fs.PERF be cancel-I
    'The trip is cancelled.'
Example #310:

    b. Abd yaa                 faas tfiya.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF cancel-I trip
    'Abdu cancelled the trip.'
Example #311:

    (65)    a. Abd yaa      faaD.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF fall-III
    'Abdu felt.'
Example #312:

    b. Abd yaa                faada ruwa.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF fall-I in.water
    'Abdu felt into the water.'
Example #313:

    (68)    a. Abd yaa              iki      yaarnk           ( kasuwaa).
    Abdu 3ms.PERF send-II boy-of-2fs                   (at market)
    'Abdu sent your boy (to the market).'
Example #314:

    b. Abd yaa              aik      yaarnk          *(  makarantaa) .
    Abdu 3ms.PERF send-I boy-of-2fs                   at school
    'Abdu sent your boy at school.'
Example #315:

    (69)    a. Abd yaa            tnkDi         Indoo       (* ruwaa).
    Abdu 3ms.PERF bump-II               Indo        (in water)
    'Abdu bumped into Indo.'
Example #316:

    b. Abd yaa             tunkD Indoo              *(  ruwaa) .
    Abdu 3ms.PERF push               Indo           (in water)
    'Abdu pushed Indo into the water.'
Example #317:

    (70)    a. maalm yaa               fsknci      gabs.
    teacher 3ms.PERF face-II               east
    'The teacher faced toward east'
Example #318:

    b. maalm yaa              fusknt Dalbbai gabs.
    teacher 3ms.PERF face-I            students east
    'The teacher made the student face east.'
Example #319:

    (71)    a. Abd yaa                bnki      icce    (d moota).
    Abdu 3ms.PERF hit-II               tree     with car
    'Abdu hit a tree with the car.'
Example #320:

    b. Abd yaa              bank moota             *(    icce) .
    Abdu 3ms.PERF ram-I             car            at     tree
    'Abdu rammed the car into a tree.'
Example #321:

    (72)        yaa            halb      bindig     ( tsakar           taroo).
    3ms.PERF shoot-I gun                  (at middle-of       crowd)
    'He fired a gun (in the middle of a crowd).'
Example #322:

    (79)        Abd nee            suk         bi/              byaa.
    Abdu cop.m 3p-REL PERF follow/                    follow-II
    'It is Abdu that they followed.'
Example #323:

    (85)    a. mahlbaa sun            dann          breewaa.
    hunters     3p.PERF pin down-IV deer
    'The hunters completely pinned down a deer.'
Example #324:

    b. kazaa    taa            dann     KwayaKwayint.
    hen       3fs.PERF pin down-IV eggs-of-3fs
    'The hen covered all of its eggs.'
Example #325:

    (1)      a. yara      suna         wank        raaguna.
    children 3p-CONT         clean-IV     rams
    'The children are cleaning the rams.'
Example #326:

    b.  nannya ne           mutanee suke          taruwaa  kullum.
    at here         cop.m people        3p-REL CONT gather-DN everyday
    'It is here where people gather everyday.'
Example #327:

    c. nii     maa ina          zuwa Kano.
    1s      too 1s-CONT go-DN Kano
    'Me   too I usually go to Kano.'
Example #328:

    *Shina        (g) sann           Abd.
    3ms-CONT at          know-II-DN Abdu
    *'He is knowing Abdu.'
Example #329:

    *Shina        (g) az        muna   zowaa.
    3ms-CONT at          posit-I   1p-CONT come-VI-VN
    *'He is believing we are coming.'
Example #330:

    *Abind       ka                  yi yana (g)               kmaatrka.
    thing.that    2ms.REL PERF do 3ms-CONT at                     fitting-of-2ms
    'What you    did is appropriate for you.'
Example #331:

    *Abd yana            (g) tsuufar                Indoo.
    Abdu 3ms-CONT at             be.old-III-VN         Indo
    *'Abdu is being senior to Indo.'
Example #332:

    *Abd yana            (g) girmar               Indoo.
    Abdu 3ms-CONT at            grow-II-VN           Indo
    *'Abdu is being older than Indo.'
Example #333:

    *Abd yana            (g) dat            Aali   tsawoo.
    Abdu 3ms-CONT at              equal-I       Ali    height
    *'Abdu is equaling Ali in height.'
Example #334:

    (3)      a. *yakn       sann        Abd/ amsr.
    3ms.HAB know-II-DN Abdu/ response
    'He usually knows *Abdu/ the answer.'
Example #335:

    b. *yakn      grmi        Indoo.
    3ms.HAB grow-II Indo
    *'He usually is older than Indo.'
Example #336:

    c. nii maa ni          grmi      Indoo.
    1s too 1s.POT grow-II Indo
    'Me too I am probably older than Indo.'
Example #337:

    d. *Abd za ya           az        kuna            zuwa         gobe.
    Abdu     FUT-3ms posit-I 2p-CONT                   come-VN       tomorrow
    'Abdu will believe that you are coming.'
Example #338:

    Shina           (*g) jin         mgana       Dak.
    3ms-CONT at            hear-DN talk              inside.room
    'He is perceiving voices in the room.'
Example #339:

    Kasashen      Tuurai.
    countries-of   Europe
    'Balki usually receives letters from Europe.'
Example #340:

    Shina        (*g) gaan                aji.
    3ms-CONT at          understand-IV       course
    'He usually understands the course.'
Example #341:

    suk               isoo.
    3p-REL PERF        arrive-VI
    'Abdu just had a seat when the children arrived.'
Example #342:

    ak          bugoo            waya.
    IMP-REL PERF hit-VI           wire
    'Abdu has just lay down on bed when the telephone rang.'
Example #343:

    shina           (g) kallon     maKerii.
    3ms-CONT at             look-DN blacksmith
    'He is watching the blacksmith.'
Example #344:

    shina           (g) suraarr reediyo.
    3ms-CONT at            listen-DN radio
    'He is listening to the radio.'
Example #345:

    Abd yana                (g) luraa    d          shi.
    Abdu 3ms-CONT at               attending with        3ms
    'Abdu is attending to him (the child).'
Example #346:

    Abd         shina            (ga) cik     tuluu.
    Abdu         3ms-CONT at            fill-I   pot
    'Abdu is     filling the pot.'
Example #347:

    Indoo tana              (g) diibn          abikkiyr   gabart
    Indo      3fs-CONT at         survelling      friend-of   rivalry-of-3fs
    'Indo is monitoring her rival.'
Example #348:

    macijii yana         (g) mootsawaa.
    snake 3ms-CONT at           move-I-VN
    'The snake is moving.'
Example #349:

    *yaa         san         Abd d      hamzarii/ d                Karfii.
    3ms.PERF know-II Abdu with rapidity/ with                         force
    *'He knows Abdu rapidly/ vigorously.'
Example #350:

    *Abd yaa              tsofi        Indoo           hanklii.
    Abdu       3ms.PERF be.old-II        Indo       at    carefulness
    *'Abdu is senior to Indo carefully.'
Example #351:

    a. *Az muna             zuwa    ynzu!
    posit 1p-CONT go-VN now
    *'Believe that we are coming now!'
Example #352:

    b. *An          sa shi     sann              Abd.
    IMP.PERF put 3ms know-DN                    Abdu
    *'He was forced to know Abdu.'
Example #353:

    c. *Dt      Abd     tsawoo!
    equal-I    Abdu     height
    *'Be equal to Abdu in height!'
Example #354:

    d. *An           tiilsaa shi       tsuufan            Indoo.
    IMP.PERF      force-I 3ms be.old-DN                 Indo
    *'He was forced to be senior to Indo.'
Example #355:

    (11)     a. taa         sk      yaaro rKe g              Abd.
    3fs.PERF find-IV child          held by           Abdu
    'She found the child being held by Abdu .'
Example #356:

    b. taa         sk     Abd rKe             d       yaaro.
    3fs.PERF find-IV Abdu held                 with     child
    'She found Abdu holding the child.'
Example #357:

    c. jirgin       ruwaa yaa                  isoo          krkce.
    vessel-of water         3ms.PERF        arrive-VI     tilted
    'The boat arrived tilted.'
Example #358:

    d. zwaa             rKe/ isowaa                 krkce
    come-VI-VN        held/ arrive-VI-VN            tilted
    'coming while held/ arriving in a tilted manner'
Example #359:

    e. yaaro rKKaKee/ yaarinya rKaKKaa
    boy       held.ms/        girl          held.fs
    'boy (that is) held/ girl (that is) held'
Example #360:

    (12)    a. *Zuwmm             yana         je           g      Abd.
    come-DN-of-1p 3ms-CONT believed                  on      Abdu
    'Our arrival is believed by Abdu.'
Example #361:

    b. *Abd yaa               zmnaa je          d   zuwmm.
    Abdu      3ms.PERF sit-I          believing with come-DN-of-1p
    'Abdu sat believing in our arrival.'
Example #362:

    (13)     a. Abd yaa         ruuga.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF run.away-I
    'Abdu run away.'
Example #363:

    (14)     a. *naa        ga     yara      suna        ruugawaa        (makarantaa).
    1s.PERF see children 3p-CONT run-I-VN                       school
    'I saw the children running (for school).'
Example #364:

    b. *naa        ga    Indoo tana     tfiya   (gidaa).
    1s.PERF see Indo         3fs-CONT go-III-VN (home)
    'I saw Indo going home.'
Example #365:

    c. ??Abd yana                 rayawaa.
    Abdu      3ms-CONT           dance-I-VN
    'Abdu is dancing.'
Example #366:

    (15)    a. ??Abd yaa            ruuga        gidaa   cikin     awa      gdaa.
    Abdu      3ms.PERF run-I            home    inside-of hour      one
    'Abdu ran home in an hour.'
Example #367:

    b. Abd yaa             ruuga       sha gidaa      cikin     awa         gdaa.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF run-I               up.to home      inside-of hour         one
    'Abdu ran home in an hour.'
Example #368:

    awa     gdaa.
    hour     one
    'Abdu ran and reached home in an hour.'
Example #369:

    d. Abd yaa             ruuga yaa        nfi    gidaa.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF run-I           3ms.PERF head-II home
    ?'Abdu ran (and) he headed home.'
Example #370:

    (16)    a. *Tuluu yana          g        fashewaa.
    pot         3ms-CONT at          break-IV-VN
    'The pot is breaking.'
Example #371:

    b. *Indoo tana            g saa                  MaraaDi.
    Indo       3fs-CONT at         arrive-III-VN     Maradi
    *'Indo is arriving in Maradi.'
Example #372:

    c. *Aali yana           g zaamaa            dodoo.
    Ali      3ms-CONT at        become-III     dragon
    'Ali is becoming a dragon.'
Example #373:

    d. *yara     suna      g tunawaa              d  tsoofon kakans.
    children 3p-CONT at remember-I-VN with old                 grandpa
    *'The children are remembering their old grandpa.'
Example #374:

    (17)    a. Jkkii    na       g       mutuwa.
    donkey CONT at               die-DN
    'The donkey is dying.'
Example #375:

    b. tulun Blki yana                 g    ckaa.
    pot-of Balki 3ms-CONT              at    fill.up-III-VN
    'Balki's pot is filling up.'
Example #376:

    c. Darma tana           g        narkewaa.
    lead        3fs-CONT at          melt-IV-VN
    'The lead is melting.'
Example #377:

    d. Rigaa tana              g     tsanewaa.
    gown    3fs-CONT          at     dry-IV-VN
    'The gown is drying.'
Example #378:

    e. cikn        Aali yana               g   kmbura.
    belly-of     Ali      3ms-CONT        at   balloon-III-VN
    'Ali's stomach is ballooning.'
Example #379:

    f. macijii   yana        g        naDewaa.
    snake      3ms-CONT at            coil-IV-VN
    'The snake is coiling.'
Example #380:

    luraa.
    notice-III-VN
    *'He stopped understanding/ realizing/ noticing.'
Example #381:

    b. *yaa          dain     zamnawaa/ taashi/       juuyawaa.
    3ms.PERF stop-I sit-I-VN/             rise-DN/ turn.over-I-VN
    *'He stopped sitting down/ standing up/ turning over.'
Example #382:

    c. *yaa          dain     ruugawaa/           tseerewaa/            tafiya.
    3ms.PERF stop-I run.away-I-VN/               escape-IV-VN/          leave-DN
    *'He stopped taking off/ escaping/ departing.'
Example #383:

    (19)    a. Tuluu yaa             dain ckaa.
    pot       3ms.PERF stop-I fill-III-VN
    'The pot has stopped filling up (half way).'
Example #384:

    b. Darma taa             dain        narkewaa.
    lead       3fs.PERF stop-I          melt-IV-VN
    'The lead has stopped melting.'
Example #385:

    c. Rigaa   taa           dain         tsanewaa.
    gown     3fs.PERF      stop-I        dry-IV-VN
    'The gown has stopped drying.'
Example #386:

    d. yaa           dain    koyoo.
    3ms.PERF stop-I learn-DN
    'He has stopped learning.'
Example #387:

    (20)        yaa     bar        zamaa/ *zamnawaa                nn.
    3ms stop-II        sit-DN/ sit-I-VN            at    here
    'He no longer sits here.' or 'He no longer lives here.'
Example #388:

    (21)    a. taa         taash     zumut!/ zamna gwarm !
    3fs.PERF rise-III zumut/          sit-I      gwarm
    'She sprang up quick/ sat clumsily (boom!).'
Example #389:

    b. Indoo taa         durKsaa snnu snnu aj               tulun ruwaa.
    Indo 3fs.PERF kneel-I         slowly         put.down-IV pot-of water
    'Indo kneeled down slowly to deposit the water pot.'
Example #390:

    dudduKee     nandnan.
    REDUP-bent-IV quickly
    'When an arrow was shot, everyone kneeled down quickly.'
Example #391:

    d. yaa         fanfraa d          gudu      wje.
    3ms.PERF sprint-I with           running    out
    'He sprang out fast.'
Example #392:

    (22)    a. Jkkii    ya                  mut nadnan.
    donkey 3ms.REL PERF           die  quickly
    'The donkey died quick.'
Example #393:

    b. tulun Blki yana                d nwar             ckaa.
    pot-of Balki 3ms-CONT with slowness-of                 fill.up-III-VN
    'Balki's pot is slow to fill up.'
Example #394:

    c. Darma tana             g narkewaa          snnu snnu.
    lead       3fs-CONT at melt-IV-VN              slowly
    'The lead is slowly melting.'
Example #395:

    d. Abd y                     gji d        noomaa nandnan.
    Abdu 3ms.REL PERF tire with                hoeing quickly
    'Abdu got tired of hoeing quickly.'
Example #396:

    (23)    a. Abdu yaa           gaane/         farga/       fahamoo snnu snnu.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF understand-IV/ realize-III/ remember-VI slowly
    'Abdu understood/ realized/ remembered slowly.'
Example #397:

    b. yaa           ras baa/ tard baa/ bar                   baa      nandnan
    3ms.PERF lost-I father/ find-I father/ left-II             father    quickly
    'He lost/ found/ left his father quickly.'
Example #398:

    d. yaa          gam/      Kaar/      dain/ tsaid/ aiki            nandnan.
    3ms.PERF finish-I/ finish-IV/ stop-I/ stop-I work                   quickly
    'He finished/ finished/ stopped/ stopped working quickly.'
Example #399:

    (24)    a. tashi!
    IMPER-rise-III
    'Stand up!'
Example #400:

    b. Abd yaa              tiilsaa m Aali          taash      dg       kujeraa.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF force-I MA Ali                    rise-III-DN from       chair
    'Abdu forced Ali to stand up off the chair.'
Example #401:

    (25)    a. mtu          in      dan     muu!
    IMPER-die if          for     1p
    'Die if you will, we don't care.'
Example #402:

    b. Abd yaa             tiilsaa    m     Aali ftaa         wje.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF force-I            MA     Ali get.out-III-DN out
    'Abdu forced Ali to get out.'
Example #403:

    (26)    a   Indoo taa              taash tsye.
    Indo       3fs.PERF rise-III stopped
    lit.: 'Indo rose up stopped.'
Example #404:

    ya                   wuce      ba koo         naa      kwaanank.
    3ms.REL PERF         pass-IV    NEG even        where     day-of-2p
    'His in laws were sitting at the entrance, but Abdu passed
Example #405:

    (27)    a. Tuuluu yaa                  cka          cke.
    pot         3ms.PERF fill.up-III          filled up
    'The pot filled up (full).'
Example #406:

    b. mun        sk     jaakii  mce.
    1p.PERF find-IV donkey dead
    'We found the donkey dead.'
Example #407:

    (28)    a. *Abd yaa             fta              wje    d         Karfii.
    Abdu    3ms.PERF go.out-III             out     with       force
    *'Abdu went out vigorously.'
Example #408:

    b. *Dalbbai sun              zamna kjeruns              d        Karfii.
    pupils        3p.PERF sit-I            chairs-of-3p        with      force
    *'The pupils sat on their chairs vigorously.'
Example #409:

    (29)    a. *jaakii yaa             mace          d       Karfii.
    donkey 3ms.PERF         die-IV         with     force
    *'The donkey died vigorously.'
Example #410:

    b. *tuluu yaa               cka           d      Karfii.
    pot         3ms.PERF fill.up-III         with    force
    *'The pot filled up vigorously.'
Example #411:

    a. *yaa         gam     gaanewaa/               fargaa/ luraa.
    3ms.PERF finish-I understand-IV-VN/ realize-III-DN/ notice-III-DN
    *'He finished understanding/ realizing/ noticing.'
Example #412:

    b. *yaa         gam       zamnawaa/ taashi/       juuyawaa.
    3ms.PERF finish-I sit.I-VN/          rise-DN/ turn-I-VN
    *'He finished sitting down/ standing up/ (re)turning.'
Example #413:

    c. *yaa         Kaar      ruugawaa/          tseerewaa/               tafiya.
    3ms.PERF finish-IV run.away-I-VN/           escape-IV-VN/             depart-DN
    *'He finished running away/ escaping/ departing.'
Example #414:

    d. *yaa           Kaar       bari/  saamu.
    3ms.PERF finish-IV let-II-DN/ obtain-II-DN
    *'He finished letting/ obtaining.'
Example #415:

    a. ?Tuluu yaa                 gam      ckaa.              (= yaa ckaa)
    pot         3ms.PERF finish-I fill.up-III-DN
    ?'The pot finished filling up.'                           (= filled up)
Example #416:

    b. ?Darma taa              gam         narkewaa.       (= taa narke)
    lead        3fs.PERF finish-I         melt-IV-VN
    ?'The lead finished melting.'                          (= melted)
Example #417:

    c. ?Rigaa taa            gam            tsanewaa.       (= taa tsane)
    gown     3fs.PERF finish-I             dry-IV-VN
    ?'The gown finished drying.'                            (= dried)
Example #418:

    d. ?yaa         gam        koyoo.        (= yaa koyaa)
    3ms.PERF finish-I learn-DN
    ?'He finished learning.' (= he learned)
Example #419:

    (33)    a. *Abd yaa             ganee t/           jii  t       nandnan.
    Abdu     3ms.PERF see-II 3fs/             hear 3fs      quickly
    *'Abdu saw her/ heard her quickly.'
Example #420:

    (35)        *taa         Kaar      mootsawaa/ tankawaa/ juuyawaa.
    3fs.PERF finish-IV move-I-VN/ reply-I-VN/ rotate-I-VN
    'She finished moving/ replying/ rotating.'
Example #421:

    (36)    a. taa          dain suraren reediyo.
    3fs.PERF stop-I listen-DN radio
    'She stopped listening to the radio.'
Example #422:

    b. taa          dain luraa          da            yara.
    3fs.PERF stop-I attend-III with                  children
    'She stopped attending to the children.'
Example #423:

    (37)    a. taa            juuya     d           Karfii.
    3ms.PERF rotate-I         with         force
    'She rotated vigorously.'
Example #424:

    daawoo!
    come.back
    'Please, attend to these children till I come back.'
Example #425:

    c. soojoojii sun            sa    dalbai s                 klli     raanaa.
    soldiers 3p.PERF put-I students 3p.SUB                      look-II   sun
    'The soldiers forced the students to stare at the sun.'
Example #426:

    (38)     a. yana           kwaanaa.
    3ms-CONT sleep
    'He is sleeping.' lit: 'he is (doing/ at) sleep'
Example #427:

    b. yana           hiira.
    3ms-CONT conversation
    'He is conversing.' lit: 'he is (doing/ at) conversation'
Example #428:

    c. yana            wasaa.
    3ms-CONT play
    'He is playing.' lit: 'he is (doing/ at) play'
Example #429:

    d. yana          aiki.
    3ms-CONT work
    'He is working.' lit: 'he is (doing/ at) work'
Example #430:

    (39)     a. yana           rawaa./ yaa                  raya.
    3ms-CONT dance/ 3ms-PERF                     dance-I-
    'He is dacing.'/ 'He danced.'
Example #431:

    b. yana           kuukaa/ yaa                  kooka
    3ms-CONT cry/             3ms.PERF           cry-I
    'He is crying.'/ 'He cried.'
Example #432:

    (44)    a. yaa         swaaB dooya d                  Karfii.
    3ms.PERF mash-I yam             with          force
    'He mashed the yam vigorously.'
Example #433:

    b. nrkee               man     darmr        nan!
    IMPER.melt-IV MA-1s lead-of                 there
    'Melt that lead for me, please!'
Example #434:

    c. An            tiilsaa su       cik          tuuluna.
    IMP.PERF force-I 3p             fill.up-I     pots
    'They were forced to fill up the pots.'
Example #435:

    b. sun        ga        Dyar           Blki          goye.
    3p.PERF see-II daughter-of Balki                    carried.on.back
    'They saw Balki's daughter carried on back.'
Example #436:

    (46)    a. *sun       ga      Blki nrkee             d      darma.
    3p.PERF see-II Balki melting                with    lead
    'They saw Balki melting the lead.'
Example #437:

    b. sun          sk      darma             nrke.
    3p.PERF      find-IV lead            at    melted
    'They found the lead melted.'
Example #438:

    (47)    a. sun       ga      Blki tana           Duke d Dyart.
    3p.PERF see-II Balki 3fs-CONT carrying with daughter-of-3fs
    'They saw Balki carrying her daughter.'
Example #439:

    b. *sun      ga        Dyar         Blki tana                 Duke.
    3p.PERF see-II daughter-of Balki 3fs.CONT                     carried
    'They saw Balki's daughter being carried.'
Example #440:

    (48)    a. taa         dain/     Kaar      swaaB            dooya.
    3fs.PERF stop-I/ finish-IV mash-I                   yam
    'She stopped/ finished mashing yams.'
Example #441:

    b. yaa            dain/ Kaar         gyaar moto.
    3ms.PERF stop-I/ finish-IV repair-I motorcycle
    'He stopped/ finished repairing the motorcycle.'
Example #442:

    c. yaa          dain/ Kaar           gin        gidaa.
    3fs.PERF stop-I/ finish-IV build-I              house
    'He stopped/ finished building the house.'
Example #443:

    (49)    a. ?taa         dain/ Kaar          jeef      KunKuu              riijyaa.
    3fs.PERF stop-I/ finish-IV throw-I stone                   in      well
    ?'She stopped/ finished throwing the stone into the well.'
Example #444:

    b. ?taa         daina/ Kaar          kiif             franti.
    3fs.PERF stop-I/ finish-IV turn.over-I               plate
    ?'She stopped/ finished turning over the plate.'
Example #445:

    (50)    a. yaa          dain/ Kaar           cik         tuluu.
    3fs.PERF stop-I/ finish-IV fill.up-I             pot
    'He stopped/ finished filling up the pot.'
Example #446:

    b. yaa          dain/ Kaar           nark        darma.
    3fs.PERF stop-I/ finish-IV melt-I                lead
    'He stopped/ finished melting the lead.'
Example #447:

    (53)    a. Abd yaa               zamna (()            kujerar maalm).
    Abdu 3ms.PERF sit-I                ((on)      chair-of teacher)
    'Abdu sat on the teacher's chair.'
Example #448:

    b. Abd yaa              zamn kujerar maalm.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF sit-I               chair-of teacher
    'Abdu sat on the teacher's chair.' lit: Abdu sat the teacher's chair'
Example #449:

    c. manomaa sun              kimts hatsii             rmbuna.
    farmers      3p.PERF store-I millet             in   lofts
    'The farmers stored their millet in lofts.'
Example #450:

    (55)     a. Indoo taa              Dar           Abd     ((* ) tsawoo).
    Indo      3fs.PERF surpass-I          Abdu     ((in) height)
    'Indo is taller than Abdu.'
Example #451:

    b. Indoo taa              Dar   (Abd)           (* ) tsawoo.
    Indo      3fs.PERF surpass-I (Abdu)            (in) height
    'Indo is taller (than Abdu).'
Example #452:

    (57)    a. Abd nee            Indoo ta                    Dara        tsawoo.
    Abdu cop.m Indo             3fs.REL PERF        surpass-I    height
    'It is Abdu that Indo surpasses in height.'
Example #453:

    b. *( ) tsawoo ne             Indoo ta                  Dar         Abd.
    in       height cop.m Indo 3fs.REL PERF                surpass-I    Abdu
    'It is in height that Indo surpasses Abdu.'
Example #454:

    (58)        gwaaba   taa             Koosa.
    guava     3fs.PERF        ripe-I
    'The guava ripened.'
Example #455:

    (59)     a. Indoo taa            durKsaa        bis    tabarmaa.
    Indo     3fs.PERF kneel-I            on      mat
    'Indo kneeled on the mat.'
Example #456:

    b. Indoo taa            kooma        gidaa.
    Indo     3fs.PERF return-I         home
    'Indo returned home.'
Example #457:

    (60)     a. Abd yaa        tanka.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF reply-I
    'Abdu replied.'
Example #458:

    b. Indoo ana               suraren reediyo.
    Indo      IMP-CONT listen-II-DN radio
    'Indo is listening to the radio.'
Example #459:

    (61)     a. Indoo taa            gyaar kekent.
    Indo 3fs.PERF repair-I bike-of-3fs
    'Indo repaired her bike.'
Example #460:

    b. Indoo taa            rab       kbuushe         biyu.
    Indo     3fs.PERF divide-I pumpkin                two
    'Indo divided the pumpkin in halves.'
Example #461:

    (62)    a. Indoo taa           Door kollayent                kanta.
    Indo 3fs.PERF stack-I containers-of-3fs             on shelves
    'Indo stacked her containers on the shelves.'
Example #462:

    b. Indoo taa             liiK     hootuna          gini.
    Indo     3ms.PERF stick-I pictures on              wall
    'Indo fixed some pictures on the wall.'
Example #463:

    (63)     a. Abd yaa               zamna             kujerar     maalm.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF sit-I                on      chair-of     teacher
    'Abdu sat on the teacher's chair.'
Example #464:

    b. Abd yaa               zamna kujerar            maalm.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF sit-I                chair-of       teacher
    'Abdu sat on the teacher's chair.'
Example #465:

    (67)        *( ) kujeraa ne            Abd    ya                    zamna.
    on        chair      cop.m Abdu       3ms.REL PERF          sit-I
    'It is on a chair that Abdu sat.'
Example #466:

    (68)    a. sun         kooma (cikin)          Daakn          Indoo.
    3p.PERF return-I inside-of room-of                  Indo
    'They returned inside Indo's room.'
Example #467:

    b. sun         kooma m              Indoo     *( cikin)    Daaki.
    3p.PERF return-I MA                Indo      inside-of    room
    'They invaded Indo's room.'
Example #468:

    (69)     a. Abd yaa              zamna ()           kujerar    maalm.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF sit-I                (on)    chair-of    teacher
    'Abdu sat on the teacher's chair.'
Example #469:

    b. Abd yaa               zamn       (* )    kujerar     maalm.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF sit-I                on       chair-of     teacher
    'Abdu sat on the teacher's chair.'
Example #470:

    (71)    a. ??Abd yaa               zamna kujeraa          taa           kare.
    Abdu       3ms.PERF sit-I             chair       3fs.PERF      break-VI
    'Abdu sat on the chair and it broke.'
Example #471:

    b. Abd yaa                zamn kujeraa taa                  kare.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF sit-I               chair 3fs.PERF            break-VI
    'Abdu sat on the chair and it broke.'
Example #472:

    c. kujeraa (ce) Abd             ya                   zamna.
    chair         cop.f Abdu        3ms.REL PERF         sit-I
    'It is a chair that Abdu sat [on].'
Example #473:

    (72)    a. Abd yaa                 zamna/     *zamn     kujera.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF sit-I/                 sit-I      on.chair
    'Abdu sat on the chair.'
Example #474:

    (73)    a. Abd yaa              zamna/ *zamn            MaraaDaawaa.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF sit-I/             sit-I          Maradawa district
    'Abdu settled in Maradawa district.
Example #475:

    b. Abd yaa                kwanta/      *kwant     raariyaa.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF lie-I/                  lie-I       street
    'Abdu lay in the street.'
Example #476:

    (75)     a. Abd yaa              gitta   gban       masllataa.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF cross-I before-of people.praying
    'Abdu crossed in front of people praying.'
Example #477:

    b. Abd yaa               gitt      sndaa Koof                 garkarsh.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF cross-I stick                  in.front.of       garden-of-3ms
    'Abdu put a stick across the entrance of his garden.'
Example #478:

    (76)     a. icce yaa             kaama.
    plant 3ms.PERF take.hold-I
    'The plant took hold.'
Example #479:

    b. Indoo taa            kaam        kiifii.
    Indo     3fs.PERF catch-I         fish
    'Indo caught some fish.'
Example #480:

    Aali yaa                   bgi     yaaro -i  d duutse
    Ali 3ms.PERF               hit-II boy          with stone
    'Ali hit the boy with a stone.'
Example #481:

    Aalii yaa                 tsorci    ti      -i     zaakookii
    Ali      3ms.PERF          fear-II                   lions
    'Ali fears the lions.'
Example #482:

    Aalii yaa               ri         moota    PROi            -i
    Ali     3ms.PERF        borrow-II car
    'Ali borrowed a car.'
Example #483:

    (81)    a. Abd yaa              aik     Indoo kasuwaa.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF send-I Indo              market
    'Abdu sent Indo to the market.'
Example #484:

    b  Abd yaa            aki     Indoo (kasuwaa).
    Abdu 3ms.PERF send-II Indo           (market)
    'Abdu commissioned Indo to the market.'
Example #485:

    free] kasuwaa.
    flower] market
    'Abdu sent Indo to buy him flowers at the market.'
Example #486:

    kratuu] kano.
    study]    Kano
    'Abdu sent his children to study in Kano.'
Example #487:

    (83)    a. Indoo taa             bank moota               icce.
    Indo     3fs.PERF ram-I car               at      tree
    'Indo rammed the car into a tree.'
Example #488:

    b. Indoo taa             bnki       icce (d         moota).
    Indo     3fs.PERF bump-II tree            with      car
    'Indo bumped into a tree (with her car).'
Example #489:

    c. Indoo taa            bnki      icce.
    Indo     3fs.PERF bump-II tree
    'Indo bumped into a tree (while walking).'
Example #490:

    (84)     a. sarkin     yaaKi yaa            kusnt     rndunaa Zazzu.
    chief-of war      3ms.PERF approach-I army           Zaria
    'The army chief brought the troups near Zaria.'
Example #491:

    b. sarkin    yaaKi yaa             ksnci             Zazzu.
    chief-of war       3ms.PERF approach-II              Zaria
    'The army chief closed on Zaria.'
Example #492:

    (85)    a. *taa         ar      kekent       g
    3fs.PERF lend-I bike-of-3fs          at    Abdu
    'She lent her bike to Abdu.'
Example #493:

    b. taa        ri         kekee.
    3fs.PERF lend-II bike
    'She borrowed a bike.'
Example #494:

    (86)     a. Indoo taa            saya m            Abd       balo.
    Indo     3fs.PERF buy-I MA               Abdu       ball
    'She bought Abdu a ball.'
Example #495:

    b. Indoo taa             syi balo.
    Indo 3fs.PERF buy-II ball
    'Indo bought a ball.'
Example #496:

    c. Indoo taa           sayar d balo.
    Indo 3fs.PERF sell        V ball
    'Indo sold a ball.'
Example #497:

    (89)    a. Abd yaa               yank naama.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF cut-I meat
    'Abdu cut/ divided the meat.'
Example #498:

    b. Abd yaa            ynki naama.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF cut-II      meat
    'Abdu cut off some meat.'
Example #499:

    b. Abd yaa             ynki ragon Aali.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF cut-II ram-of Ali
    'Abdu cut (off some meat from) Ali's ram.'
Example #500:

    k      Dazu .
    2ms     while.ago
    'Add this kolanut to the kolanut I gave you last time.'
Example #501:

    (92)    a. Indoo taa         samu       kuDii mmaa taa                       ba     Aish.
    Indo 3fs.PERF obtain-II money but                3fs.PERF           give    Aisha
    'Indo got some money but gave it away to Aisha.'
Example #502:

    Indoo.
    Indo
    'The butcher cut off some meat ??but / and gave it to Indo.'
Example #503:

    (93)    a. yaa           hanga     gusm.
    3ms.PERF look-I          south
    'He looked toward the south.'
Example #504:

    b. yaa           hngi          Abd.
    3ms.PERF see.afar-II        Abdu
    'He sighted Abdu.'
Example #505:

    b. taa          hngi      gusm.
    3fs.PERF look-II south
    'She looked toward the south.'
Example #506:

    (95)    a. taa         hanga gusm taa            tsnkayi Abd.
    3fs.PERF look-I south 3fs.PERF sight-II           Abdu
    'She looked toward the south and saw Abdu.'
Example #507:

    b. *taa         hngi     gusm taa           tsnkayi        Abd.
    3fs.PERF look-II south          3fs.PERF sight-II           Abdu
    'She looked toward the south and saw Abdu.'
Example #508:

    (96)    a. sun           diiba   Dak       suna         neeman zoob.
    3p.PERF search-I in.room 3p-CONT search-II-DN ring
    'They searched the room, looking for the ring.'
Example #509:

    b. yaa            diib       injin  kin mootr.
    3ms.PERF examine-I engine-DEF of        car-DEF
    'He examined the car's engine.'
Example #510:

    c. yaa           dibi    injin           kin     mootr.
    3ms.PERF look-II engine-DEF of                 car-DEF
    'He looked (glanced) at the car's engine.'
Example #511:

    (97)     a. Zaaki yaa             tsoort Abd.
    lion     3ms.PERF frighten-I Abdu
    'The lion frightened Abdu.'
Example #512:

    b. Abd       yaa              tsorci   zaaki.
    Abdu      3ms.PERF         fear-II    lion
    'Abdu   fears the lion.'
Example #513:

    c. Abd yaa                    tsorat.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF               be afraid-III
    'Abdu got afraid.'
Example #514:

    (98)     a. taa          daam knuu.
    3fs.PERF mix-I        porridge
    'She mixed the porridge.'
Example #515:

    b. taa          dami   Abd.
    3fs.PERF bother-I Abdu
    'She bothered Abdu.'
Example #516:

    c. Abd yaa            damu     (d  Indoo).
    Abdu 3ms.PERF stir-VII (with Indo)
    'Abdu became ennoyed (with Indo).'
Example #517:

    (99)    a. taa           tuuK tuwoo.
    3fs.PERF stir-I paste
    'She stirred/ mixed the paste (food).'
Example #518:

    b. mgana taa               tuKi      Abd.
    speech     3fs.PERF enrage-II Abdu
    'The speech/ talk/ matter enraged Abdu.'
Example #519:

    c. sun         daaktaa (don          Abd).
    3p.PERF stop-I         (for        Abdu)
    'They waited (for Abdu).'
Example #520:

    d. sun        dakci Abd.
    3p.PERF wait-II      Abdu
    'They waited for Abdu.'
Example #521:

    (101)   a. Aiki yaa              fskar.
    work 3ms.PERF be.intractable-III
    'The work is intractable.'
Example #522:

    b. Aiki yaa              fskri               Abd.
    work 3ms.PERF be intractable-II              Abdu
    'The work is intractable to Abdu.'
Example #523:

    (102)    a. Abd yaa                  girma.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF             grow-III
    'Abdu is grown.'
Example #524:

    b. Abd yaa              grmi           Indoo.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF be older-II             Indo
    'Abdu is older than Indo.
Example #525:

    (103)       gaskiyaai taa                byyan    ti .
    truth        3fs.PERF reveal-III
    'The truth revealed itself.'
Example #526:

    (104)       Abd yaa                  gud.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF             run-III
    'Abdu run away.'
Example #527:

    (105)       Abd yaa               shga           cikin   fagee.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF enter-III                in      arena
    'Abdu entered the arena.'
Example #528:

    (106)    a. tsuntsuu     yaa       hra.
    bird         3ms.PERF fly.up-III
    'The bird flew up.'
Example #529:

    b. jirgii yaa               sbka.
    plane 3ms.PERF           land-III
    'The plane landed.'
Example #530:

    (107)       Abd yaa              hsal.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF be.angry-III
    'Abdu got angry.'
Example #531:

    (108)      Tulun Indoo yaa              cka.
    pot-of Indo          3ms.PERF be.full-III
    'The pot filled up.'
Example #532:

    (110)    a. ya                Daukoo littaafi.
    3ms.REL PERF take-VI book
    'He picked up a book (to read himself).'
Example #533:

    b. naa         sayoo      moota.
    1s.PERF buy-VI car
    'I have bought myself a car.'
Example #534:

    c. ta               Deeboo ruwaa ta                           shaa.
    3fs.REL PERF take-VI water 3fs.REL PERF                    drink
    'She drew herself some water and drank.'
Example #535:

    d. ta              Debi ruwaa ta                             baa     sh.
    3fs.REL PERF take-II water 3fs.REL PERF                    give    3ms
    'She drew some water and gave it to him.'
Example #536:

         nn.
    at    here
    'He looked toward here while passing by a moment ago.'
Example #537:

    b. taa          jeefoo       mas           frant.
    3fs.PERF throw-VI MA-3p                  plate
    'She threw a plate to/at them.'
Example #538:

    (112)        taa            jeefoo          mas      frant. (= 111b)
    3fs.PERF       throw-VI        MA-3p plate
    'She threw   a plate to/at   them here.'
Example #539:

    (113)    a. naa        zoo       nn     kawi      dan n      gaida           ki.
    1s.PERF go-VI here only                 for 1s.SUBJ greet-I          2fs
    'I came here only to greet you.'
Example #540:

    b. aiku naa          aikoo      mak      (d)          kuDii     jiya.
    indeed 1s.PERF send-VI MA-2p (with)                   money     yesterday
    'I did send you money (here) yesterday.'
Example #541:

    Ingla.
    England
    'I will send you a letter here if I return to England.'
Example #542:

    nannya.
    here
    'I looked toward here while passing by a moment ago.'
Example #543:

    ynnan ya                     fitoo          faadrsh.
    then   3ms.REL PERF           get.out-VI     court-of-3ms.
    'The emir went in, prayed and then came back to his court.'
Example #544:

    ruwaa     ta                 kaawoo        mas.
    water     3fs.REL PERF       bring-VI      MA-3p
    'The girl went to the lake, got some water and brought it to them.'
Example #545:

    zyrcee m             nn Kano/         Najeeriya/     Afrik.
    visit-II 1p at           here Kano/         Nigeria/         Africa.
    Africa.'
Example #546:

    (116)        an           taadoo sh dg Ymi                    zuwa      Dmagram.
    IMP.PERF rise-VI 3ms from Niamey                      up.to      Zinder
    'He was reassigned from Niamey to Zinder.'
Example #547:

    (117)    a. wannn maako mi              gabaatoowa
    this week owner of coming forward
    'next week'
Example #548:

    b. mun        taadoo sunank           cikin   hiira.
    [1p.PERF rise-VI name-of-2ms at inside-of chat]
    'We brought up your name in a conversation.'
Example #549:

    (118)   a. yaa            maid      gadajee       MaraaDi.     ( --->| )
    3ms.PERF return-I beds                   Maradi
    'He returned the beds in Maradi.'
Example #550:

    b. yaa            maidoo      gadajee nn MaraaDi.              ( --->| )
    3ms.PERF return-VI beds              here Maradi
    'He returned the beds here in Maradi.'
Example #551:

    (119)    a. yaa           bar         San Diego.
    3ms.PERF leave-II         San Diego
    'He left San Diego.'
Example #552:

    b. yaa           baroo         San Diego.
    3ms.PERF leave-VI           San Diego
    'He left San Diego.'
Example #553:

    Los Angeles.
    LA
    'He left San Diego and relocated in Los Angeles.'
Example #554:

    nn     (Los Angeles).
    here    (LA)
    'He left San Diego and relocated here in Los Angeles.'
Example #555:

    (122)        taa          jeefoo        mas      frant.     (= 111b, 112)
    3fs.PERF throw-VI MA-3p plate
    'She threw a plate to/at them and they came     here.'
Example #556:

    (124)   a. yaa           Kilgoo.
    3ms.PERF count-VI
    'He counted (something, somewhere) and came here.'
Example #557:

    b. yaa           ciyoo.
    3ms.PERF eat-VI
    'He ate (something, somewhere) and came here.'
Example #558:

    sh          nanny.
    3ms          here
    Abdu that he is sought after, here.'
Example #559:

    (128)    a. Abd yaa              jaayk     icce dg           goonaa.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF pull-VIII wood from                      field
    'Abdu pulled the log up to here from the field.'
Example #560:

    b. Abd yaa              tooyk       cyaawr goonaa.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF burn-VIII hay-of                field
    'Abdu burned the hay in his field and came back.'
Example #561:

    kaawoo      m     zaaki.
    bring-VI    MA     lion
    'The hare gathered the news and came to inform the king-lion.'
Example #562:

    (129)   a. suk              faar      gyaar       gidaa...
    3p-REL PERF begin-I repair-I              house
    'They began to repair the house...'
Example #563:

    b. d        gidaa    ya                   gyaru...
    when house 3ms.REL PERF                 repair-VII
    '...when the house was repaired...'
Example #564:

    (130)   a. yaa           Kaar           kuDii.
    3ms.PERF increase-I money
    'He has increased the offer.'
Example #565:

    b. yaa           Karu          (d       wayon zaman          duuniya).
    3ms.PERF increase-VII (with guile-of living-of world)
    'He has really increased/ benefitted (in the ways of the world).'
Example #566:

    (131)   a. taa           tsaya.
    3ms.PERF stand/ stop-I
    'She stood (up)' 'She stopped.'
Example #567:

    b. taa          tsyu.
    3fs.PERF stand-VII
    'She stood (up) for a long time.'
Example #568:

    (132)    a. Muusaa yaa                 gji.
    Musa       3ms.PERF        tire-III
    'Musa is tired.'
Example #569:

    b. Muusaa yaa                 gjyu.
    Musa      3ms.PERF         tire-VII
    'Musa is dog-tired.'
Example #570:

    (133)    a. rigaa taa           jKa.
    gown 3fs.PERF soak-III
    'The gown became wet/ got wet.'
Example #571:

    b. rigaa taa          jiKe.
    gown 3fs.PERF be.wet-IV
    'The gown became/ got soaked.'
Example #572:

    c. rigaa  taa         jKu.
    gown    3fs.PERF soak-VII
    'The gown was soaked (by someone).'
Example #573:

    (134)   a. giiwaai     taa              mut       ti
    elephant    3fs.PERF         die-III
    'The elephant is dead.'
Example #574:

    b. giiwaai    taa            ksu         ti
    elephant 3fs.PERF kill-VII
    'The elephant is killed.'
Example #575:

    (135)    a. giwaa       taa            ynku               g     mahlbaa.
    elephant    3fs.PERF slit.throat-VII           at     hunters
    'The elephant is killed by the hunters.'
Example #576:

    b. nguwar nn baa             t              zmnuwaa        g    Abd.
    district  this NEG 3fs.CONT                 live-VII-DN     at    Abdu
    'Abdu cannot live in this district.'
Example #577:

    c. Amiir ba        zaa y       roKu   kuDii ba                   ynzu.
    Amiru NEG FUT-3ms ask-VII money NEG                               now
    'Amiru cannot be asked to give some money now.'
Example #578:

    (136)   a. Abd yaa               yank naamn          raKumii.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF cut-I             meat-of      camel
    'Abdu divided the camel's meat.'
Example #579:

    b. Abd yaa                ynki naamn raKumii.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF cut-II meat-of camel
    'Abdu cut off (a piece of) the camel's meat.'
Example #580:

    c. naamn raKumii yaa                    ynku.
    meat-of camel           3ms.PERF cut-VII
    'The camel's meat is cut off.'
Example #581:

    (137)   a. naamn raKumii yaa                      ynku      Dan kiima.
    meat-of camel           3ms.PERF cut-VII            little little
    'The camel's meat is cut off by a bit.'
Example #582:

    Kwarai     ba.
    much       NEG
    'The camel's meat is cut off but not by much.'
Example #583:

    (138)   a. zoobn       baa     ya           satuwaa.
    ring-DEF NEG 3ms.CONT steal-VII
    *'The ring cannot be stolen completely.'
Example #584:

    (139)   a. Abd yaa              yank naamn           raKumii.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF cut-I meat-of                  camel
    'Abdu cut the camel's meat.'
Example #585:

    b. naamn raKumii yaa                  ynku (g Abd).
    meat-of camel         3ms.PERF cut-VII (at Abdu)
    'The camel's meat is cut (by Abdu).'
Example #586:

    (140)   a. *Abd yaa              snu           g     Aali.
    Abdu      3ms.PERF know-VII           by     Ali
    'Abdu is known to Ali.'
Example #587:

    b. Abd yaa                 gnu.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF            see-VII
    'Abdu is found.'
Example #588:

    c. Aali yaa                   ga      wyaa.
    Ali      3ms.PERF see-II suffering
    'Ali suffered.' lit: 'Ali saw suffering'
Example #589:

    d. *wyaa taa               gnu.
    suffering 3fs.PERF see-VII
    'suffering is seen/ found/ experienced.'
Example #590:

    (141)   a. Abd yaa                 zamna      ()    kujerr.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF sit-I                  (on)   chair-DEF
    'Abdu sat on the chair.'
Example #591:

    b. Abd yaa               zamn kujerr.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF sit-I          chair-DEF
    'Abdu sat on the chair.'
Example #592:

    c. kujeraa taa               zmnu.
    chair       3fs.PERF       sit-VII
    'The chair is sat on.'
Example #593:

    (142)   a. Abd yaa                zamna       nguwar    nn.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF live-I                 district   this
    'Abdu lived in this district.'
Example #594:

    b. *Abd yaa                 zamn      nguwar    nn.
    Abdu     3ms.PERF live-I             district   this
    'Abdu lived in this district.'
Example #595:

    c. nguwar nn baa             t             zmnuwaa        g    Abd.
    district  this NEG 3fs.CONT                live-VII-DN     at    Abdu
    'Abdu cannot live in this district.'
Example #596:

    (143)   a. taa         tsaya.
    3fs.PERF stop-I
    'She stopped/ waited/ stood.' 15
Example #597:

    b. taa          tsyu.
    3fs.PERF stop-VII
    'She waited/ stood for a long time.'
Example #598:

    (144)   a. *yaarinya taa                  tsyu      Dan kiima.
    girl           3fs.PERF wait-VII           little little
    'The girl stood for a little time.'
Example #599:

    b. *Daalbii yaa              krntu     mmaa       ba Kwarai        ba.
    student     3ms.PERF read-VII but                  NEG much          NEG
    *'the student is well read but not by much.'
Example #600:

    c. *Indoo taa               zmnu       kDan.
    Indo      3fs.PERF       sit-VII     little
    'Indo sat a bit.'
Example #601:

    (145)   a. Indoo taa               zamna/ tsaya         kdan.
    Indo      3fs.PERF sit-I/             wait-I   little
    'Indo sat/ waited for a little time.'
Example #602:

    b. sun         kara/       *kru         Dan     kDann.
    3p.PERF clash-I/         clash-VII     very    little
    'They clashed a bit.'
Example #603:

    c. yaa            Dan wdaat/          *wdatu          haknan dai.
    3ms.PERF       little prosper-III/ prosper-VII         more.or.less
    'He prospered, more or less/ kind of.'
Example #604:

    b. Abd yaa                waats        masraa/         labaari.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF           disperse-I corn/               news
    'Abdu spread the corn/ the news all over.'
Example #605:

    b. masara taa               waatse.
    corn       3fs.PERF spread-IV
    'The corn spread out all over.'
Example #606:

    c. *labaarii yaa                waatse.
    news        3ms.PERF          spread-IV
    'The news spread.'
Example #607:

    b. masara taa               watsu.
    corn        3fs.PERF spread-VII
    'The corn is spread all over.' (passive gr7)
Example #608:

    c. labaarii yaa             watsu.
    news       3ms.PERF spread-VII
    'The news is spread all over.' (passive gr7)
Example #609:

    (150)    a. naamn        raKumii yana              ynkuwaa.
    meat-of       camel       3ms-CONT cut-VII-VN
    'The camel    meat can be cut.'
Example #610:

    b. shee giwaa         tana             ksuwaa!
    so       elephant 3fs-CONT            kill-VII-VN
    'So an elephant can be killed!'
Example #611:

    c. ?ga       giwaa        tana            ksuwaa!
    here.is    elephant     3fs-CONT         kill-VII-VN
    'Here is an elephant being killed!'
Example #612:

    (151)   a. Abd yana             damuwaa d                Indoo.
    Abdu 3ms-CONT stir-VII-VN with                    Indo
    'Abdu is being annoyed at Indo.'
Example #613:

    b. mutanee suna              taruwaa.
    people      3p-CONT         gather-VII-VN
    'The people are gathering.'
Example #614:

    c. su Aali suna               rbuwaa/             hDuwaa         sai...
    3p Ali        3p-CONT separate-VII-VN/ join-VII-VN when
    'Ali and others have just separated/ just come together when ...'
Example #615:

    (162)   a. Abd yaa            ?are/         arkee          mas     moota.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF borrow-IV/ borrow-VIII MA-3p car
    'Abdu borrowed up their car/ borrowed up their car (and come).'
Example #616:

    b. Abd yaa             ?taar/      taarik      tumaakii.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF gather-IV/ gather-VIII sheep
    'Abdu gathered up the sheep/ gathered up the sheep and come.'
Example #617:

    c. Dan tsuntsuu yaa                     *faade/ faaDkee dg icce.
    little bird           3ms.PERF fall-IV/ all-VIII             from tree
    'The little bird fell off from the tree/ fell off here from the tree.'
Example #618:

    d. raanaa      taa         faaDe mas           daaji.
    sun         3fs.PERF fall-IV MA-3p bush
    'The sun   set while they were still in the bush.'
Example #619:

    (163)       sun        raatayk/ raataykee Braawo
    3p.PERF hang-VIII/ hang-VIII thief
    'They hanged the thief and come back.'
Example #620:

    (167)   a. yaa           riid/          riide jikkar            yaarinya.
    3ms.PERF snatch-IV/ snatch-IV bag-of                   girl
    'He snatched the girl's bag.'
Example #621:

    b. sun        raaty/ raatyee           Braawo.
    3p.PERF hang-IV/ hang-IV               thief
    'They hanged the thief.'
Example #622:

    (168)        yaa           jaay/        jany/ jnyee        ruwaa.
    3ms.PERF pull-IV/ pull-IV/ pull-IV               water
    'He drew up all the water.'
Example #623:

    (i)          Blki tana          sann              Idii.
    Balki 3fs-CONT know-II-DN               Idi
    'Balki should know Idi.'
Example #624:

    b. Indoo taa              ara   m        Abd      kekent.(equiv. to 85a)
    Indo     3fs.PERF lend-I MA             Abdu      bike-of-3fs
    'Indo lent her bike to Abdu.'
Example #625:

    c. Indoo taa           ri       kekee         dg     wajen    Abd. (cf. 85b)
    Indo 3fs.PERF borrow-II bike                 from     place-of Abdu
    'Indo borrowed a bike from Abdu.'
Example #626:

    wajen        Abdu.
    place-of     Abdu
    'Indo borrowed a bike from Abdu for her son.'
Example #627:

    (i)          Ambuk    yaa           isoo       can      MaraDii.
    Ambuka    3ms.PERF arrive-VI there Maradi
    'Ambuka went to Maradi and came back here.'
Example #628:

    (i)      a. Abd b                          samu        jarbaawa       ba.
    Abdu NEG.PERF IMP                 obtain-II    exam             NEG
    'Abdu failed his exam.'
Example #629:

    b. Abd yaa             ga        Indoo          rKe       d      yaaro.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF see-II Indo                     holding    with    boy
    'Abdu saw Indo holding a boy.'
Example #630:

    Ali.
    Ali
    'Ali was hit/ was caught/ is known/ was overtaken.'
Example #631:

    (i)      a. yaa           ba    Indoo           gooro.
    3ms.PERF give Indo                   kolanuts
    'He gave Indo kolanuts.'
Example #632:

    b. ?yaa           baayoo         d      gooro.
    3ms.PERF give-VI              V       kolanuts
    'He sent over kolanuts.'
Example #633:

    c. yaa            baadoo         gooro.
    3ms.PERF give-VI              kolanuts
    'He sent over kolanuts.'
Example #634:

    (ii)    a. yaa           bkk Indoo gooro.
    3ms.PERF give-I Indo             kolanuts
    'He gave kolanuts to Indo and she came here.'
Example #635:

    b. yaa           bkkaa ta       gooro.
    3ms.PERF give-I 3fs kolanuts
    'He gave her kolanuts and she came here.'
Example #636:

    c. yaa           bt-ta     gooro.
    3ms.PERF give-3fs kolanuts
    'He gave her kolanuts and she came here.'
Example #637:

    d. yaa           bakkoo d          gooro.
    3ms.PERF give-VI V               gooro
    'He gave over kolanuts.'
Example #638:

    ak                   naDa       bana.
    IMP.REL PERF          turban-I    this.year
    'Indo sent a letter to all the emirs that were throned this year.'
Example #639:

    ak          naDa                bana         tkrduu.
    IMP.REL PERF turban-I             this.year    letters
    'Indo sent all the emirs that were throned this year a letter.'
Example #640:

    (5)    a.   Sun         lood     buhuuhuwn gujiyaa                      telm.
    3p.PERF load-I sacks-of               peanuts        onto      truck
    'They loaded sacks of peanut onto the truck.'
Example #641:

    b.   Sun         looda m telm buhuuhuwn                     gujiyaa.
    3p.PERF load-I IX truck               sacks-of              peanuts
    'They loaded the truck with sacks of peanut.'
Example #642:

    (6)    a.   Indoo taa             daf       tuwoo dan baKii                 mmaa...
    Indoo 3fs.PERF cook-I            paste     for visitors           but...
    'Indo prepared some food paste for the visitors but...'
Example #643:

    b.   Indoo taa              dafa    m baKii            tuwoo.
    Indoo 3fs.PERF cook-I IX              visitors       paste
    'Indo prepared the visitors some food paste.'
Example #644:

    (7)     a.   taa          yank naamn lade d                wuKar         limn.
    3fs.PERF cut-I meat-of pork              with      knife-of      imam
    'She cut the pork meat with the imam's knife.'
Example #645:

    b.   taa         yanka m limn naamn lade d                       wuKaa.
    3fs.PERF cut-I       IX imam         meat-of pork with              knife
    'She dared cut pork meat with the imam's knife.'
Example #646:

    (8)     a.   Abd yaa               fasa     m      Indoo    kwalbaa.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF break-I IX                 Indo     bottle
    'Abdu broke Indo's bottle.'
Example #647:

    b.   Abd yaa              fas     kwalbaa kn              Indoo.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF break-I bottle               head-of      Indoo
    'Abdu crashed a bottle on Indo/ Indo's head.'
Example #648:

    c.   Abd yaa               fas     kwalbaa domin          Indoo     mmaa...
    Abdu 3ms.PERF break-I bottle            sake-of         Indoo     but
    'Abdu broke a bottle for Indo but...'
Example #649:

    d.   Abd yaa             fas         kwalbar     Indoo.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF break-I             bottle-of   Indoo
    'Abdu broke Indo's bottle.'
Example #650:

    (9)     a.   an           hana     mash         aiki.
    IMP.PERF refuse-I IX-3ms             work
    'He was denied a job.'
Example #651:

    b.   tnaa      man       (d)     shii!
    remind-I IX-1s (V)             3ms
    'Remind me about it!'
Example #652:

    c.   an           Kaara       mam         kuDii.
    IMP-PERF increase-I IX-1p              money
    'We had had a pay raise.'
Example #653:

    (10)   a.   yaa           DanDnaa       man      wyaa.
    3ms.PERF taste-I             IX-1s     suffering
    'He gave me a hard time.'
Example #654:

    b.   yaa           gaana man          wyaa.
    3ms.PERF meet-I          IX-1s     suffering
    'He gave me a hard time.'
Example #655:

    (11)   a.   Abd yaa             nemi      maagnii sabod             Indoo   mmaa...
    Abdu 3ms.PERF search-II medicine sake.of                     Indo    but
    'Abdu got some medicine for Indo but...'
Example #656:

    b.   Abd yaa             neemam m             Indoo       maagnii.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF search-II IX                 Indoo       medicine
    'Abdu got Indo some medicine.'
Example #657:

    (12)   a.   Abd yaa               iki        Dan         Indoo   wajen    Aali.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF send-II son-of                   Indo    place-of Ali
    'Abdu sent Indo's son to Ali's place.'
Example #658:

    b.   Abd yaa               aikam       m    Indoo    Daa      wajen    Aali.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF send-II IX                 Indo     son      place-of Ali
    'Abdu sent Indo's son to Ali's place.'
Example #659:

    taru             Koofr     faad.
    gather-VII at      gate-of    palace
    'He told the news to the people gathered at the palace.
Example #660:

    b.   *yaa          faDam       m mutanee labaari.
    3ms.PERF tell-II          IX     people   news
    *'He told away people's   news.'
Example #661:

    (14)   a.   Abd yaa             nemi     gooro        wajen Indoo           mmaa...
    Abdu 3ms.PERF seek-II kolanuts place-of Indo                       but
    'Abdu sought some kolanuts from Indo but...'
Example #662:

    b.   Abd yaa             neemam m Indoo gooro.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF seek-II IX              Indo  kolanuts
    'Abdu sought some kolanuts for Indo.'
Example #663:

    (15)   a.   taa         Deebam         m      Indoo    tsaaba.
    3fs.PERF take.some-II IX           Indo     grain
    'She took some grain for Indo.'
Example #664:

    (16)   a.   k          fta         dg    cikin        gidaanaa!
    2ms.SUB go.out-III from inside                house-of-1s
    'Would you get out of my house!'
Example #665:

    b.   k          fitam       man dg           cikin gidaa!
    2ms.SUB go.out-III IX-1s from               inside house
    'Would you get out of my house!'
Example #666:

    (17)   a.   Kurjii yaa            fta                 kumcn          Abd.
    rash     3ms.PERF get.out-III on            cheek-of        Abdu
    'A rash appeared on Abdu's cheek.'
Example #667:

    b.   Kurjii yaa            fitam        m       Abd            kumci.
    rash     3ms.PERF get.out-III IX            Abdu       on    cheek
    'A rash appeared on Abdu's cheek.'
Example #668:

    (18)   a.   jinii    yaa           zubam         m     Abd      (      Kafa).
    blood 3ms.PERF spill-III             IX     Abdu      (on     foot)
    'Blood spilled on Abdu ('s leg).'
Example #669:

    b.   jinii   yaa           zba               *( Kafr)   Abd.
    blood 3ms.PERF spill-III            on    leg-of      Abdu
    'Blood spilled on Abdu's leg.'
Example #670:

    (19)   a.   jinii    yaa          zubam         m    Abd.
    blood 3ms.PERF spill-III            IX    Abdu
    'Blood spilled on Abdu.'
Example #671:

    b.   jinin      Abd      yaa             zba.
    blood-of Abdu        3ms.PERF        spill-III
    'Abdu's blood spilled out.'
Example #672:

    (20)    a.   an           baad kuDin             Hdiiz g        Abd.
    IMP.PERF give-I money-of             Hadiza to         Abdu
    'Hadiza's money was confided to     Abdu.'
Example #673:

    b.   an            ba       Abd     kuDin           Hdiiz.
    IMP.PERF give           Abdu     money-of        Hadiza
    'Hadiza's money was   given away to Abdu.'
Example #674:

    b        t           ji         ba.
    NEG       3fs.PERF     hear       NEG
    'Abdu told the matter before Indo, but she did not hear.'
Example #675:

    t           ji      ba).
    3fs.PERF     hear    NEG
    'Abdu told the matter before Indo, but she did not hear.'
Example #676:

    (22)    a.   yaa            sa kjeruu cikin            Daaki.
    3ms.PERF put chairs              inside-of room
    'He equipped the room with chairs (permanently).'
Example #677:

    b.   yaa             sa m Daaki kjeruu.
    3ms.PERF        put IX       room      chairs
    NOT: 'He put    the chairs into the room.'
Example #678:

    (23)    a.   yaa          kai      yaaKi        London.
    3ms.PERF bring war                  London
    'He brought war to London.'
Example #679:

    b.   yaa          kai      m London             yaaKi.
    3ms.PERF bring IX           London          war
    'He brought war to London.'
Example #680:

    (24)    a.   yaa         kai    kuDii London.
    3ms.PERF bring money London
    'He took some money to London.'
Example #681:

    b.   *yaa         kai   m London              kuDii.
    3ms.PERF bring IX London                  money
    'He took some money to London.'
Example #682:

    za ta       ba     gidaa      kmar       su     Tabirni.
    FUT 3fs      give    home       like-of     3p     Tabirni
    would have to fall back on her family, such as Tabirni and her likes.'
Example #683:

    (26)    a.   Indoo taa            dafa      (m baKii)           tuwoo.
    Indoo 3fs.PERF cook-I IX               visitors       paste
    'Indo prepared some paste for the visitors.'
Example #684:

    b.   yaa          wanke      (m Indoo)           Kwaanoonii.
    3ms.PERF wash-IV (IX Indo)                    dishes
    'He washed Indo her dishes completely.'
Example #685:

    c.   yaa          bugar (m Indoo)            d       balo.
    3ms.PERF hit-V (IX Indo)                 V        ball
    'He kicked away Indo's ball.'
Example #686:

    d.   yaa           bugoo (m Indoo)           balo.
    3ms.PERF hit-VI (IX Indo)                ball
    'He kicked the ball here to Indo.'
Example #687:

    (27)    a.   Abd yaa               fDi     mganr               gban    sarkii.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF tell-II matter-DEF at                    front-of emir
    'Abdu told the matter before the emir.'
Example #688:

    b.   Abd yaa               faDa m        sarkii      mganr.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF tell               IX    emir        matter-DEF
    'Abdu told the emir the matter.'
Example #689:

    c.   *Abd yaa                fDi m         sarkii     mganr.
    Abdu      3ms.PERF tell          IX      emir       matter-DEF
    'Abdu told the emir the matter.'
Example #690:

    (28)   a.   Abd yaa             nemi      maagnii         sabod Indoo        mmaa...
    Abdu 3ms.PERF search-II medicine                 sake.of Indo         but
    'Abdu got some medicine for Indo but...'
Example #691:

    b.   Abd yaa              neemam       m        Indoo     maagnii.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF         search-II IX           Indoo     medicine
    'Abdu got some medicine for Indo.'
Example #692:

    (30)   a.   sai     k             hKur.
    should 2ms.SUB be.patient-III
    'You must be patient.'
Example #693:

    b.   sai     k             haKraa         mash.
    should 2ms.SUB be.patient-I            IX-3ms
    'You must be patient with him.'
Example #694:

    (31)   a.   k         fta         dg cikin            gidaanaa!
    2ms.SUB go.out-III from inside                house-of-1s
    'Would you get out of my house!'
Example #695:

    b.   k          fitam        man    dg         cikin    gidaa!
    2ms.SUB go.out-III IX-1s from                 inside   house
    'Would you get out of my house!'
Example #696:

    (32)   a.   Abd yaa               yrda       s     tfi.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF agree-III            3p.    SUBJ go
    'Abdu agreed that they go.'
Example #697:

    b.   Abd yaa              yarde      mas     s             tfi.
    Abdu ms.PERF agree-IV             X-3p     3p.SUBJ        go
    'Abdu agreed that they go.'
Example #698:

    ake         neeman                   sani.
    IMP-REL CONT search-DN-of             know-DN
    'Peoplei want to figure out what has befallen themj.'
Example #699:

    neeman       sani.
    search-DN-of know-DN
    'Peoplei want to figure out what has befallen themj.'
Example #700:

    (35)    a.   Abd yaa               maid       bhun     hatsii       goonaa.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF return-I sack-of millet                     farm
    'Abdu returned the sack of millet to the farm.'
Example #701:

    b.   *Abd yaa              maida m goonaa bhun                     hatsii.
    Abdu     3ms.PERF return-I IX farm              sack-of           millet
    'Abdu returned the sack of millet to the farm.'
Example #702:

    (36)    a.   Abd yaa               aik    yara MaraaDi.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF send-I children Maradi
    'Abdu sent the children to Maradi.'
Example #703:

    b.   *Abd yaa                aika     m        MaraaDi yara.
    Abdu      3ms.PERF send-I IX                 Maradi  children
    'Abdu sent the children to Maradi.'
Example #704:

    (37)    a.   *Abd yaa               maid      bhun        hatsii     g     Indoo.
    Abdu     3ms.PERF return-I sack-of              millet     to     Indo
    'Abdu returned the sack of millet to Indo.'
Example #705:

    b.   Abd yaa              maida m Indoo               bhun       hatsii.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF return-I IX Indo                      sack-of     millet
    'Abdu returned the sack of millet to Indo.'
Example #706:

    (38)    a.   *Abd yaa             aik        gooro       g     Indoo.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF send-I              kolanuts     to     Indo
    'Abdu sent kolanuts to Indo.'
Example #707:

    b.   Abd yaa              aika m         Indoo        gooro.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF send-I IX                Indo         kolanuts
    'Abdu sent kolanuts to Indo.'
Example #708:

    (39)   a.   ya           gwada    ga Dansa
    3ms.PERF show-I to son-of-3ms
    'He showed (something) to his son.'
Example #709:

    b.   ina           son           koya      ga     mutanen       Kasammu.
    1s.CONT want-DN-of teach-I to                people-of     land-of-1p
    'I want to teach (something) to the people of our land.'
Example #710:

    (40)   a.   yaa         gwada m Dansh                  rigaa.
    3ms.PERF show-I IX son-of-3ms                 gown
    'He showed his son the gown.'
Example #711:

    b.   ina          sn             kooya m mutanen           Kasarm      taariihi.
    1s.CONT want-VN-of teach-I IX people-of                    land-of-1p   history
    'I want to teach history to the people of our country.'
Example #712:

    (41)    a.   Abd yaa               jefi        kren       Indoo.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF throw-II              dog-of      Indo
    'Abdu threw at and hit Indo's dog.'
Example #713:

    b.   Abd yaa               jeefam       m      Indoo     kree .
    Abdu 3ms.PERF throw-II IX                   Indo      dog
    'Abdu threw at and hit Indo's dog.'
Example #714:

    c.   Abd yaa            jeefam         m      Indoo    d    kree.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF throw-V              IX      Indo     V     dog
    'Abdu threw away Indo's dog.'
Example #715:

    (42)    a.   yaa           jeefa     m        Indoo      gooro.
    3ms.PERF throw-I         IX        Indo       kolanuts
    'He threw kolanuts to Indo.'
Example #716:

    (43)    a.   *Abd yaa              faDam m          Indoo    jwaabi.
    Abdu     3ms.PERF tell-II         IX     Indo     speech
    *'Abdu told the speech of Indoo.'
Example #717:

    b.   *Abd yaa                gayam     m    Indoo    Karyaa.
    Abdu     3ms.PERF tell-II          IX    Indo     lie
    *'Abdu told the lie of Indoo.'
Example #718:

    (48)     a. Abd yana              neeman                aiki.
    Abdu 3ms.CONT search-II-DN-of                 work
    'Abdu is looking for a job'
Example #719:

    b. Abd za ya          neeman                 aiki.
    Abdu FUT-3ms search-II-DN-of                work
    'Abdu is going to look for a job'
Example #720:

    c. Abd yaa             sanar                   d Indoo      labaari.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF know-II-VN-of                  V Indo        news
    'Abdu informed Indo about the news.'
Example #721:

    (50)    a.   yaa           aik      yara         wajen    sarkii.
    3ms.PERF send-I children              place-of emir
    'He sent the children to the emir's place.'
Example #722:

    b.   yara        ne      ya                  aika        () gidan        sarkii.
    children cop.p 3ms.REL PERF send-I-VN at house-of                       emir
    'It is the children that he sent to the emir's place.'
Example #723:

    c.   yaa              aika          m sarkii yara.
    3ms.PERF send-I-VN IX                   emir     children
    'It is the children that he sent to the emir's place.'
Example #724:

    maKbtaa.
    neighbors
    'Abdu is hitting/ kicking/ breaking off the neighbors' wall.'
Example #725:

    maKbtaa.
    neighbors
    'Abdu is hitting/ kicking/ breaking off the neighbors' wall.'
Example #726:

    (52)   a.   Abd yaa              bugam            m      maKbtaa         gini.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF hit-II-VN-of             IX      neighbors        wall
    'Abdu hit the neighbors' wall.'
Example #727:

    b.   *Abd yaa                bugm   m              maKbtaa         gini.
    Abdu       3ms.PERF hit-II-DN-of IX              neighbors        wall
    'Abdu hit the neighbors' wall.'
Example #728:

    sani/          ganii/     Diiba.
    know-II-DN      see-II-DN/ take-II-DN
    'You do not know what they know/ have seen/ have taken.'
Example #729:

    snaa/            gnaa/          Dibaa.
    know-II-VN/       see-II-VN/      take-II-VN
    'You do not know what they know/ have seen/ have taken.'
Example #730:

    ganin        Abd        ba/       Diibr            tsaaba    ba.
    see-II-DN-of Abdu        NEG/      take-II-DN-of     grain      NEG
    'I do not think that they know Abdu/ see Abdu/ take some grain.'
Example #731:

    ganar        Abd         ba/       Diibar            tsaaba ba.
    see-II-VN-of Abdu         NEG/      take-II-VN-of     grain   NEG
    'I do not think that they know Abdu/ see Abdu/ take some grain.'
Example #732:

    mak     wnnan!
    IX-2p    that
    'Who (do you think) would care for that matter for you!'
Example #733:

    c.   an           Deebam           m Indoo           knuu.
    IMP.PERF take-II-VN-of IX Indo                   gruel
    'Someone took some of Indo's gruel.'
Example #734:

    (56)    a.   Abd yana             ftaa         d      Indoo.
    Abdu 3ms.CONT go.out-III             with    Indo
    'Abdu is dating Indo.'
Example #735:

    b.   kurjii yaa          fitam                   m   Abd           kumci.
    rash 3ms.PERF go.out-III-VN-of              IX   Abdu      on    cheek.
    'A rash appeared on Abdu's cheek.'
Example #736:

    bkuwaa                ba.
    happen-VII-DN          NEG
    'No one knows what is happening.'
Example #737:

    abkam                  mas      ba.
    happen-VII-VN-of       IX-3p     NEG
    'No one knows what has befallen them.'
Example #738:

    (59)   a.   yaa            bgi Dan           Indoo.
    3ms.PERF hit-II son-of            Indo
    'He hit Indo's son.'
Example #739:

    b.   bugar              Dan       Indoo ne        ya                 yi.
    hit-II-VN-of son-of Indo               be.m   3ms.REL PERF       do
    'It is hitting Indo's son that he did.'
Example #740:

    c.   bugam             m Indoo Daa ne             ya                  yi.
    hit-II-VN-of IX Indo             son be.m      3ms.REL PERF        do
    'It is hitting Indo's son that he did.'
Example #741:

    d.   *bgi Dan            Indoo ne          ya               yi
    hit-II son-of Indo            be.m 3ms.REL PERF          do
    'It is hitting Indo's son that he did.'
Example #742:

    d     Abd     ya                   trkaa.
    that   Abdu     3ms.REL PERF         engage-II
    'She did not appreciate the beating of Indo's son that Audu started.'
Example #743:

    d     Abd     ya                   trkaa.
    that   Abdu     3ms.REL PERF         engage-II
    'She did not appreciate the beating of Indo's son that Audu started.'
Example #744:

    ya                  trkaa.
    3ms.REL PERF        engaged-II
    'She did not appreciate the beating of Indo's son that Audu started.'
Example #745:

    (61)   a.   yara         ne      ya                  aika              gidan       sarkii.
    children cop.p 3ms.REL PERF send-IVN at                        house-of    emir
    'It is the children that he sent to the emir's place.'
Example #746:

    b.   yara         ne      yake                aikawaa           gidan        sarkii.
    children cop.p 3ms.REL CONT send-I-VN at                        house-of     emir
    'It is the children that he is sending to the emir's place.'
Example #747:

    (62)   a.   gooro       nee       Abd ya                     aika     m      sarkii.
    kolanuts cop.m Abdu 3ms.REL PERF                   send-I-VN IX      emir
    'It is kolanuts that Abdu sent to the emir.'
Example #748:

    mwaa.
    MA-VN
    'As for kolanuts, it is the emir that Abdu is sending them to.'
Example #749:

    c.   *gooro, sarkii ne              Abd yake                  aikawaa m.
    kolanuts emir          cop.m Abdu 3ms.REL CONT send-I-VN IX
    'As for kolanuts, it is to the emir that Abdu is sending them.'
Example #750:

    mwaa/ ma
    MA-VN/ MA-VN
    'As for kolanuts, it is the emir that Abdu sent them to.'
Example #751:

    (64)   a.   Abd yaa             iki      Dyar             Indoo.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF send-II daughter-of                Indo
    'Abdu sent Indo's daughter (somewhere).'
Example #752:

    b.   Abd yaa              ikee        t.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF send-II-VN 3fs
    'Abdu sent Indo's daughter (somewhere).'
Example #753:

    c.   Dyar            Indoo ce      Abd yaa                ikaa.
    daughter-of Indo         cop-f Abdu 3ms.PERF            send-II-VN
    'It is Indo's daughter that Abdu sent (somewhere).'
Example #754:

    (65)   a.   Abd yaa               aikam             m     Indoo     yara.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF send-II-VN-of IX                  Indo      children
    'Abdu sent Indo's children (somewhere).'
Example #755:

    b.   Abd yaa               aikam               mat       yara.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF send-II-VN-of                IX-3fs     children
    'Abdu sent her children (somewhere).'
Example #756:

    c.   Indoo ce          Abd yaa             aikam       ma yara.
    Indo      cop-f Abdu 3ms.PERF send-II-VN-of IX          children
    'It is Indo's children that Abdu sent (somewhere).'
Example #757:

    ma/   mwaa.
    MA-VN/ MA-VN
    'As for kolanuts, it is to Indo that Abdu sent them.'
Example #758:

    (66)    a.   Abd yaa              iki/        *ikaa     dai Dan    Indoo.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF send-II/             send-II-VN MOD son-of Indo
    'Abdu indeed sent Indo's son.'
Example #759:

    b.   (yii)    mas    faDa         ba             shi    d               mfanii.
    do-VN IX-3ms rebucking NEG-CONT 3ms with                               utility
    'Rebucking him would be of no help.' (Parsons (1971-72:64)
Example #760:

    c.   am             min        saata (Standard dialect)
    IMP.PERF IX-1s burglary
    'I am burglarized.' (lit: someone (did) burglarizing to me)
Example #761:

    (68)     a. (shii) mi         kuDii       ne.
    (3ms) m-3ms money be.m
    'He has money.' 'He is a rich man.'
Example #762:

    b. masu kuDii          sun            shigoo      grii.
    m-3p money 3p.PERF                 enter-VI    town
    'The rich people are in town.'
Example #763:

    (69)   a.   muna       aik    kuDii.
    1p-CONT send-I money
    'We are sending money.'
Example #764:

    b.   kuDii, muna          aikawaa.
    money 1p-CONT send-I-VN
    'As for money, we are sending (it).'
Example #765:

    (70)   a.   muna       aika          m(*waa)        Indoo.
    1p-CONT send-I-VN MA-(VN)                  Indo
    We are sending (s.th.) to Indo.
Example #766:

    b.   Indoo ce          muke              aika mwaa.
    Indo       be.f 1p-REL.CONT send-I-VN MA-VN
    It is to Indo that we are sending (s.th.).
Example #767:

    (71)   a.   Indoo ce muke                    aika m(*waa)              kuDii.
    Indo       be.f 1p-REL CONT send-I-VN MA-(VN)                  money
    It is to Indo that we are sending money.
Example #768:

    b.   kuDii? Indoo ce           muke               aika mwaa.
    money Indo         be.f 1p-REL CONT send-I-VN MA-VN
    Money, it is to Indo that we are sending (it).
Example #769:

    (72)   a.   kuDii ne za a                 baadawaa      g      Aud.
    money be.p FUT-IMP give-I-VN                   to      Audu
    It is money that is about to be given to Audu.
Example #770:

    b.   *kuDii ne za a                baada       g     Aud.
    money be.p FUT-IMP              give-I-VN to        Audu
    It is money that is about to be given to Audu.
Example #771:

    ()    MaraaDi.
    (in)   Maradi
    Maradi.'
Example #772:

    ()    MaraaDi.
    (in)   Maradi
    Maradi.'
Example #773:

    aika     (*shi )]].
    send-I-VN 3ms
    'It is kolanuts that they tried to send.'
Example #774:

    aika     m           Indoo (*shii )]].
    send-I-VN IX           Indo 3ms
    'It is kolanuts that they tried to send to Indo.'
Example #775:

    (75)   a.   Indoo ce           [suk             aika  ma/               *mat    gooro].
    Indo       cop.f 3p-REL PERF send-I-VN IX-VN/                   IX-3fs   kolanuts
    'It is to Indo that they sent the kolanuts.'
Example #776:

    [s         aika      ma/        *mat      gooro]].
    3p.SUB      send-I     IX-VN/      IX-3fs     gooro
    'It was said that it is Indo to whom they tried to send kolanuts.'
Example #777:

    [s         aika     (*shi )]].
    3p.SUB      send-I-VN 3ms
    'The kolanuts which they tried to send.'
Example #778:

    b.   gooro     wand      [suk                   aika     m     Indoo    (*shii )]].
    kolanuts 3ms-that 3p-REL PERF                 send-I-VN IX     Indoo    3ms
    'The kolanuts which they sent to Indo.'
Example #779:

    aika     m         Indoo      (?shii )]].
    send-I-VN IX         Indoo      3ms
    'The kolanuts which they tried to send to Indo.'
Example #780:

    aika     m/        *mat      gooro]].
    send-I-VN IX/        IX-3fs     gooro
    'The Indo that they tried to send kolanuts to.'
Example #781:

    aika     (*shii )]]?
    send-I-VN 3ms-Q
    'What is it that they tried to send.'
Example #782:

    aika          m    Indoo      (*shii )]]?
    send-I-VN      IX    Indoo      3ms-Q
    'What is it that they tried to send to Indo?'
Example #783:

    aika          m/     *mat        gooro]]?
    send-I-VN      IX/     IX-3fs       kolanuts-Q
    'Who is it that they tried to send kolanuts to?'
Example #784:

    (78)   a.   gooro       nee        suk        isoo               d         *( shii) .
    kolanuts cop.m          3p-REL PERF arrive-VI          with       3ms
    'It is kolanuts they came with.'
Example #785:

    b.   mi nee ne           kuk                az      kaayaa     gree *( shi) ?
    bike cop cop.m 2p-REL PERF                put-I    stuff      on    3ms-Q
    'What is it that you we put stuff on?
Example #786:

    c.   teebr kin d         muk             sa jkkaa KlKashii                    *( nai) .
    table    DEF that 1p-REL PERF place bag           under                        of-3ms
    'The table under which we placed a bag.'
Example #787:

    s     yi.
    3p.SUB do
    It is sending money that Abdu advised them to do.'
Example #788:

    s          yi     kuDii.
    3p.SUB      do     money
    'It is sending money that Abdu advised them to do.'
Example #789:

    suk        yi.
    3p-REL PERF do
    'Sending (s.th.) to Indo is what they were said to have done.'
Example #790:

    yi    Indoo.
    do    Indo
    'Sending (s.th.) to Indo is what they were said to have done.'
Example #791:

    suk               yi.
    3p-REL PERF        do
    'Sending money to Indo is what they were said to have done.'
Example #792:

    Indoo         kuDii .
    Indo          kuDii.
    'Sending money to Indo is what they were said to have done.'
Example #793:

    (82)   a.   ftaa         d      Aud nee           muk              yi.
    go.out-III with Audu cop.m 1p-REL PERF                     do
    'It is going out with Audu that we did.'
Example #794:

    b.   ftaa         ne      muk              yi     d   Aud.
    go out-III cop.m 1p-REL PERF do                 with Audu
    'It is going out with Audu that we did.'
Example #795:

    (83)   a.   baad kuDii g Aud               nee     akai.
    give-I money to Audu              cop.m IMP-REL PERF-do
    'It is giving money to Audu that someone did.'
Example #796:

    b.   baad kuDii ne             akai                     g    Aud.
    give-I money cop.m IMP-REL PERF-do                   to    Audu
    'It is giving money to Audu that someone did.'
Example #797:

    sun          yi.
    3p.PERF      do
    'It is sending millet to Maradi that they were said to have done.'
Example #798:

    MaraaDi.
    Maradi
    'It is sending millet to Maradi that they were said to have done.'
Example #799:

    (85)    a.   ?said shaanuu () can              Najeeriya ne          suke.
    sell-I cows          (in) there Nigeria            cop.m 3p-REL CONT
    'They are in the business of selling cows there in Nigeria.'
Example #800:

    b.   said shaanuu ne              suke             ()    can      Najeeriya.
    sell-I cows          cop.m 3p-REL CONT (in) there                Nigeria
    'They are in the business of selling cows there in Nigeria.'
Example #801:

    (86)   a.   kuDii    sun           iku       (g        Aud).
    money 3p.PERF          send-VII (by          Audu)
    'The money is sent away (by Audu).'
Example #802:

    b.   *kuDii sun             aikam    m          Aud.
    money 3p.PERF          send-VII IX          Abdu .
    'The money was sent to Audu.'
Example #803:

    ynzu.
    now
    'Audu cannot be sent money at this time.'
Example #804:

    b.   Yaarn       nan     b        zi           koyu       ba.
    boy-DEF that         NEG       FUT-3ms       teach-VI    NEG
    'That boy is unteachable.'
Example #805:

    c.   Aud     baya               bayuwaa        kaashii    (gree k).
    Abdu     NEG.CONT-3ms give-VII               beating    (by    2ms)
    'Audu cannot be punished (by you).'
Example #806:

    (88)    a.   yara       sun         nemr                  ta/ *ita .
    children 3p.PERF search-II-VN-of                3fs/ 3fs
    'The children searched for her.'
Example #807:

    b.   yara       sun         nemi       har        *ta/      ita.
    children 3p.PERF search-II even                3fs/      3fs
    'The children searched even for her.'
Example #808:

    (89)    a.   yara       sun          aika   mat/               *m ita.
    children 3p.PERF send-I-VN IX-3fs/                   IX  3fs
    'The children sent her (s.th.).'
Example #809:

    b.   yara      sun           aika         ma     har      *t/     ita.
    children 3p.PERF send-I-VN IX                 even     3fs/     3fs
    'The children sent (s.th.) even to her.'
Example #810:

    (90)    a.   Abd nee             yara      suk       aika                     ma   ita/   *ta.
    Abdu cop.m children 3p.REL PERF send-I-VN                            IX    3fs/   3fs
    'It is to Abdu that the children sent it.'
Example #811:

    b.   Abd nee             yara       suk                ba      ita/     *ta.
    Abdu cop.m children 3p.REL PERF                      give     3fs/     3fs
    'It is to Abdu that the children gave it.'
Example #812:

    (91)    a.   ?Aud     baya                ikuwaa               ita    (gree k).
    Abdu      NEG.CONT-3ms send-VII-DN                   3fs    (by    2ms)
    ?'Audu cannot be sent it (by you).'
Example #813:

    b.   *Aud baya                    ikuwar                t      (gree k).
    Abdu     NEG.CONT-3ms send-VII-DN-of                  3fs     (by    2ms)
    ?'Audu cannot be sent it (by you).'
Example #814:

    ak                  naDa            bana         wsiiKa.
    IMP-REL PERF         turban-I-VN      this.year    letter
    'Shehu sent all the emirs that were throned this year a letter.'
Example #815:

    d       ak                  naDa            bana.
    that     IMP-REL PERF         turban-I-VN      this.year
    'Shehu sent a letter to all the emirs that were throned this year.'
Example #816:

    wsiiKa.
    letter
    'Abdu sent even the emir a letter.'
Example #817:

    d.   Abd fa           yaa           aika      m           har        sarkii wsiiKa.
    Abdu indeed 3ms.PERF send-I-VN IX                       even       emir letter
    'Abdu indeed sent even the emir a letter.'
Example #818:

    (94)    a.   kekee ne           ya                  aza          m --     kaayaa.
    bike       cop.m 3ms.REL PERF put-I-VN                 IX        load
    It is on the bike that he put some load.
Example #819:

    b.   *m kekee ne               ya                   az --    kaayaa.
    IX       bike      cop.m 3ms.REL PERF             put-I     load
    'It is on the bike that he put some load.'
Example #820:

    (95)    a.   g kekee ne               ya                az          kaayaa --.
    on bike          cop.m 3ms.REL PERF           put-I        load
    'It is on the bike that he put load.'
Example #821:

    b.   *kekee ne             ya                az       kaayaa     ga --.
    bike          cop.m 3ms.REL PERF          put-I     load       on
    'It is on the bike that he put load.'
Example #822:

    (96)   a.   m Laad ank                      wankoo           (m)     rigr.
    ?       Ladi    IMP-REL PERF wash-VI-VN             (IX)     gown
    'It is Ladi they washed the gown for.'
Example #823:

    b.   m ita          ank               wankoo           (m)    rigr.
    ?        3fs    IMP-REL PERF wash-VI-VN             (IX)    gown
    'It is she they washed the gown for.'
Example #824:

    c.   m Muusaa ta                          dahwa        m/    ma   binci.
    ?       Musa       3fs.REL PERF cook-I-VN           IX/    IX-VN food
    'It is Musa she cooked the food for.'
Example #825:

    d.   m nii ta                     dahwa         m/    ma        binci.
    ?      1s 3fs.REL PERF cook-I-VN             IX/    IX-VN      food
    'It is me she cooked the food for.'
Example #826:

    (97)    a.   *karnta w mc             ===>     karntaa    w      mc
    read-I-VN IX woman
    'read to the woman'
Example #827:

    (98)         sun          aika           ma/    *maa         Abd     wsiiKa.
    3p.PERF send-I-VN            IX/     IX-VN        Abdu     letter
    'They sent a letter to Indo Abdu.'
Example #828:

    (99)    a.   Abd yaa             kai    knsh/            knsh
    Abdu ms.PERF bring REFLEX/                     REFLEX
    'Abdu took himself (somewhere).
Example #829:

    c.   raani/      *raani
    day-DEF/ day-DEF
    'The day in question.'
Example #830:

    (100) a.     naa           gaya         ma/        *ma         zancee.
    1s.PERF tell-I-VN           IX-2ms/     IX-2ms       matter
    'I told you the matter.'
Example #831:

    b.   naa           aikoo           ma/        ma          takrdaa.
    1s.PERF send-VI-VN            IX-2ms/     IX-2ms       letter
    'I sent you the letter.'
Example #832:

    (101) a.     taa           ga        wsiiKa/ ci         tuwoo.
    3fs.PERF see-II letter/               eat    food paste
    'She saw the letter/ ate the food paste.'
Example #833:

    tuwoo.
    food paste
    'She showed him the letter/ fed him food paste'.
Example #834:

    (102) a.    taa           karantar           d    suu.
    3fs.PERF read-III-VN-of          V     3p
    'She taught them.'
Example #835:

    b.   taa           karantasshee     s.
    3fs.PERF read-?-VN             3p
    'She taught them.'
Example #836:

    (103) a.     yu      naa         syi     kaayaa        d wuri.
    today 1s.PERF        buy-II stuff           early
    'Today I bought my shopping early.'
Example #837:

    b.   yu      naa        syee              s    d wuri.
    today 1s.PERF buy-II-VN                3p    early
    'Today I bought them early.'
Example #838:

    c.   yu      naa        sys                   su    d wuri.
    today 1s.PERF buy-II-VN-of                  3p    early
    'Today I bought them early.'
Example #839:

    (104) a.     yu      naa         sayar                  d    suu     d wuri.
    today 1s.PERF sell-II-VN-of                 V     3p      early
    'Today I sold them early.'
Example #840:

    b.   yu      naa         saishee          s     d wuri.
    today 1s.PERF sell-II-VN              3p     early
    'Today I sold them early.'
Example #841:

    (105) a.     yau      naa       sai-s-i       kaayaanaa        da       wuri
    today I-comp. buy-cause          goods-my         with     earliness
    'Today I have sold my goods early'
Example #842:

    b.   naa         sai-sh-ee        su      da       wuri
    I-comp. buy-cause            them    with     earliness
    'I sold them early'
Example #843:

    c.   wannan nee riiga-r           da Audu        ya       sai-s-ii          (maka)
    this       cop. shirt-the rel. Audu         he-comp. buy-cause         ([to]-you)
    'Is this the shirt that Audu sold you?'
Example #844:

    (106) a.     yu      naa        said kaayaanaa           d wuri.
    today 1s.PERF sell-I         stuff            early
    'Today I sold my shopping early.'
Example #845:

    b.   yu      naa        saidoo     kaayaanaa        d wuri.
    today 1s.PERF sell-VI          stuff            early
    'Today I sold my shopping early (+come).'
Example #846:

    c.   kaayaa sun       sidu.
    goods     3p     sell-VII
    'The merchandize is sold.'
Example #847:

    (108) a.    yaa          fitoo              d agalemii.
    3ms.PERF get.out-VI-VN V               skin.mat
    'He came out with a skin mat.' or 'he put out (here) a skin mat.'
Example #848:

    b.   yaa            fiddoo       agalemii.
    3ms.PERF get.out-VI skin.mat
    'He put out (here) a skin mat.'
Example #849:

    c. yaa               fidd       agalemii
    3ms.PERF get.out-I         skin.mat
    'He put out a skin mat.'
Example #850:

    (110) a.     aiki yaa             wahalar. (from Newman 1983)
    work 3ms.PERF tire-III-VN-of
    'The work has tired (someone).'
Example #851:

    b.   gooro,      Abd yaa              jaafas                          (*d /   d shii).
    kolanuts     Abdu 3ms.PERF throw.away-II-VN-of                     (V /     V 3ms
    'As for the kolanuts, Abdu has thrown them away.'
Example #852:

    c.   Sul, aiki yaa              wahalar               *( d   shii)
    Sule    work 3ms.PERF tire-III-VN-of               V       3ms
    'The work has tired (someone).'
Example #853:

    (112) a.    yana            ciyar           tuwoo.
    3ms-CONT eat-II-VN-of            paste
    'he is eating food paste.'
Example #854:

    b.   Indoo taa            ciyar              d    suu     tuwoo.
    Indo     3fs.PERF eat-II-VN-of          V     3p      paste
    'Indo fed them some food paste.'
Example #855:

    (113) a.    tana       sann                   Abd.
    3fs.PERF know-II-DN-of              Abdu
    'She may well know Abdu.'
Example #856:

    b.   taa          sanar            d Abd              labaari.
    3fs.PERF know-II-VN-of V            Abdu           news
    'She informed Abdu about the news.'
Example #857:

    (114) a.    Aish tana            ftaa.
    Aish 3fs-CONT get.out-III-DN
    'Aisha is going out (habitually).'
Example #858:

    b.   Aish taa            fitar                    d     su     Abd.
    Aish 3fs.PERF get.out-III-VN-of              V      3p     Abdu
    'Aisha got Abdu and others out.'
Example #859:

    (115) a.    Yaaro yaa               kwntaa/     kwanta        gado.
    child     3ms.PERF lie-I/             lie-I          on.bed
    'The child went to bed.'
Example #860:

    b.   Abd yaa                kwantar      d     yaaro     gado.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF lie-VN-of              V      child      on.bed
    'Abdu put the child to bed.'
Example #861:

    c.   *yaaro yaa              kwnci      gadoo.
    child      3ms.PERF lie-II           bed
    'The child went to bed.'
Example #862:

    (116) a.    Abd yaa              jeef        bhun      hatsii            moota.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF throw-I sack-of                 millet      in     car
    'Abdu threw a sack of millet in the truck.'
Example #863:

    b.   Abd yaa               jefi           moota      d          tmmaatr.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF throw.at-II car                      with        tomatoes
    'Abdu threw at the car with tomatoes.'
Example #864:

    c.   Abd yaa              jeefar             d       bhun        hatsii.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF throw-VN-of                V        sack-of      millet
    'Abdu threw off/ away the sack of millet.'
Example #865:

    (117) a.    yaa            bgi      Dan      Indoo.
    3ms.PERF hit-II          son-of   Indo
    'He hit Indo's son.'
Example #866:

    b.   bugar            Dan        Indoo ne        ya                      yi.
    hit-II-VN-of son-of Indo               cop.m 3ms.REL PERF            do
    'It is hiting Indo's son that he did.'
Example #867:

    c.   bugar            d Dan         Indoo ne          ya                       yi.
    hit-II-VN-of V son-of Indo                cop.m    3ms.REL PERF             do
    'It is beating up Indo's son that he did.'
Example #868:

    Indo]n         d       Abd      ya                      rkaa.
    Indo]-DEF      that     Abdu      3ms.REL PERF            engaged
    'She did not like the beating up of Indo's son that Audu engaged in.'
Example #869:

    (118) a.     Abd     yaa           jeef         bhun         hatsii           moota.
    Abdu     3ms.PERF throw-I            sack-of       millet     in     car
    'Abdu threw a sack of millet in the truck.'
Example #870:

    b.   Abd yaa              jeefa          d           bhun hatsii.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF throw-I-VN V                         sack-of millet
    'Abdu threw off/ away the sack of millet.'
Example #871:

    c.   Abd yaa              jeefar           d          bhun       hatsii.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF throw-VN-of V                        sack-of     millet
    'Abdu threw off/ away the sack of millet.'
Example #872:

    (119) a.     Indoo taa              juuya                 d   kekee.
    Indo     3fs.PERF turn.over-I-VN              V    bike
    'Indo turned over the bike.'
Example #873:

    b.   Indoo taa              aika             d    gooro             MaraaDi.
    Indo     3fs.PERF send-I-VN              V     kolanuts      in    Maradi
    'Indo sent kolanuts in Maradi.'
Example #874:

    c.   gsaa           d      shii      can!
    move-I-VN V             3ms       there.invisible
    'Move it away!'
Example #875:

    (121) a.    d         Aud     nee      muk               fta.
    with       Audu     cop.m    1p-REL PERF        go.out-III
    'It is with Audu that we went out.'
Example #876:

    b.   *d bhuu           ne       muk             fitar.
    V        sack       cop.m     1p-REL PERF      go.out-VN-of
    'It is the sack that we took out.'
Example #877:

    (122) a.    Aud        nee     muk              fta       d          shii.
    Audu        cop.m 1p-REL PERF         go.out-III with        3ms
    'It is with Audu that we went out.'
Example #878:

    b.   ?bhuu ne            muk             fitar            d       shii.
    sack         cop.m 1p-REL PERF         go.out-VN-of     V        3ms
    'It is the sack that we took out.'
Example #879:

    (123) a.    *Aud nee             muk             fta          d.
    Audu         cop.m 1p-REL PERF         go.out-III    with
    'It is with Audu that we went out.'
Example #880:

    b.   *Aud nee              muk             fta.
    Audu         cop.m     1p-REL PERF      go.out-III
    'It is with Audu that we went out.'
Example #881:

    (124) a.    bhuu ne             muk            fitar             da.
    sack       cop.m      1p-REL PERF     go.out-VN-of      V
    'It is the sack that we took out.'
Example #882:

    b.   bhuu ne             muk            fitar.
    sack        cop.m 1p-REL PERF         go.out-VN-of
    'It is the sack that we took out.'
Example #883:

    c.   wai    wani         sarkii ne      ak           fitar    (?da).
    EVID some.m emir           cop.m IMP-REL PERF go.out-VN-of (V)
    'Apparently it is some emir that was forced out.'
Example #884:

    Dan      Kraminsh.
    little   small-of-3ms
    'Abdu remembered the time he was a tiny little boy.'
Example #885:

    Dan      Kraminsh.
    little   small-of-3ms
    'Abdu remembered the time he was a tiny little boy.'
Example #886:

    (126) a.    Abd yaa               kara      d      suu.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF          clash-I    with    3p
    'Abdu clashed with them.'
Example #887:

    b.   *Abd yaa              karda            su.
    Abdu     3ms.PERF clash.with-I           3p
    'Abdu clashed with them.'
Example #888:

    (127) a.    Blki taa              fitar     d               tuluu.
    Balki 3fs.PERF get.out-III-VN-of V                pot
    'Balki took out the water pot.'
Example #889:

    b.   Blki taa              fidd         tuluu.
    Balki 3fs.PERF get.out-I             pot
    'Balki took out the water pot.'
Example #890:

    (128) a.    yana          fitoo            d     kaayaa.
    3ms-CONT get.out-VI-VN V               loads
    'He is bringing out the loads.'
Example #891:

    b.   yana          fitowaa            d      kaayaa.
    3ms-CONT get.out-VI-VN with                loads
    'He is coming out with the loads.'
Example #892:

    (131) a.     yara       take              karantarwa/ karantar dawaa/ *karantarwa d.
    children 3fs.REL CONT teach-V-VN
    'it is the children she is teaching'.
Example #893:

    (137) a.    yara        ne      yake                 kooya     m    kratuu.
    children cop.p 3ms.REL CONT                 teaching-I IX    reading/study
    'It is the children that he is teaching.'
Example #894:

    b.   yara        nee      yake                 karantarwa/ karantar dawaa/, etc.
    children cop.p 3ms.REL CONT                 read-V-VN
    'It is the children that he is teaching.'
Example #895:

    (138) a.    jeefar           d bhun hatsii ne              Abdu ya                         yi.
    throw-VN-of V sack-of millet cop.m Abdu 3ms.REL PERF                              do
    'It is throwing off/ away the millet sack that Abdu did.'
Example #896:

    b.   *jeefar           ne      Abdu ya                    yi      d bhun hatsii.
    throw-VN-of cop.m Abdu 3ms.REL PERF do                        V sack-of millet
    'It is throwing off/ away the millet sack that Abdu did.'
Example #897:

    c.   sanar               d Aish labaari nee                  na                  yi.
    know-II-VN-of V Aish news                     cop.m        1s.REL PERF         do
    'It is conveying the news to Aisha that I did.'
Example #898:

    d.   *sanar              nee      na                yi      d     Aish labaari.
    know-II-VN-of cop.m 1s.REL PERF do                     V      Aish news
    'It is conveying the news to Aisha that I did.
Example #899:

    (139) a.     Indoo taa             karantar             (fa)      d      yara.
    Indo     3fs.PERF read-III-VN-of           MOD       V       children
    'Indo indeed taught the children.'
Example #900:

    b.   ?Abd yaa           sanar              (fa) d               Aish      labaari.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF know-II-VN-of MOD V                            Aisha      news
    'Abdu indeed conveyed the news to Aisha.'
Example #901:

    c.   Indoo taa             karantar             d    yara         (fa).
    Indo     3fs.PERF read-III-VN-of           V     children      MOD
    'Indo indeed thaught the children.'
Example #902:

    d.   Indoo taa             karantar     d           (fa)        yara.
    Indo     3fs.PERF read-III-VN-of V              MOD         children
    'Indo indeed taught the children.'
Example #903:

    (140) a.     Indoo taa            aika        *( fa)        d     gooro.
    Indo     3fs.PERF send-I-VN indeed              V      kolanuts
    'Indo indeed sent some kolanuts.'
Example #904:

    b.   Indoo taa            aikoo              (fa)   d       gooro.
    Indo     3fs.PERF send-VI-VN            indeed V        kolanuts
    'Indo indeed sent some kolanuts.'
Example #905:

    (141) a.     Indoo taa           karantar          (*dai / *maa/ *har )        d        yara.
    Indo 3fs.PERF read-III-VN-of MOD/ MOD/ MOD                        V         children
    'Indo thaught indeed/ even the children.'
Example #906:

    labaari.
    news
    'Abdu conveyed the news indeed/ even to Aisha.'
Example #907:

    (142) a.     Aish taa            jeefar             d     kren         Indoo.
    Aisha 3fs.PERF throw-VN-of              V      dog-of        Indo
    'Aisha threw away Indo's dog.'
Example #908:

    b.   Aish taa            jeefam             m     Indoo    d     kree.
    Aisha 3fs.PERF throw-VN-of              IX     Indo     V      dog
    'Aisha threw away Indo's dog.'
Example #909:

    c.   Aish taa            jeefam              ma     d     Indoo         kree.
    Aisha 3fs.PERF throw-VN-of               IX      V      Indo          dog
    'Aisha threw away Indo's dog.'
Example #910:

    d.   Aish taa            jeefar               da   m    Indoo     kree.
    Aisha 3fs.PERF throw-VN-of                V     IX    Indo      dog
    'Aisha threw away Indo's dog.'
Example #911:

    (143) a.     naa           sayar          w      Aud       dooki.
    1s.PERF sell-II-VN-of        IX      Audu       dooki
    'I sold a horse to Audu.'
Example #912:

    b.   naa           sayar          w      Aud       d    dooki.
    1s.PERF sell-II-VN-of        IX      Audu       V     dooki
    'I sold a horse to Audu.'
Example #913:

    c.   naa           sayar          w      d     Aud     dooki.
    1s.PERF sell-II-VN-of        IX      V      Audu     dooki
    'I sold a horse to Audu.'
Example #914:

    d.   naa           sayar          w      d     Abd      d   dooki.
    1s.PERF sell-II-VN-of        IX      V      Audu      V    dooki
    'I sold a horse to Audu.'
Example #915:

    mwaa.
    MA-VN
    'As for dog, It is Indo's that Aisha threw away.'
Example #916:

    ma         (d)    kree.
    MA-VN       (V)     dog
    'It is Indo whose dog Aisha threw away.'
Example #917:

    c.   kree ne          Aish ta                jeefar da m                  Indoo.
    dog       cop.m Aisha 3fs.REL PERF throw-VN-of DA-VN IX                   Indo
    'It is a dog (of Indo) that Aisha threw away.'
Example #918:

    d.   *kree ne           Aish ta                  jeefar      ma d         Indoo.
    dog        cop.m Aisha 3fs.REL PERF            throw-VN-of IX V           Indo
    'It is a dog that Aisha deprived Indo off.'
Example #919:

    (149) a.     dooki yaa            tsoort     yaaro     (mmaa     ba kwarai        ba).
    horse 3ms.PERF frighten-I boy                 (but       NEG much          NEG)
    'The horse frightened the boy a bit.'
Example #920:

    kwarai     ba).
    much       NEG)
    'The horse completely frightened the boy (*a bit).'
Example #921:

    (150) a.     sun        nun lemn nan (mmaa ba                saransh        ba).
    3p.PERF ripen-I lemon that (but                  NEG totality-of-3ms NEG)
    'They ripened that lemon, but not in its totality.'
Example #922:

    saransh           ba).
    totality-of-3ms    NEG)
    'They completely ripened that lemon, (*but not in its totality).'
Example #923:

    (151) a.    yaaro yaa             juuya.
    boy      3ms.PERF turn-I
    'The boy changed his position (by turning).
Example #924:

    b.   taa            juuy     yaaro.
    3fs.PERF       turn-I    boy
    'She turned the boy.'
Example #925:

    c.   taa           juuyar          d yaaro.
    3fs.PERF turn-VN-of           V boy
    'She faced the boy away.'
Example #926:

    (152) a.    naa           juuy yaaro naa             fuskantoo sh nn.
    1s.PERF turn-I boy             1s.PERF face-VI       3ms here
    'I turned the boy and faced him toward here.'
Example #927:

    b.   *naa         juuyar       d yaaro naa             fuskantoo sh          nn.
    1s.PERF turn-VN-of V boy                1s.PERF face-VI       3ms          here
    *'I turned away the boy and faced him toward here.'
Example #928:

    (153) a.     taa          juuy     knt.
    3fs.PERF turn-I head-of-3ms
    'She turned her head/ herself.'
Example #929:

    ga        Abd.
    see-II    Abdu
    'She turned her head away when she saw Abdu.'
Example #930:

    (154) a.     Indoo taa            jeef      kuDint     cikin asuus.
    Indo     3fs.PERF throw-I money-of-3fs inside-of piggy.bank
    'Indo threw her money into the piggy bank.'
Example #931:

    b.   Indoo taa            jeefar             d     kuDint.
    Indo     3fs.PERF throw-VN-of           V      money-of-3fs
    'Indo threw away her money.'
Example #932:

    (156) a.    yaaro yaa               durKsaa.
    boy      3ms.PERF        kneel-I
    'The boy kneeled.'
Example #933:

    b.   Indoo taa             durKusar d             yaaro.
    Indo     3fs.PERF kneel-VN-of V               boy
    'Indo kneeled the boy.'
Example #934:

    c.   *Indoo taa              durKs       yaaro.
    Indo      3fs.PERF kneel-I            boy
    'Indo kneeled the boy.'
Example #935:

    (157) a.    yaaro yaa              zamna       (kn)      kujeraa.
    boy      3ms.PERF sit-I              on         chair
    'The boy sat on the chair.'
Example #936:

    b.   yaaro yaa              zamn       kujeraa.
    boy      3ms.PERF sit-I             chair
    'The boy sat on the chair.'
Example #937:

    c.   Indoo taa              zamnar        d      yaaro     kn   kujeraa.
    Indo     3fs.PERF sit-VN-of          V       boy        on    chair
    'Indo sat the boy on the chair.'
Example #938:

    (158) a.    taa           ga        wsiiKa.
    3fs.PERF see-II         letter
    'She saw the letter.'
Example #939:

    b.   yaa          ganar                d    ita     wsiiKa
    3ms.PERF see-II-VN-of             V     3fs     letter
    'He showed her the letter.'
Example #940:

    (159) a.    taa         san         zancen d             ake              yi.
    3fs.PERF know-II topic            that        IMP-REL CONT      do-DN
    'She knows what is being talked about.
Example #941:

    b.   yaa           sanar              d       ita     labaari.
    3fm.PERF know-II-VN-of V                  3fs     news
    'He informed her about the news.'
Example #942:

    (160) a.    tuluu yaa                cka.
    pot      3ms.PERF         be.full-III
    'The pot filled up.'
Example #943:

    b.   taa             cik         tuluu.
    3ms.PERF fill.up-I           pot
    'She filled up the pot.
Example #944:

    c.   taa             cikar            d     tuluu.
    3ms.PERF fill-III-VN-of V               pot
    'She swiftly filled up the pot.'
Example #945:

    (161) a.    ruwaa sun            zba.
    water 3p.PERF spill-III
    'The water spilled.'
Example #946:

    b.   taa          zub       ruwan                 tuluu.
    3fs.PERF pour-I         water-DEF         in   pot
    'She poured the water into the pot.'
Example #947:

    c.   taa         zubar                  d     ruwan.
    3fs.PERF pour-III-VN-of            V      water-DEF
    'She poured away the water.'
Example #948:

    (162) a.    yaaro yaa                 fta.
    boy      3ms.PERF          get.out-III
    'The boy got out.'
Example #949:

    b.   taa          fitar                   d    yaaro.
    3fs.PERF get out-III-VN-of           V     child
    'She got the child out.'
Example #950:

    c.   *taa          fit         yaaro.
    3fs.PERF get out-I         child
    'She got the child out.'
Example #951:

    (163) a.    yaaro yaa              shga        slma.
    boy      3ms.PERF enter-III theather
    'The boy entered into the theather.'
Example #952:

    b.   taa            shigar              d     yaaro     slma.
    3fs.PERF       enter-III-VN-of V          child      theather
    'She got the child into the theather.'
Example #953:

    c.   *taa          shig      yaaro slma.
    3fs.PERF enter-I child             theather
    'She got the child into the theather.'
Example #954:

    (i)      a. Abd yana                yin     dshen         itacee.
    Abdu 3ms-CONT do                  planting-of    trees
    'Abdu is planting trees.'
Example #955:

    b. Abd na            dshen           itacee.
    Abdu CONT planting-of                trees
    'Abdu is planting trees.'
Example #956:

    (i)      a. sun          aika      ma Abd          wsiiKa.
    3p.PERF send-I IX/             Abdu       letter
    'They sent a letter to Indo Abdu.'
Example #957:

    (1)     a. Abd yaa               shga          cn               binci.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF enter-I                 eat-DN-of         food
    'Abdu went inside to eat.'
Example #958:

    b. Abd      yaa           shga     y              ci      binci.
    Abdu      3ms.PERF enter-I        3ms.SUB         eat     food
    'Abdu    went inside to eat.'
Example #959:

    c. hawan              raKumii na d           wyaa.
    riding-DN-of camel              be with      difficulty
    'Riding/ to ride a camel is difficult.'
Example #960:

    d. yara       d     zuwa slma bi            d nfanii.
    children with go-DN movies NEG.3ms.CONT with purpose
    'Children's going to the movies has no worth.'
Example #961:

    e. yara       fa      sun        samu kren         kishi.
    Children indeed 3p.PERF have             dog-of beat-DN
    'The children indeed have found a dog to beat on.'
Example #962:

    f. bin        ci
    thing-of eat-DN
    'An edible thing, a thing to be eaten'
Example #963:

    (3)     a. suna        nun     lemuu () killaa.
    3p.CONT ripen-I lemon            (in) garden
    'They are ripening lemon in the garden.'
Example #964:

    b. lemuu ne suke                    nunawaa        ()   killaa.
    lemon be 3p.REL CONT ripen-I-VN (in)                      garden
    'It is lemon that they are ripening in the garden.'
Example #965:

    (4)     a. jeefawar          Abd
    throw-I-VN-of      Abdu
    'Abdu's throwing.'
Example #966:

    (5)     a. Abd yana             halbar               kren     Idii.
    Abdu 3ms.CONT kick-II-VN-of                 dog-of    Idi
    'Audu is kicking Idi's dog.'
Example #967:

    b. Abd yaa             hlbi        kren     Idii.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF kick-II             dog-of    Idi
    'Audu kicked Idi's dog.'
Example #968:

    (10)    a. Indoo tana           (g) kaamawaa.
    Indo      3fs.CONT (at)       catch-I-VN
    'Indo is catching (something).'
Example #969:

    b. Indoo tana           (g) kaamu.
    Indo      3fs.CONT (at)       catch-DN
    'Indo is catching (something).'
Example #970:

    (11)         Indoo tana        cikin   Daaki.
    Indo      3fs.be inside-of room
    'Indo is in the room.'
Example #971:

    tfi     makk.
    go-III   Makk
    'Abdu was little when his mother went the Mecca.'
Example #972:

    b. sun         sk         Indoo tana           zmne     bis        kujeraa.
    3p.PERF find-VIII Indo             3fs-be      sitting   on          chair
    'They found Indo sitting on a chair.'
Example #973:

    c. Gwn na shugban Njeeriya  lookcin yaaKn Ojukw.
    Gowon be leader-of         Nigeria      at time-of       war-of Ojukwu
    'Gowon was the leader of Nigeria during the Biafra war.'
Example #974:

    d. Lookcn nan    Muhammad Ali                 na Muhammad Alinsh.
    time-DEF then Muhammad Ali                   be Muhammad Ali-of-3ms
    'Then Muhammad Ali was for real.'
Example #975:

    (13)    a. Aali yana          shgifa.
    Ali 3ms.do          room
    'Ali is building a room.'
Example #976:

    b. yaaro na "k              gusa k               baa          n     hanya".
    child     do     2p.SUB     move-I 2p.SUB          give         1s     way
    'The child went: please move and give me the way.'
Example #977:

    c. Indoo tana d             kyaawo/ Indoo tana            d     kuDii.
    Indo 3fs.be with beauty/               Indo      3fs-be with money
    'Indo is beautifull'/ 'Indo has money' or 'Indo is a rich person'
Example #978:

    (14)    a. Abd yana             fa/ dai / kau faDa m sarkiizancee sai...
    Abdu 3ms-CONT indeed                  tell-I-VN IX emir matter               when
    'Abdu was telling the emir the matter when...'
Example #979:

    b. ...Abd yana             kumaa                 did dibaawa Dak.
    Abdu 3ms-CONT on.the.other.hand REDUP -search-I-VN in.room
    '...while Abdu, on his side, was searching the room.'
Example #980:

    (15)    a. sun         nemi         s            jee   s          gan       sh.
    3p.PERF search-II         3p.SUB        go    3p.SUB      see-II    3ms
    'They tried to go and see him.'
Example #981:

    b. sun         nemi        zuwa ganii             ni.
    3p.PERF search-II go-DN see-DN                   his
    'They tried to go and see him.'
Example #982:

    (16)    a. yaaro yaa            faar      zuwa makarantaa.
    child 3ms.PERF begin-I go-DN school
    'The child began to go to school.'
Example #983:

    b. yaa           Kaar          cn            binci.
    3ms.PERF finish-IV           eat-DN-of      food
    'He finished eating.'
Example #984:

    (17)    a. koomawaa         Ktsin taa              m Abd           wyaa.
    return-I-VN       Katsina 3fs.PERF MA Abdu                   difficulty
    'returning to Katsina is difficult for Abdu.'
Example #985:

    makarantaa.
    school
    'Indo talked to the children about going to school.
Example #986:

    mutanee.
    people
    (lit.: children did that of kicking people's dog)
Example #987:

    d       kuDii!
    with     money
    'How can Abdu go to the market, now that he is penniless!'
Example #988:

    e. ba zuwa makarantaa.
    NEG go-DN school
    'There is no going to school.'
Example #989:

    (18)    a. tana         kak kamaa                m     Indoo   awaakii.
    3fs-CONT REDUP-catch-I-VN               IX     Indo    goats
    'She is catching goats for Indo.'
Example #990:

    b. tana           kak kamaawa.
    3fs-CONT        REDUP-catch-I-VN
    'She is catching here and there.'
Example #991:

    (19)    a. tana         kaamn/              kame kamen               kiifii.
    3fs-CONT catch-DN-of/              REDUP catch-DN-of          fish
    'She fishing here and there.'
Example #992:

    b. *tana         kk kaamn                    kiifii.
    3fs-CONT REDUP-catch-DN-of                   fish
    'She fishing here and there.'
Example #993:

    (20)    a. taa          yi kaamn                 kiifii.
    3fs.PERF do catch-DN-of                fish
    ?'She did fishing.'
Example #994:

    b. *taa       yi kaama            m        Indoo    awaakii.
    3fs.PERF do catch-I-VN          IX        Indo     goats
    *'She did catching goats for Indo.'
Example #995:

    c. *taa        yi     kaamawaa.
    3fs.PERF do        catch-I-VN
    *'She did catching.'
Example #996:

    (21)    a. wannn kaamn               jiy         nee.
    this       catch-DN-of yesterday cop
    'This is yesterday's catch (pointing to fish bucket).'
Example #997:

    b. ?wannn kaamawar             jiy         nee
    this        catch-I-VN-of yesterday cop
    ?'This is yesterday's catching (pointing to fish bucket).'
Example #998:

    c. *[wannn kaama             m      Indoo]-n jiy            nee
    [this        catch-I-VN IX          Indo]-of yesterday cop
    *'This is yesterday's catching for Indo (pointing to fish bucket).'
Example #999:

    (22)    a. taa          kaam        kuya.
    3fs.PERF seize-IV         goat
    'She seized the goat firmly.'
Example #1000:

    b. taa          kaame          m      Indoo    kuya.
    3fs.PERF seize-IV-VN IX              Indo     goat
    'She seized Indo's goat firmly.'
Example #1001:

    (23)    a. taa          kaamoo       kuya.
    3fs.PERF seize-VI         goat
    'She seized the goat and came.'
Example #1002:

    b. taa          kaamoo         m     Indoo kuya.
    3fs.PERF seize-VI-VN IX            Indo       goat
    'She seized Indo's goat and came' or 'She seized a goat for Indo and came.'
Example #1003:

    (24)    a. Indoo tana             halbn  jkkin               Aali.
    Indo      3fs-CONT kick-DN-of donkey-of              Ali
    'Indo is kicking Ali's donkey.'
Example #1004:

    b. Indoo tana             halbar               jkkin            Aali.
    Indo      3fs-CONT kick-II-VN-of             donkey-of         Ali
    'Indo is kicking Ali's donkey.'
Example #1005:

    c. Indoo tana             hlbar             jkkin    Aali.
    Indo      3fs-CONT kick-II-VN-of           donkey-of Ali
    'Indo is kicking Ali's donkey.'
Example #1006:

    (25)    a. Indoo tana             halbam             m      Aali        jkkii.
    Indo      3fs-CONT kick-II-VN-of           IX      Ali         donkey
    'Indo is kicking Ali's donkey.'
Example #1007:

    b. *Indoo tana             hlbam              m         Aali     jkkii.
    Indo        3fs-CONT kick-II-VN-of           IX         Ali      donkey
    'Indo is kicking Ali's donkey.'
Example #1008:

    c. *Indoo tana             halbm m               Aali      jkkii.
    Indo        3fs-CONT kick-DN-of IX               Ali       donkey
    'Indo is kicking Ali's donkey.'
Example #1009:

    (27)    a. *yaa          yi halbar               balo/     Balgatar          gini.
    3ms.PERF do kick-II-VN-of ball/                   breaking-II-VN-of wall
    'He did ball kicking/ wall breaking.'
Example #1010:

    gini.
    wall
    'He is kicking the ball/ breaking the wall.'
Example #1011:

    c. *wannn halbar/               Balgatar         jiy              nee.
    this        shoot-II-VN-of/ break-II-VN-of yesterday             cop
    *'This is yesterday's shooting/ breaking off.'
Example #1012:

    (28)    a. yaa            yi halbn           balo/       Blgatr            gini.
    3ms.PERF do kick-DN-of ball/                     breaking-DN-of      wall
    'He did ball kicking/ wall breaking.'
Example #1013:

    b. yana          hlbe hlbee/         Blgce Blgcee.
    3ms-CONT REDUP kick-DN/ REDUP breaking-DN
    'He is giving kicks/ breaking things here and there.'
Example #1014:

    c. wannn halbn/              Blgatr      jiy           nee.
    this       shoot-DN-of/ break-DN-of yesterday            cop
    *'This is yesterday's shooting/ breaking off.'
Example #1015:

    (29)    a. Abd yaa                 fta.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF            go.out-III
    'Abdu went out.'
Example #1016:

    b. Abd yana              ftaa.
    Abdu 3ms-CONT go.out-DN
    'Abdu is going out (i.e. will go out).'
Example #1017:

    (30)    a. yaa yi faadwaa mugunya/ kmbura                   mai          daamaa.
    3ms do fall-DN bad/                    swell-DN      owner.of     a.lot
    'It had a bad fall/ it swelled a lot.'
Example #1018:

    b. masu         fce fcee
    POSS-3p REDUP going.out-DN
    'Those always going out'
Example #1019:

    d. wannn mangwro faaDwar               jiy             nee.
    this      mango         fall-DN-of yesterday            cop
    'This mango felt (from tree) yesterday.'
Example #1020:

    (31)     a. yaa           karantar   d Dant.
    3ms.PERF teach-III-VN-of V son-of-3fs
    'He taught her son.'
Example #1021:

    b. kurjii yaa          fitam          m               Abd            kumci.
    rash 3ms.PERF get.out-III-VN-of IX                  Abdu       on    cheek
    'A rash appeared on Abdu's cheek.'
Example #1022:

    c. *kurjii yaa          ftam          m                Abd           kumci.
    rash     3ms.PERF get.out-III-DN-of IX                Abdu      on    cheek
    'A rash appeared on Abdu's cheek.'
Example #1023:

    (32)         binci baay                   tBuwaa.
    food    NEG.CONT-3ms touch-VII-VN
    'The food is untouchable.' (i.e. it is hot)
Example #1024:

    (33)    a. mark      kamuwaa
    lacker     be catchable
    'the non-catchable'
Example #1025:

    b. mary      ynkuwaa
    lacker     be.able.to.be.cut
    'the one that cannot be cut'
Example #1026:

    (34)    a. *mark kaamawaa
    lacker     catch-I-VN
    'the one that cannot catch' or 'the one not catching'
Example #1027:

    b. *mary yank naama
    lacker     cut-II meat
    'the one that cannot cut meat' or 'the one not cutting meat'
Example #1028:

    (35)     a. sun        taaram         m               Abd.
    3p.PERF gather-VII-VN-of IX                Abdu
    'They ganged up on Abdu.'
Example #1029:

    b. bind       ya                 abkam                   m     Abd.
    thing-that 3ms.REL PERF befall-VII-VN-of                IX     Abdu
    'The thing that has befallen Abdu.'
Example #1030:

    c. taa          wanzar                          d    kuDii.
    3fs.PERF remain.over-VII-VN-of               V     money
    'She made the money last.'
Example #1031:

    (36)     a. Abd yaa                ci      tuwoo.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF eat               staple
    'Abdu ate staple food.'
Example #1032:

    b. Abd yana               ci/        cn           tuwoo.
    Abdu 3ms.CONT eat-DN/ eat-DN-of                    staple
    'Abdu is eating (s.th.)/ is eating staple food.'
Example #1033:

    (37)     a. Abd yaa              cii/           *cn      m          Aali     tuwoo.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF eat-VN/                eat-DN-of IX          Ali      staple food
    'Abdu ate Ali's staple food.'
Example #1034:

    (38)    a. Indoo taa            kaam kiifii                   jiy.
    Indo     3fs.PERF catch-I fish                      yesterday
    'Indo caught some fish yesterday.'
Example #1035:

    b. kiifii ne        Indoo ta                    kaama                  jiy.
    fish cop.m Indo            3fs.REL PERF catch-I-VN                    yesterday
    'It is some fish that Indo caught yesterday.'
Example #1036:

    c. Indoo taa              kaama                 shi         jiy.
    Indo     3fs.PERF catch-I-VN                  3ms         yesterday
    'Indo caught it yesterday.'
Example #1037:

    taa           kaame               shi.
    3fs.PERF      catch-IV-VN          3ms
    'She caught some fish/ it is fish that she caught/ she caught it.'
Example #1038:

    taa           kaamoo               shi.
    3fs.PERF      catch-VI-VN          3ms
    came/ she caught it and came.'
Example #1039:

    (40)    a. yaa            jefi         kree.
    3ms.PERF throw-II            dog
    'He threw at the dog.'
Example #1040:

    b. kree ya                      jefaa.
    dog       3ms.REL PERF throw-II-VN
    'It is a dog that he threw at.'
Example #1041:

    c. yaa             jefee           sh.
    3ms.PERF throw-II-VN             3ms
    'He threw at it.'
Example #1042:

    d. yaa             jefs                  shi.
    3ms.PERF throw-II-VN -of                3ms
    'He threw at it.'
Example #1043:

    (41)    a. taa           ga      takrdaa.
    3fs.PERF see          letter
    'She saw the letter.'
Example #1044:

    b. taa           ga       t.
    3fs.PERF see           3fs
    'She saw it.'
Example #1045:

    c. taa           gan        t.
    3fs.PERF see             3fs
    'She saw it.'
Example #1046:

    d. taa           ganee            t.
    3fs.PERF see-II-VN             3fs
    'She saw it.'
Example #1047:

    e. takrdaa         ce      ta               ganii.
    letter           cop.f 3fs.REL PERF        see-DN
    'It is a letter that she saw.'
Example #1048:

    (42)    a. taa         san         Abd.
    3fs.PERF know           Abdu
    'She knows Abdu.'
Example #1049:

    b. taa        san           sh.
    3fs.PERF know            3ms
    'She knows him.'
Example #1050:

    c. can               ta                 snee          sh.
    there.invisible   3fs.PERF           know-II-VN     3ms
    'She met him there.'
Example #1051:

    d. Abdn       d     ta                      sani...
    Abdu-DEF that 3fs.REL PERF                 know-DN
    'The one Abdu she knows...'
Example #1052:

    (52)    a. Indoo taa                 fta/           *fitaa/                  *ftaa.
    Indo     3fs.PERF         go.out-III/     go.out-III-VN/           go.out-III-DN
    'Indo went out.'
Example #1053:

    b. Abd yaa              bgu/                 *bugaa/           *bguwaa.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF hit-VII                       hit-VII-VN/       hit-VII-DN
    'Abdu is good-drunk./ Abdu is hit.'
Example #1054:

    (53)    a. kuDii suna g                 Indoo.
    money 3p-be with               Indo
    'The money is with Indo.'
Example #1055:

    b. kuDii     suna gree            t.
    money     3p-be with             3fs
    'The money is with her.
Example #1056:

    (54)    a. yara       sun          maidoo      rigaa ta         Indoo.
    children 3p.PERF         return-VI gown of             Indo
    'The children returned Indo's gown.'
Example #1057:

    b. yara        sun          maidoo         rigaa     taa-t.
    children     3p.PERF      return-VI      gown       of-3fs
    'The children returned her gown.'
Example #1058:

    (55)    a. yara        sun         maidoo           kekee     na        Abd.
    children     3p.PERF     return-VI        bike       of        Abdu
    'The children returned Abdu's bike.'
Example #1059:

    b. yara        sun           maidoo         kekee    naa-sh.
    children     3p.PERF       return-VI      bike      of-3ms
    'The children returned his bike.'
Example #1060:

    (60)    a. shugbaa-naa
    leader-1s
    'my boss' (cf. shugba(a) 'leader')
Example #1061:

    b. kwatii-naa
    box-1s
    'my box' (cf. kwati 'box')
Example #1062:

    (62)    a. suna          kaam/ *kaama(waa)              kiifii.
    3p.CONT        catch-I/ catch-I-VN              fish
    'They are catching fish.'
Example #1063:

    b. kaam kiifii/ *kaama(waa) kiifii na        d   ban        shaawa.
    catch-I fish/ catch-I-VN           fish CONT with give-DN-of pleasure
    'Fishing is a pleasurable activity.'
Example #1064:

    (63)         taa         faar      kaama           su/      *kaam(awaa)    su.
    3fs.PERF begin-I       catch-I-VN       3p/      catch-I-VN      3p
    'She began catching them.'
Example #1065:

    (64)        kiifii     ne      take          kaamawaa.
    fish       cop      3fs.CONT catch-I-VN
    'It is fish that she is catching.'
Example #1066:

    (65)    a. kree ne               yake         jeefaa.
    dog        cop.p        3ms-CONT throw.at-II-VN
    'It is a dog that he is throwing at.'
Example #1067:

    b. yana          jeefar                    kree/     *jefi          kree.
    3ms-CONT throw.at-II-VN-of               dog/       throw.at-II     dog
    'He is throwing at the dog.'
Example #1068:

    *jefs        shi
    throw-II-VN-of 3ms
    'He is throwing at it.'
Example #1069:

    (67)     a. yara        ne     yake                karantar dawaa/ da/ ?d
    children cop.p 3ms-REL CONT teach-III-VN-of V-VN/ V-VN/ V
    'It is the children that he is teaching.'
Example #1070:

    b. yana          karantar    d yara/                *da(waa)      yara.
    3ms-CONT teach-III-VN-of V children/                V-VN           children
    'He is teaching children.'
Example #1071:

    (107)   a. kaamawar         Abd/ kaam        kiifin        Abdu
    catch-I-VN-of     Abdu/ catch-I fish-of            Abdu
    'Abdu's catching (something)/ Abdu's catching a fish.'
Example #1072:

    b. zamnawar       Abd
    sit-I-VN-of Abdu
    'Abdu's sitting down'
Example #1073:

    (112)   a. jeefa          m Abd
    throw-I-VN IX          Abdu
    'throwing (s.th.) to Abdu'
Example #1074:

    b. jeefam              m           Abd   kree.
    throw-II-VN-of      IX           Abdu   dog
    'throwing at Abdu's dog'
Example #1075:

    (113)   a. jeef      KunKuu
    throw-I stone
    'throw a stone'
Example #1076:

    b. jeefar                   tsuntsuu
    throw-II-VN-of           bird
    'throw at a bird'
Example #1077:

    c. jiifr           KunKuu / tsuntsuu/ Abd/          jiya
    throw-DN-of stone/           bird/       Abdu/     yesterday
    'stone throw/ throwing at birds/ Abdu's throw/ yesterday's throw'
Example #1078:

    (114)   a. jeef        KunKuu       jiya
    throw-I      stone        yesterday
    'throwing a stone yesterday'
Example #1079:

    b. jeef      KunKun jiya
    throw-I    stone-of      yesterday
    'throwing yesterday's stone'
Example #1080:

    (115)   a. jeefar             kree      jiya
    throw-II-VN-of dog            yesterday
    'throwing at the dog yesterday'
Example #1081:

    b. jeefar              kren       jiya
    throw-II-VN-of dog-of           yesterday
    'throwing at yesterday's dog'
Example #1082:

    (116)   a. ?jiifr        KunKuu        jiya
    throw-DN       stone         yesterday
    'the throw of a stone yesterday'
Example #1083:

    b. jiifr          KunKun       jiya
    throw-DN        stone-of     yesterday
    'the throw of yesterday's stone'
Example #1084:

    (117)   a. jeefawar         Abd
    throw-I-VN-of Abdu
    'Abdu's throwing (s.th.)'
Example #1085:

    b. jeefar             Abd
    throw-II-VN-of     Abdu
    'throwing at Abdu'
Example #1086:

    (118)   a. kasam              macijin Abd
    beat-II-VN-of      snake-of Abdu
    ??: 'Abdu's beating on the snake.'
Example #1087:

    (122)   a. kaamn         Abd
    catch-DN-of Abdu
    'Abdu's catching (of s.o.)' or '(s.o.'s) catching of Abdu'
Example #1088:

    b. bugn         Abd
    hit-DN-of Abdu
    'Abdu's hitting (of s.o.)' or '(s.o.'s) hitting of Abdu'
Example #1089:

    (123)       jirn           gawon shaanuu
    wait-DN-of fruit-of         cows
    'unrealistic expectations' lit: 'cows' waiting of the fruit'
Example #1090:

    (124)   a. kratun       littaafn  Abd
    read-DN-of book-of Abdu
    'Abdu's reading of the book'
Example #1091:

    b. kashn         macijin    Abd
    kill-DN-of snake-of Abdu
    'Abdu's killing of the snake'
Example #1092:

    (126)   a. halbn          breewar       Abd (or halbn breewaa na Abd)
    shoot-DN-of gazelle-of Abdu
    'Abdu's shooting of a gazelle'
Example #1093:

    b. yankan         naamn Abd
    cut-DN-of      meat-of Abdu
    'Abdu's cutting of the meat'
Example #1094:

    c. bugn       hatsin     Abd
    hit-Dn-of millet-of Abdu
    'Abdu's winnowing of the millet'
Example #1095:

    d. horan          Diyaa        na       Abd
    train-DN-of children         of       Abdu
    'Abdu's training of his children'
Example #1096:

    e. ban           kaashin                Abd
    give-DN-of punishment-of             Abdu
    'Abdu's giving of punishment '
Example #1097:

    f. tuuKn        mootr Abd            (or tuuKn moota na Abd)
    stir-DN-of car-of         Abdu
    'Abdu's driving of the car'
Example #1098:

    g. kallon        watn        Abd
    look-DN-of moon-of         Abdu
    'Abdu' watching of the moon'
Example #1099:

    h. rufn          Daakn     Abd
    cover-DN-of room-of Abdu
    'Abdu's roofing of the room'
Example #1100:

    i. rbutun           wsiiKr Abd (or rbutun wsiiKa na Abd)
    write-DN-of        letter-of     Abdu
    'Abdu's writing   of a letter'
Example #1101:

    (127)   a. jiifr              KunKun                 Abd.
    throw-DN.f-of.f stone.m-of.m               Abdu
    'the throwing of Abdu's stone'
Example #1102:

    b. jiifr                KunKuu ta              Abd.
    throw-DN.f-of.f       stone.m     of.f       Abdu
    'Abdu's throwing of   the stone'
Example #1103:

    c. jiifr                KunKuu        na        Abd.
    throw-DN.f-of.f       stone.m       of.m      Abdu
    'the throwing of Abdu's stone'
Example #1104:

    d. taayr        keken           Abd
    tire.f-of.f bike.m-of.m        Abdu
    'tire of Abdu's bike'
Example #1105:

    e. taayr        kekee ta         Abd
    tire.f-of.f bike.m of.f Abdu
    'bike-tire of Abdu' (this reading only)
Example #1106:

    f. taayr       kekee na            Abd
    tire.f-of.f bike.m of.m           Abdu
    'tire of Abdu's bike' (this reading only)
Example #1107:

    (143)        taa         syi       jar        moota.
    3fs.PERF buy-II red-of            car
    'She bought a red car.'
Example #1108:

    (144)    a. Indoo taa              ma yaaro          jan    kaamu.
    Indo     3fs.PERF MA child                 red-of catch-DN
    'Indo gave the boy a firm grasp.'
Example #1109:

    b. *yaarn      d       Indoo ke                        jar    kaamawaa.
    Child-DEF that Indo            REL CONT                red-of catch-I-VN
    *'The boy Indo is firm grasping.'
Example #1110:

    (145)    a. taa            ma kree jan                 halbi.
    3ms.PERF IX           dog      red-of        kick
    'She gave the dog a violent kick.'
Example #1111:

    b. *tana         jar      halbar               kree.
    3ms-CONT red-of kick-II-VN-of                dog
    *'She is violent kicking the dog.'
Example #1112:

    (146)   a. lbasa Danyaa/       Danyar           lbasa
    onion      fresh-f/   fresh-f-of       onion
    'fresh onion (uncooked)'
Example #1113:

    b. kaamu       muugu/      muugn kaamu
    catch-DN bad-m /          bad-m-of catch-DN
    'an unsafe handling (of baby)'
Example #1114:

    (i)     a. Abd yaa                  tfi.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF             go
    'Abdu left.'
Example #1115:

    b. Abd yaa                  tfiyrshi.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF             go-VN-of-3ms
    'Abdu left.'
Example #1116:

    c. Abd yaa                  tfiya    ti.
    Abdu 3ms.PERF             go-VN      3fs-3ms
    'Abdu left.'
Example #1117:

    (ii)    a. Abd yai                           tfiyrsh.
    Abdu 3ms.REL PERF-do               go-VN-of-3ms
    'Then Abdu left.'
Example #1118:

    tfiya    taas.
    go-VN      3fs-3ms
    'Then the man put down (s.th.) and went his way.'
Example #1119:

    (iii)   a. Aali yaa               (*yi) ruugawarsh
    Ali      3ms.PERF      (do)    run-I-VN-of-3ms
    'Ali set off running.'
Example #1120:

    b. Aali yaa/            *yai                  koomawarsh
    Ali 3ms.PERF/ 3ms.PERF-do                  return-I-VN-of-3ms
    'Ali returned.'
Example #1121:

    c. Indoo taa               (*yi)    zamnawart.
    Indo     3fs.PERF       do       sit-I-VN-of-3fs
    'Indo sat.'
Example #1122:

    (i)      a. shina         lugulgdaawl           lemuu.
    3ms-CONT squash-I-VN-of                lemon
    'He is squashing the lemon.'
Example #1123:

    b. shina          kaawowal            littaafi
    3ms-CONT bring-I-VN-of               book
    'He is bringing the book.'