ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

ARKA, I WAYAN AND JELADU KOSMAS (2002). Passive without passive morphology? Evidence from Manggarai.

URL: http://rspas.anu.edu.au/linguistics/iwa/Arka-Kosmas-final.pdf

(Last accessed 2005-03-29).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 868&langcode=mqy (2021-10-23).

 

Example #1:

    (1)a.         Aku     cero latung=k
    1s      fry     corn-1s
    `I fry/am frying corn'
Example #2:

    b.         Latung hitu cero l=aku=i
    corn that      fry      by-1s=3s
    `The corn is (being) fried by me'
Example #3:

    (2)a.         Hi     enu cebong sili          tiwu lewe
    ART girl       bath     in      pool long
    `The girl took a bath in the long pool'
Example #4:

    c.         Ise    lonto musi mai         ami=s
    3p     sit    behind from 1pi=3p
    `They sat/were sitting behind us'
Example #5:

    (4)          Iti     wa    tanah ghitu=i.         Ghau peke waeng neteng loho=i
    that    down soil      that=3s       2s    must water every day=3s
    `He is down there inside the ground. You must water him every day'
Example #6:

    c.*        Ongga aku
    hit   1s-3s
    `(S)he hit me'
Example #7:

    (7)a.         Ghau peke waeng=i...                            (Rego)
    2s    must water=3s
    `You must water him ...'
Example #8:

    b.         Aku     kawe=i         ata    ghitu
    1s      look.for=3s person that
    `I'm looking for that person'
Example #9:

    (8)a.*        Ghia ongga=k                                    (Rego)
    3s      hit=1s
    `(S)he hit me'
Example #10:

    b.         Ghia ongga aku
    3s      hit    1s
    `(S)he hit me'
Example #11:

    (9)a.         Aku     tombo agu hia
    1s      talk    with 3s
    `I talked with him/her'
Example #12:

    c.         Aku     tombo agu           hi  Joni
    1s      talk    with        ART name
    `I talked with Joni'
Example #13:

    b.      Mai de       dokter hitu
    come POSS doctor that
    `The coming/arrival of the doctor'
Example #14:

    (12)        a.      Weli de       ende
    buy POSS mother
    `The buying (of/by) Mother'
Example #15:

    b.      Pika=d         kaba situ
    sell=POSS      buffalo that
    `The selling of the buffalo'
Example #16:

    b.      Weli=n        mbaru hitu
    buy=3s.GEN house that
    `The buying of the house'
Example #17:

    c. *    Lako=n          ata situ
    go=3s.GEN      person that.p
    `The leaving of the persons'
Example #18:

    (14) a.     Akit=n          acu     hitu dilem-dilem=n            Kempo
    bit-3s.GEN      dog that.s deep-deep=3s               (Semiun 1993: 77)
    `the dog's bite is very deep'
Example #19:

    b.   Akit indus=n            acu     hitu dilem-dilem=n
    bit     cat-3s.GEN dog that.s deep-deep=3s
    `the dog's bite on the cat is very deep'
Example #20:

    (15) a.     Aku      cero latung=k
    1s       fry     corn-1s
    `I fry/is frying corn'
Example #21:

    b.     Latung hitu cero l-aku=i
    corn that      fry      by-1s=3s
    `The corn is (being) fried by me'
Example #22:

    (17) a.     Kala           situ    toto=s       l=ise
    betel.nuts     that.p show=3p       by=3p
    `The betel nuts were shown by them'
Example #23:

    b.     Latung hitu cero meseng              l=aku
    corn that     fry     yesterday      by-1s
    `The corn was fried by me yesterday'
Example #24:

    c.     Latung hitu cero l-aku=i              (=(1b/15b))
    corn that      fry      by-1s=3s
    `The corn is (being) fried by me'
Example #25:

    (18) a.       Cero l=aku latung hitu                        V ­ PP(Oblique) ­NP(Subject)
    1s       fry     corn that
    `I fried the corn'
Example #26:

    b. * Cero aku         latung hitu                      V ­ NP(Subject) ­ NP (Object)
    fry      1s      corn that
    `I fried the corn'
Example #27:

    b. * l=ise ongga ata    hitu
    by=3p hit   person that.s
    `They hit the person'
Example #28:

    b.        Ame mo         le      uma [te __ weri                mawo]
    father go      to      garden te       plant          rice
    `Father went to the garden to plant rice'
Example #29:

    c. * Ame mo wa kota [te dokter                 priksa       ___ ]
    father go Loc town te doctor              examine
    `Father goes to town to be examined by (the/a) doctor'
Example #30:

    d.        Ame mo wa kota [te __ priksa le dokter]
    father go Loc town te            examine by doctor
    `Father goes to town to be examined by the doctor'
Example #31:

    d. Aku         ita           tengo acu-e d=ia               (Kempo, Semiun (1993), ex. 252)
    1s          see           hit      dog-? GEN=3s
    (Lit. `I saw his hit   ting (of) the dog')
Example #32:

    a.      Aku     ita    hia    [ __ emi         seng hitu]             (A is controlled)
    1s      see    3s            take      money that.s           (active participial)
    `I saw him taking the money'
Example #33:

    b. * Aku     ita    hia    [polisi deko __ ]                          (P is controlled,
    1s      see    3s     police arrest                               Active participle)
    `I saw him arrested by the police'
Example #34:

    c.      Aku     ita    hia    [__     deko le         polisi]         (P is controlled)
    1s      see    3s             arrest by       police          (passive participial)
    `I saw him arrested by the police'
Example #35:

    (22) a      Ata     molah [se __ ita     aku] ghitu rebao                 ngo     gi      (Rego)
    person girl     REL see      1s      that just.now            go      already
    `The girl [who saw me] has just gone'
Example #36:

    b. * Ata     molah [se       aku     ita   __ ]       ghitu rebao             ngo     gi
    person girl      REL 1s         see              that just.now           go      already
    `The girl [that I saw] has just gone'
Example #37:

    c.      Ata     molah [se       __      ita    l=aku ]        ghitu rebao ngo         gi
    person girl      REL            see    by=1s that just.now        go          already
    `The girl [that I saw or that was seen by me] has just gone'
Example #38:

    d. * Ata     molah [se      aku     ita     le __ ] ghitu rebao               ngo     gi
    person girl      REL 1s        see     by      that just.now             go      already
    `The girl [that saw me] has just gone'
Example #39:

    (23) a.       Joni ca        [ __ tengo acu]                                 (Kempo)
    name REL                hit   dog                              Semiun (1993, ex. 278)
    `John is the one who hit the dog'
Example #40:

    b.       Joni ca        [ __ tengo le18         polisi]                 (Kempo)
    name REL               hit     by/of police                    Semiun (1993, exx. 279, 280)
    `It is John who was hit by the police'
Example #41:

    (24) a.       Hiai mbele weki ru-ni                                 <hiai, selfi>              (active)
    3s     kill    body self-3s.GEN                        Subj. Obj.
    `S/he killed himself/herself'
Example #42:

    b.       Hiai mbele le         ru-ni                           <<hiai><selfi>>            (passive)
    3s     kill    by     self-3s.GEN                      Subj. Obl.
    `S/he was killed by himself/herself'
Example #43:

    (25)        Weki ru-ni               mbele le       hia*i/j          <<selfi><hiaj/*i>> (passive)
    body self-3s.GEN kill by                3s.
    (ii) *`(S)he was killed by himself/herself'
Example #44:

    b.   Hi emai toto kamping              hi ase*j             weki-ni      one kaca
    ART father show to                ART little.sibling   refl-3       at  mirror
    `Father showed himself in the mirror to (the/my) little sibling'
Example #45:

    (27)         Hi    asej             toto weki-nj         li      ema*i one     kaca
    ART little.sibling show refl-3              by      father at     mirror
    `The/my little sibling was shown himself by Father in the mirror'
Example #46:

    (28) a.      Poli=s          emi=d           (l=ise) bao            surak situ
    already=3p      take=POSS by=3p just.now               letter that.p
    (Lit. The letters were already, the taking (of them) just now (by them)'
Example #47:

    c.      Toem        tiba=n        tegi      d=ite          (l=ise)
    not.exist accept-3GEN demand POSS=1p.i             by=3p
    (Lit. The acceptance of our demand (by them) did not exist'