ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Bruening, Benjamin (2001). Raising to Object.

URL: http://www.ling.udel.edu/bruening/Courses/2001-2/831/5thChptrF.pdf

(Last accessed 2005-03-29).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 814&langcode=jpn (2018-10-18).

 

Example #1:

    a.      Taroo-ga sono-seejika-no        kao-ga    hiroi to   omotta.
    T.-Nom that-politician-Gen face-Nom wide Comp thought
    `Taroo thought that that politician was well-known.'
Example #2:

    a.    * Otagai-no         sensei-ga     karera-o bakada to   omotteiru.
    each.other-Gen teacher-Nom them-Acc fool Comp think.Prog
    `Each other ½ 's teachers think of them ½ as fools.'
Example #3:

    (107) a.       * Otagai-no         sensei-ga     Taro-to Hanako-o baka da to      omotteiru.
    each.other-Gen teacher-Nom T.-and H.-Acc            fool be Comp think.Prog
    `Each other ½ 's teachers think of Taroo and Hanako ½ as fools.'
Example #4:

    b.     Taro-to Hanako-o otagai-no            sensei-ga       baka da to   omotteiru.
    T.-and H.-Acc each.other-Gen teacher-Nom fool be Comp think.Prog
    `Taroo and Hanako ½ , each other ½ 's teachers think of as fools.'
Example #5:

    a.     Daremo-o     dareka-ga      baka da to        omotte ita.
    everyone-Acc someone-Nom fool be Comp thinking was
    `Everyone, someone thought was a fool.' (ambiguous)
Example #6:

    (112) ?* Baka-da-to      Hanako-o Taroo-ga t omotteiru.
    fool-is-Comp H.-Acc T.-Nom think.Prog
    `As a fool, Hanako, Taroo thinks of.' SI,SM,TT
Example #7:

    a. ?? Sono-seejika-no kao-o          Taroo-ga hiroi to     omotta.
    that-politician-Gen face-Acc T.-Nom wide Comp thought
    `Taroo thought that that politician was well-known.'
Example #8:

    c. ?? John-no ketsu-o Taroo-ga aoi to            omotta (koto).
    J.-Gen hip-Acc T.-Nom blue Comp thought (fact)
    `Taroo thinks that John is inexperienced.'
Example #9:

    a.       Yamada-ga kono kurasu-de-wa zenin-o baka-zya-nai-to    omotta.
    Y.-Nom      this class-in-Top all-Acc fool-be-Neg-Comp thought
    `Yamada thought that in the class all were not fools.'
Example #10:

    b.       Daremo-ga       natu-ga/??wa           biiru-o ichiban umai-to           omotte iru.
    everyone-Nom summer-Nom/Top beer-Acc best               tasty-Comp thinks is
    `Everyone thinks that it's during the summer that beer tastes the best.'
Example #11:

    c. ?? Daremo-ga      biiru-o natu-ga           ichiban umai-to         omotte iru.
    everyone-Nom beer-Acc summer-Nom best             tasty-Comp thinks is
    `Everyone thinks that it's during the summer that beer tastes the best.'
Example #12:

    (118)         Biiru-ga natu-ga/wa           ichiban umai.
    beer-Nom summer-Nom/Top best           tasty
    `It's during the summer that beer tastes the best.'
Example #13:

    (i)    Biiru-o daremo-ga         natu-ga        ichiban umai-to        omotte iru.
    beer-Acc everyone-Nom summer-Nom best            tasty-Comp thinks is
    `Everyone thinks that it's during the summer that beer tastes the best.'
Example #14:

    b.       John-ga Bill-ni nani-o    meizi-ta-no?
    J.-Nom B.-Dat what-Acc ordered-Q
    `What did John order Bill to do?'
Example #15:

    a.       Taroo-ga nani-o    kangaete iru no?
    T.-Nom what-Acc think       Prog Q
    `What does Taroo think?'
Example #16:

    b.   * Taroo-ga Tanaka-o nani-o    kangaete iru no?
    T.-Nom T.-Acc what-Acc think         Prog Q
    `What does Taroo think of Tanaka?'
Example #17:

    c.   * Taroo-ga Tanaka-o doo kangaete iru no?
    T.-Nom T.-Acc how think         Prog Q
    `What does Taroo think of Tanaka?'
Example #18:

    a.        Taroo-ga kangaete iru-no-wa              Tanaka-ga baka da to da.
    T.-Nom think       Prog-Q-Nominal T.-Nom fool is Comp is
    `What Taroo thinks is that Tanaka is a fool.'
Example #19:

    c.   * Tanaka-o Taroo-ga kangaete iru-no-wa                            baka da to   da.
    T.-Acc T.-Nom think         Prog-Q-Nominal                      fool is Comp is
    `What Taroo thinks of Tanaka is that is a fool.'
Example #20:

    a. ?? Taroo to Hanako-o otagai-no           sensei-ga   kangaete iru no-wa                  baka da to   da.
    T.    and H.-Acc each.other-Gen teacher-Nom think           Prog Q-Nominal            fool is Comp is
    `What each other's teachers think of Taroo and Hanako is that are fools.'
Example #21:

    b. ?? Otagai-no      sensei-ga      kangaete iru no-wa           Taroo to Hanako-ga baka da to  da.
    each.other-Gen teacher-Nom think         Prog Q-Nominal T.        and H.-Nom fool is Comp is
    `What each other's teachers think is that Taroo and Hanako are fools.'
Example #22:

    b.      Taroo-to Hanako-o otagai-no             sensei-ga      karera-ga bakada to omotteiru.
    T.-and H.-Acc each.other-Gen teacher-Nom they-Nom fool Comp think.Prog
    `Taroo and Hanako ½ , each other ½ 's teachers think of them as fools.'
Example #23:

    a.      Dare-to dare-o otagai-no            sensei-ga        baka da to omotte-iru-no?
    who-and who-Acc each.other-Gen teacher-Nom fool is C thinking-is-Q
    `Who all½ do each other ½ 's teachers think of as fools?'
Example #24:

    b.      Dare-o soitu-no okaasan-ga      baka da to omotte-iru-no?
    who-Acc he-Gen mother-Nom fool is C thinking-is-Q
    `Who½ does his½ mother think of as a fool?'
Example #25:

    a.       Dare-o soitu-no okaasan-ga      soitu-ga baka da to omotte-iru-no?
    who-Acc he-Gen mother-Nom he-Nom fool is C thinking-is-Q
    `Who½ does his½ mother think of as a fool?'
Example #26:

    b.     * Dare-o Taroo-ga soitu-ga baka da to omotte-iru-no?
    who-Acc T.-Nom he-Nom fool is C thinking-is-Q
    `Who½ does Taroo think of as a fool?'
Example #27:

    (130) a.         Tokyo-wa sumi-nikui.
    Tokyo-Top live-hard
    `Tokyo is hard to live in.'
Example #28:

    b.       John-wa Tokyo-o sumi-nikui-to omotta.
    J.-Top Tokyo-Acc live-hard-Comp thought
    `John thought that Tokyo is hard to live in.' (Marantz 1983, ex.31b)
Example #29:

    (131)          Sumi-nikui-to     John-wa Tokyo-o t omotta.
    live-hard-Comp J.-Top Tokyo-Acc thought
    `John thought that Tokyo is hard to live in.' SM,HY
Example #30:

    a.     Dare-ga dare-o       baka-da-to omotteiru-no?
    who-Nom who-Acc fool-Cop-Comp think-Q
    `Who thinks who is a fool?'
Example #31:

    b.     Dare-o½ dare-ga t½ baka-da-to         omotteiru-no?
    who-Acc who-Nom         fool-Cop-Comp think-Q
    `Who, who thinks is a fool?'
Example #32:

    b.     Dare-o½ naze dare-ga t½ baka-da-to       omotteiru-no?
    who-Acc why who-Nom       fool-Cop-Comp thinking-Q
    `Whom, why does who think of as a fool?'
Example #33:

    b. ?? Baka-da-to       dare-o½ dare-ga omotteiru-no?
    fool-Cop-Comp who-Acc who-Nom think-Q
    `Who thinks who is a fool?'
Example #34:

    b. ?? Baka-da-to      dare-o½ naze dare-ga omotteiru-no?
    fool-Cop-Comp who-Acc why who-Nom thinking-Q
    `Why does who think of whom as a fool?'
Example #35:

    a.       Yamada½-wa zibun½ / ?kare½ -ga tensai de aru koto o sitte ita.
    Y.-Top      self/ ?he-Nom genius is          that knew
    `Yamada knew that self/?he was a genius.'
Example #36:

    c.       Yamada½-wa zibun½ / *kare½-o tensai da to omotte ita.
    Y.-Top       self/ *he-Acc genius is that thinking was
    `Yamada thought that self/*he was a genius.'