The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:


URL: http://www.uni-hamburg.de/Wiss/FB/10/AfrikaS/Becher2003.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 888&langcode=wol (2019-05-27).


Example #1:

    (5)a dafa tiit-al xale                bi
    S3sg     fear-CS child       DET
    ,she frightened the child`
Example #2:

    (5)b     daf      ma       tiit-loo
    S3sg     O1sg     fear-CS:MID:CIRC
    ,it made me feel afraid`
Example #3:

    (5)c      li     nga      ma       wax      daf      ma       tiit-loo
    what   S2sg     O1sg     say      S3sg     O1sg     fear-CS:MID:CIRC
    `what you told me made me feel afraid'
Example #4:

    (7)a    dafa     ragal                      (7b)     ragal             naa      ko
    S3sg     be.afraid                           be.afraid         S1sg     O3sg
    ,she is afraid`                              ,I fear him/her/it`
Example #5:

    (8)a dafa rus
    S3sg     be.ashamed
    ,she is ashamed`
Example #6:

    (8)b daf    ma     rusloo
    S3sg    O1sg   be.ashamed-CS:MID:VAIN
    ,it made me feel ashamed`
Example #7:

    (8)c jabar-am      moo ko         tek   gcce
    wife-POSS3sg   S3sg   O3sg    put      shame
    ,his wife put shame on him`
Example #8:

    (8)d   gcce boobu mun-u-ma          ko       een-u
    shame DEM      can-NEG-1sg    O3sg     carry.on.head-MID
    ,I can not carry that shame on my head`
Example #9:

    (8)e   du-ma          jl    gcce gi
    IMV:NEG-1sg    take   shame DET
    ,I do not take the shame`
Example #10:

    (9)a   loolu neex        na     ma
    that   please     S3sg   O1sg
    ,it pleases me`
Example #11:

    (14)     dama bgg         jign jii
    S1sg     want     woman DEM
    ,I love this woman`
Example #12:

    (15)     bgg-u-ma         jign jii
    want-NEG-1sg      woman DEM
    ,I do not like this woman`
Example #13:

    (16)a daf    ma    neex
    S3sg    O1sg      please
    ,it pleases me`
Example #14:

    (17)a dama-y             yrm jign ji
    S3sg-IMV          pity     woman DET
    ,I feel pity for the woman`
Example #15:

    (17)b dama la-y                   yg
    S1sg    O2sg-IMV           feel
    ,I feel pity for you`
Example #16:

    (17)d suma yaram daw                  na       ndik              moom
    my       body     run      S3sg     because.of        him/her
    ,I feel pity for him/her`
Example #17:

    (18)    n-kaaan          di      lekk     nile     sa               xol
    NZ-be.jealous     IMV     eat      thus     POSS2sg          heart
    ,jealousy eats thus your heart`
Example #18:

    (19)    tiit-aange        roofu ci         siddit-am
    fear-NZ           push    Pp       vene-POSS3sg
    ,Fear pushed in his/her venes`
Example #19:

    (20)    nob-al            moo     nekk     ci       man
    love-NZ           S3sg    be       Pp       me
    ,love is on/in me`
Example #20:

    (21)    tiit-aange        moo     nekk     ci       man
    fear-NZ           S3sg    be       Pp       me
    ,fear is on/in me`
Example #21:

    di-na          tax      u       am     tiit-aange
    IMV-S3sg       cause    S1sg     have   fear-NZ
    ,it will cause (that) we have fear`
Example #22:

    am      naa    tey      m-bett
    have    S1sg   today    NZ-surprise
    ,I am surprised today`
Example #23:

    am      naa    naqar
    have    S1sg   bitterness
    ,I have bitterness`
Example #24:

    am      naa    ba-neex           ci     li        nga    ma     wax
    have    S1sg   NZ-sweet          Pp     what      S2sg   O1sg   talk
    ,I feel happyness about what you told me`
Example #25:

    am      na     gcce ci          li     doom-am          biir
    have    S3sg   shame Pp          what   child-POSS3sg stomach
    ,she is ashamed because her/his child is pregnant`
Example #26:

    am       na       yrm-ande         ci       man23
    have     S3sg     pity-NZ           Pp       me
    ,she has pity with me`
Example #27:

    am       na       yg       ci      nit               yi
    have     S3sg     feeling Pp        human.being       DET
    ,she has pity with me`
Example #28:

    (22)    am       naa      lu       ma        naqar-i
    have     S1sg     what     O1sg      bitterness-VZ
    I have something which made me feel bitter`
Example #29:

    (23)   am      naa      lu       ma     gtin suma          xel
    have    S1sg     what     O1sg   bother POSS1sg      mind
    ,I have something which worries my mind`
Example #30:

    (25)   yow     yaa      deseek          gcce gi
    you     S2sg     remain:with     shame DET
    ,you remain with the shame`
Example #31:

    (26)   dau nekk-ali             ci     jaaxle googu
    S3pl    be-DUR            Pp     worry   DEM
    ,they are in that worry`
Example #32:

    mungi-y           ne       ogg ci          biir              neeg-am
    S3sg-IMV          say      ogg    Pp       stomach           room-POSS3sg
    ,she is afraid in his/her room`
Example #33:

    suma              fit      ne      xyy
    POSS1sg           spirit   say     xyy
    ,I am afraid` (lit.: ,my spirit said xyy`)
Example #34:

    dafa     ne       yomm
    S3sg     say      yomm
    ,she is ashamed`
Example #35:

    mu       ne       cee
    S3sg     say      cee
    she is ashamed`
Example #36:

    (27)   xam      naa    loolu/kooku25
    know     S1sg   that thing/that person
    I know it/him/her
Example #37:

    (28)   mu ngi-y        xalaat Aida
    PROG-IMV        think    Aida
    ,I think of Aida`
Example #38:

    (29)   dau bgg       seen     xaalis
    S3pl     want   O3pl     money
    ,they want their money`
Example #39:

    (30)   dama gis        guy      gii
    S1sg     see    baobab DET
    ,I saw the baobab-tree`
Example #40:

    (31)   fattaleeku              naa     benn    jamano
    forget:REV:MID          S1sg    one     time
    ,I remember a time ...`
Example #41:

    (32)a xmme             naa    ko
    recognize        S1sg   O3sg
    ,I recognized him/her`
Example #42:

    (32)b rae             naa    ko      ci      xale    yi
    distinguish      S1sg   O3sg    Pp      child   DET
    ,I recognized him/her amongst the children`
Example #43:

    (32)c nemmeeku          naa    fa
    recognize        S1sg   there
    ,I recognized [the place] there`
Example #44:

    (33)a mu       nettali ni      mu      yg-e           biir-u               doom ji
    S3sg    explain how     S3sg    feel-CIRC       stomach-GEN          child     DET
    ,she explained how she realized the pregnancy of the child`
Example #45:

    (33)b Maram             seet-l-u       ne      mu ngi mat-si         jnq
    Maram            regard-CS-MID that     S3sg    reach-VEN     womanhood
    Maram realized that she came to reach womanhood`
Example #46:

    (33)c ma       gis      ne     dama-y          am      problem
    S1sg    see      that   S1sg-IMV        have    problem
    ,I realized that I will have a problem`
Example #47:

    (33)d soo                   dem-ee           dinga           xam     ne
    if:S2sg             go-PV            FUT:2sg         know    that
    ,if you go you will realize that ....`
Example #48:

    (34)b maa ngi               soog-a           xam      li     ngeen bgg
    S1sg                begin-PART       know     what   S2pl    want
    ,I begin to understand what you want`
Example #49:

    (34)c gis            nga    su-             w-ee          sa      kr27
    see          S2sg   if-S1pl          come-PV         your    compound
    you understand, if we come to your compound ...`
Example #50:

    (34)d jpp           nga    boobu
    catch        S2sg   that
    ,did you understand that`
Example #51:

    (34)e jl-i                 nga       ma
    take-ITIV           S2sg      O1sg
    ,did you understand me`
Example #52:

    (35)a foog           naa    ne        danga caaxaan
    assume S1sg         that      S2sg   make.fun
    ,I assumed that you were just joking`
Example #53:

    (35)b dafa           yaakaar          ne     un      ay     American         lau
    S3sg         assume/hope      that   we       DET    American         S3pl
    ,she assumed that we are Americans`
Example #54:

    (35)c dafa      teg-oon        ne      dee     nau
    S3sg     put-PAST       that    die     S3pl
    ,she assumed that they had died`
Example #55:

    (36)a dgg      naa    ko
    hear     S1sg   O3sg
    ,I heard it`
Example #56:

    (36)b dg-l-u          naa     radio bi
    hear-VINC-MID S1sg      radio   DET
    ,I listened to the radio`
Example #57:

    (36)c yg-u-leen       ne      prsident       da-y          ganale
    feel-NEG-2pl    that    president       S3sg-IMV      invite
    ,didn't you hear that the president iinvites [for dinner]`
Example #58:

    (36)d gj              naa     ko      jpp
    long.time.not   S1sg    O3sg    catch
    ,I didn't hear from him/her for a long time`
Example #59:

    (37)a gum naa la
    believe S1sg O2sg
    `I believe you'
Example #60:

    (37)b gum naa ne            yaa     ko def
    believe S1sg that S2sg O3sg to.do
    `I think/assume that you did it'
Example #61:

    (38)a dama ko         yaakaar
    S1sg O3sg trust
    `I trust him/her'
Example #62:

    (38)b yaakaar-u-ma          ne      dina                 nangu
    trust-NEG-1sg         that FUT:3sg                 agree
    `I don't think/assume that she will agree'
Example #63:

    (39)   lu        ma     ko       doy-e
    what      O1sg   O3sg     be.enough-CIRC
    ,what do I need it for`
Example #64:

    (40)   woor            na     ma     ne     nob na        ko
    be.sure          S3sg     o1sg    that     love   S3sg    O3sg
    lit.: ,it is certain [to] me that she loves him/her`
Example #65:

    (41)a cere              ji       xee    na       ma
    couscous         DET      smell   S3sg     O1sg
    lit.: ,the couscous smells [to] me`
Example #66:

    (41)b xaj        baa ngi-y         xee-t-u         rab-u             all      yi
    dog      PROG:3sg-IMV smell-INT-MID animal-GEN                bush     DET
    ,the dog scents the wild animals`
Example #67:

    (45)   dugg na         sama xel
    enter   S3sg    my        mind
    lit.: ,it entered my mind`
Example #68:

    (46)   gnn    na      sama xel
    leave   S3sg    my        mind
    lit.: ,it left my mind`
Example #69:

    (47)   w     na      sama bt
    come    S3sg    my        eye
    lit.: ,it came [to] my eye`
Example #70:

    (48)   wax     jooju tabbindoo            ci    nopp-u       baay     bi
    speech DET      fall               Pp    ear-GEN      father   DET
    lit.:` that speech fell into the ear of the father`
Example #71:

    (49)   moo-y           sama xalaat
    S3sg-IMV        my        though
    lit.: ,this is my thought`
Example #72:

    (50)   nen     a        nekk            ci    sama              xel
    egg     FOC      be.located      Pp    POSS1sg           mind
    `I think of eggs'
Example #73:

    (51)a mu       jublu dmb
    S3sg    turn     yesterday
    ,she remembered the past`
Example #74:

    (51)b mu       janook           yar           bi     mu .....
    S3sg    face:with        education     REL    S3sg
    ,she remembered the education which she ....`
Example #75:

    (52)   dama ko          bayyi gnnaaw
    S1sg    O3sg     leave   back
    ,I forgot it`
Example #76:

    (53)a xalaat yi         Maram           di    def
    thought REL      Maram           IMV   do
    ,what Maram thinks ...`
Example #77:

    (54)   fas      naa     yn tukki
    knot     S1sg    wish      travel
    ,I wanted to travel`
Example #78:

    (55)   dama teg         bt       njaaxum            ba        fa      am
    S1sg     put     eye       disaster           REL       there   have
    ,I looked at the disaster which happened there`
Example #79:

    (56)   am       naa     yaakaar              ci      moom
    have     S1sg    trust/hope           Pp      him/her
    ,I trust her/him`
Example #80:

    (57)   am       naa     ci        xel        torop
    have     S1sg    Pp        mind       very
    ,I think a lot about it`
Example #81:

    (58)   am       naa     soxla ci             yow
    have     S1sg    need      Pp         you
    ,I need you`
Example #82:

    (59)   am-u-u          benn      bgg-bgg
    have-NEG-3pl     one       wish
    ,they have no wish`
Example #83:

    (61)    mu      ne       yunn    ci      neeg      bi
    S3sg    say      yunn    Pp      room      DET
    ,she looked into the room`
Example #84:

    (62)a dama liw
    S1sg     feel.cold
    ,I feel cold`
Example #85:

    (62)b dama sedd
    S1sg     be.cold
    ,I am cold`
Example #86:

    (64)    dama xiif
    S1sg     be.hungry
    ,I am hungry`
Example #87:

    (65)    dama feebaar
    S1sg     be.sick
    ,I am sick`
Example #88:

    (66)   daf    ma        dee    xiif-loo
    S3sg   O1sg      HAB    be.hungry-CS:MID:CIRC
    ,it makes me feel hungry`
Example #89:

    (67)   daf    ma        dee    liw-loo
    S3sg   O.1sg     HAB    feel.cold-CS:MID:CIRC
    ,it makes me feel cold`
Example #90:

    (69)   daf    ma        dee    feebaar-loo
    S3sg   O1sg      HAB    be.sick-CS:MID:CIRC
    ,it makes me feel sick`
Example #91:

    (70)a dafa    mb
    S3sg   bundle.up
    ,she is pregnant`
Example #92:

    (70)b dafa    biir
    S3sg   stomach
    ,she is pregnant`
Example #93:

    (70)c daf     ko        biir-al
    S3sg   O3sg      stomach-CS
    ,he made her pregnant`
Example #94:

    (71)a sama biir                   daf      ma-y            metti
    my     stomach             S3sg     O1sg-IMV        pain
    ,my stomach pains me`
Example #95:

    (71)b sama biir                   dafa-y           metti
    my     stomach             S3sg-IMV         pain
    ,my stomach pains`
Example #96:

    (72)   mettit wee                 ko       jpp
    pain   DET-FOC             O3sg     seize
    ,pain seized me`
Example #97:

    (73)   xiif       moo   ma     ty
    hunger S3sg      O1sg   hold
    ,hunger holds me`
Example #98:

    (75)   dinga             yg    mettit
    FUT:2sg           feel   pain
    ,you will feel pain`
Example #99:

    (76)   dama-y            yg    sedd
    S1sg-IMV          feel   coldness
    ,I feel cold`
Example #100:

    (77)   dama-y            yg    xiif
    S1sg-IMV          feel   hunger
    ,I feel hungry`
Example #101:

    (78)   dama am           mettit-u          biir
    S1sg    have      pain-GEN          stomach
    ,I have stomach trouble`
Example #102:

    (79)   dafa nd                 ak         jngoro    sqt
    S3sg accompany           with       illness    coughing
    ,she has a cough`
Example #103:

    EMO:           dafa mer
    S3sg be.angry
    `s/he is angry'
Example #104:

    mer-e nga ma
    be.angry-VZ S2sg O1sg
    `I am angry at you'
Example #105:

    gr gi dafa tng
    man DET S3sg be.hot
    `the man is angry' (lit.: `the man is hot')
Example #106:

    mer moo ma jpp
    anger S3sg O1sg to.seize
    `anger seized me'
Example #107:

    mer moo ma ty
    anger S3sg O1sg to.hold
    `anger held me'
Example #108:

    mer-am dal ne
    anger-POSS3sg to.settle S3sg
    `s/he is no longer angry' (lit.:`his/her anger settled')
Example #109:

    sama xol dafa tng
    POSS1sg heart S3sg be.hot
    `my heart is hot'
Example #110:

    ANGER/          daf ma mer-loo
    S3sg O1sg be.angry-CS:MID:CIRC
    `it made me feel angry'
Example #111:

    EMO:            dafa tiit
    S3sg be.afraid
    `s/he is afraid'
Example #112:

    ragal naa ko
    be.afraid S1sg O3sg
    ,I am afraid of it`
Example #113:

    dina tax u am tiit-aange
    FUT:3sg to.cause S1pl to.have to.fear-NZ
    ,it caused (that) we have fear`
Example #114:

    mungi ne ogg ci biir neeg-am
    PROG3sg to.say ogg Pp stomach room-POSS3sg
    ,s/he is afraid in her/his room`
Example #115:

    tiit-aange moo ma ty
    to.fear-NZ S3sg O1sg to.hold
    ,fear held me`
Example #116:

    tiit-aange moo ma jpp
    to.fear-NZ S3sg O1sg to.seize
    ,fear seized me`
Example #117:

    tiitaange moo nekk ci man
    fear S3sg be.located Pp me
    `fear is on me'
Example #118:

    tiitaange roofu ci siddit-am
    fear to.push Pp vene-POSS3sg
    `fear pushed in his/her venes'
Example #119:

    xol-am bi fudd-u
    heart-POSS3sg DET to.stretch-MID
    ,his/her heart is stretched`
Example #120:

    sama fit dafa ricc
    POSS1sg spirit S3sg to.escape
    `my spirit escaped'
Example #121:

    FEAR/       bu ma tiit-loo
    Causative   IMP2sg O1sg be.afraid-CS:MID:CIRC
    ,don't make me feel afraid`
Example #122:

    bu ma ragal-loo
    IMP2sg O1sg be.afraid-CS:MID:CIRC
    ,don't make me feel afraid`
Example #123:

    dafa tiit-al xale bi
    S3sg be.afraid-CS child DET
    ,it frightened the child`
Example #124:

    EMO:        dama kontaan
    S1sg be.happy
    ,I am happy/satisfied`
Example #125:

    dama bk
    S1sg be.happy
    ,I am happy/satisfied`
Example #126:

    bk naa ci yow
    be.happy S1sg Pp you
    ,I am happy/satisfied with you`
Example #127:

    kontaan naa ci yow
    be.happy S1sg Pp you
    ,I am happy/satisfied with you'
Example #128:

    dama ba-neex-u
    S1sg NZ-be.sweet-MID
    `I am happy'
Example #129:

    dama doy-l-u
    S1sg be.enough-CS-MID
    `I am happy'
Example #130:

    xaj dal di fx
    dog at.once IMV be.fresh
    ,the dog was at once happy/satisfied'
Example #131:

    dama am m-bg-te
    S1sg to.have NZ-be.happy-NZ
    ,I have joy`
Example #132:

    am naa ba-neex
    to.have S1sg NZ-be.sweet
    ,I have joy'
Example #133:

    m-bg-te bi ngeen nd-al
    NZ-be.happy-NZ REL S2pl to.accompany-CIRC
    ,the joy with which you go`
Example #134:

    neex-aay gi ma daan def
    be.sweet.NZ DET S1sg HAB to.do
    ,the joy which I did`
Example #135:

    sama xol dafa kontaan
    POSS1sg heart S3sg be.happy
    ,my heart is happy/satisfied`
Example #136:

    sama xol dafa bk
    POSS1sg heart S3sg be.happy
    ,my heart is happy/satisfied`
Example #137:

    ndax seen xol sedd
    because POSS3pl heart be.cold
    ,because their heart is cold`
Example #138:

    xol-am fx na
    heart-POSS3sg be.fresh S3sg
    ,his/her heart is fresh`
Example #139:

    suma xol bi neex
    POSS1sg heart DET be.sweet
    `my heart is sweet'
Example #140:

    suma xol angi dal
    POSS1sg heart PRS to.settle
    ,my heart is settled`
Example #141:

    tey dang ma kontaan-loo
    today S2sg O1sg be.happy-CS: MID: CIRC
    ,today you made me feel happy`
Example #142:

    mu di leen fx-al seen xol
    S3sg IMV O3pl be.fresh-CS POSS3pl heart
    ,it refreshes their heart`
Example #143:

    EMO:        dafa bgg Rkki
    S3sg to.want Rakki
    `s/he loves Rakki`
Example #144:

    dafa ma nob
    S3sg O1sg to.love
    `s/he loves me`
Example #145:

    dama la sopp
    S1sg O2sg to.love
    ,I love/venerate you
Example #146:

    ma indi-l ko m-bgg-al
    S1sg to.bring-BENE O3sg NZ-to.want-NZ
    ,I brought her/him love`
Example #147:

    dem naa ybb-aale sama m-bgg-al
    to.go S1sg to.take-VE POSS1sg NZ-to.want-NZ
    ,I went away with my love`
Example #148:

    m-bgg-al moo ma jpp
    NZ-to.want-NZ S3sg o1sg to.seize
    ,love seized me`
Example #149:

    nob-al moo nekk ci man
    to.love-NZ S3sg be.located Pp me
    ,love is (located) on me`
Example #150:

    EMO:            loolu neex-oon na ko lool
    that be.sweet-PAST S3sg O3sg very
    ,it pleased him/her a lot`
Example #151:

    yaa ma saf
    S2sg O1sg be.tasty
    ,I like you`
Example #152:

    bu soob-ee Ylla
    if to.please-PV God
    ,if it pleases God`
Example #153:

    dama jaaxl-e
    S1sg to.worry-VRE
    `I worry`
Example #154:

    nit i nekk-ali ci jaaxle googu
    peaple DET to.be-DUR Pp distress DEM
    ,the people are in that (state of) worrying`
Example #155:

    waa ji w ak jaaxle bu metti
    guy DET to.come with distress REL to.pain
    ,the guy came with a thorough distress'
Example #156:

    yq-u-ma sama bopp
    to.destroy-NEG-S1sg POSs1sg head
    `I did not destroy my head`
Example #157:

    jaaxle dugg ko nak
    worry to.enter O3sg INTJ
    worry entered him/her`
Example #158:

    suma xel bi dafa jaxasoo
    POSS1sg mind DET S3sg be.mixed.up
    ,my mind is mixed up`
Example #159:

    suma xel bi dal-ul
    POSS1sg mind DET to.settle-NEG:3sg
    ,my mind is not settled`
Example #160:

    sama xel bi toog-ul
    POSS1sg mind DET to.sit-NEG:3sg
    ,my mind is not at peace`
Example #161:

    sama xel baa ngiy wrante
    POSS1sg mind DET:PROG to.go.to.and.fro
    ,my mind goes to and fro`
Example #162:

    xol-u Bugguma daan jaxasoo
    heart-GEN Bugguma HAB be.mixed.up
    ,Bugguma's heart used to be mixed up`
Example #163:

    bi mu ko dgg-ee fit-am toog-ul
    when s/he heard it, her/his spirit did not sit down`
Example #164:

    yef yi daoo jaxasoo ci xel-am
    ,the things are mixed up in his/her mind`
Example #165:

    moo xall a yq sama xol
    S3sg almost PART to.destroy POSS1sg heart
    ,it almost destroyed my heart`
Example #166:

    d-u ma gtin
    IMV-NEG3sg O1sg to.bother
    ,it doesn't worry me`
Example #167:

    daf ma jaaxal (jaax-al)
    S3sg O1sg to.worry (-?--CS)
    ,it worried me`
Example #168:

    daf ma doon xalaat-loo
    S3sg O1sg IMV:PAST to.think-CS:MID:CIRC
    ,it made me feel worried`
Example #169:

    dafa tilim-al xel-am
    S3sg be.dirty-CS mind-POSS3sg
    ,it made his/her mind dirty`
Example #170:

    EMO:            dama rus
    S1sg be.ashamed
    ,I am ashamed`
Example #171:

    dama torox
    S1sg be.ashamed
    ,I am ashamed`
Example #172:

    dafa am gcce ci li doom-am biir
Example #173:

    gcce boobu mn-u-ma ko yeen-u
    ,I can't bear that shame`
Example #174:

    d-u-ma jl gcce gi
    IMV-NEG-1sg to.take shame DET
    ,I do not take the shame`
Example #175:

    yow yaa deseek gcce gi
    you S2sg to.remain:with shame DET
    ,you remain with the shame`
Example #176:

    dafa dugg-al bopp-am ci gcce
    S3sg to.enter-CS head-POSS3sg Pp shame
    `s/he put her/his head into shame`
Example #177:

    dafa ne yomm, kenn gis-at-u ko
Example #178:

    sama der bi yq-u
    POSS1sg skin DET to.destroy-MID
    `I am ashamed' (lit.: `my skin is destroyed')
Example #179:

    lu mu def ba gcce gi war ko dal
    ,what had he done so that shame came upon him`
Example #180:

    toroxteem jee ko tee gnn
    ,her shame prevented her from going out`
Example #181:

    su ma dem-ee sa gcce la
    if S1sg to.go-PV POSS2sg shame COP:3sg
    ,if I go it is your shame`
Example #182:

    jabar-am moo ko tek gcce
    wife-POSS3sg S3sg O3sg to.put shame
    ,his wife put shame on him`
Example #183:

    daf ma jox gcce
    S3sg O1sg to.give shame
    ,s/he put shame on me`
Example #184:

    danga yq sama der
    S2sg to.destroy POSS1sg skin
    ,you destroyed my skin`
Example #185:

    li ma dgg daf ma rus-loo
    ,what I heard made me feel ashamed`
Example #186:

    daf ko-y torox-al
    S3sg O3sg-IMV be.ashamed-CS
    ,it puts shame on me`
Example #187:

    Grgi torox-al der-am
    Grgi be.ashamed-CS skin-POSS3sg
    ,Grgi put shame on his/her skin`
Example #188:

    daf ma-y gcceel
    S3sg O1sg-IMV shame:CS
    ,it puts shame on me`
Example #189:

    dama triste
    S1sg be.sad (french: triste)
    ,I am sad`
Example #190:

    tey daal sama yaram nangu-l
    today INTJ POSS1sg body to.agree-NEG:3sg
    ,today my body does not agree`
Example #191:

    bgg-u-ma ko
    to.want-NEG-S1sg O3sg
    ,I hate him/her ~ I don't like it`
Example #192:

    dafa ma ba
    S3sg O1sg to.refuse
    `s/he hated me' (lit.: ,s/he refused me`)
Example #193:

    ma jppi ko
    S1sg to.despise O3sg
    ,I hate/dispise her/him`
Example #194:

    m-ba-eel moo ko laal
    NZ-to.refuse-NZ S3sg O3sg to.toouch
    ,hate touched him/her`
Example #195:

    sama xol ba loolu
    POSS1sg heart to.refuse DEM
    ,my heart refuses that`
Example #196:

    yef-am neex-u ma
    matter-POSS3sg be.seet-NEG O1sg
    ,his/her affairs are not sweet to me`
Example #197:

    sa yef saf-u ma
    POSS2sg matter to.taste-NEG O1sg
    ,your affairs are not tasty to me`
Example #198:

    dama ko yrm
    S1sg O3sg to.pity
    ,I pitied him/her`
Example #199:

    dafa am yrmande ci man
    S3sg to.have pity Pp me
    ,s/he has pity with me`
Example #200:

    d-u la yg
    IMV-NEG:3sg O2sg to.feel
    ,s/he has not mercy with you`
Example #201:

    dafa am yg ci nit ii
    S3sg to.have feeling Pp people DET
    ,s/he has mercy with these people`
Example #202:

    dafa am xol
    S3sg to.have heart
    ,s/he is a emotional/mercyful person`
Example #203:

    sama xol daf ko yrm
    POSS1sg heart S3sg O3sg to.pity
    `my heart pitied him/her`
Example #204:

    sama xol dafa yeew pur moom
    POSS1sg heart S3sg be.bound for him/her
    ,my heart is bound for him/her`
Example #205:

    Cherno dafa fiir
    Cherno S3sg be.jealous
    ,Cherno is jealous`
Example #206:

    dafa aaan
    S3sg be.jealous/envious
    `s/he is jealous'
Example #207:

    fiir-aange moo ko jpp
    be.jealous-NZ S3sg O3sg to.seize
    jealousy seized him/her`
Example #208:

    fiir-aange moo ko ty
    be.jealous-NZ S3sg O3sg to.hold
    ,jealousy held him/her`
Example #209:

    nk-aaan di lekk nile sa xol
    NZ-be.jealous IMV to.eat POSS2sg heart
    `jealousy eats thus your heart'
Example #210:

    sama xol dafa fiir
    POSS1sg heart S3sg be.jealous
    ,my heart is jealous`
Example #211:

    daf daan xett xol-u Maram
    S3sg HAB to.pierce heart-GEN Maram
    ,it used to pierce Maram's heart`
Example #212:

    EMO:            dama naqar-i torop
    S1sg bitterness.VZ very
    `Igrieve a lot''
Example #213:

    naqar-l-u naa li la dal
    bitterness-CS-MID S1sg what O2sg to.come.upon
    ,I am very concerned about what happened to you`
Example #214:

    dafa-y metti-t-l-u
    S3sg-IMV to.pain-NZ-CS-MID
    `s/he broods about a painful event'
Example #215:

    dama am naqar
    S1sg to.have bitterness
    ,I have bitterness`
Example #216:

    am naa lu ma naqar-i
    to.have S1sg what S1sg bitterness-VZ
    `there is something which makes me feel bitter'
Example #217:

    dee-am naqar-i na ma
    death-POSS3sg bitterness-VZ S3sg O1sg
    ,his/her death made me feel sad`
Example #218:

    sama xol dafa naqar-i
    POSS1sg heart S3sg bitterness-VZ
    ,my heart grieves`
Example #219:

    sama xol dafa tiis
    POSS1sg heart S3sg be.heavy
    `I grieve' (lit.: `my heart is heavy')
Example #220:

    sama xol dafa yq-u
    POSS1sg heart S3sg to.spoil-MID
    `my heart is spoiled'
Example #221:

    sama xol dafa jeex
    POSS1sg heart S3sg be.finished
    `my heart is finished'
Example #222:

    loolu daf ma metti-t-loo
    that S3sg O1sg to.pain-NZ-CS:MID:CIRC
    `that makes me feel bitter'
Example #223:

    VOL/        kontaan naa ci lool
    be.satisfied S1sg Pp very
    `I am very satisfied with it'
Example #224:

    bk naa
    be.contented S1sg
    `I am contented'
Example #225:

    dama doy-l-u
    S1sg to.suffice-BENE-MID
    `I am satisfied'
Example #226:

    dama bari-l-e
    S1sg be.plenty-CS-CIRC
    `I am satisfied'
Example #227:

    suma xel neex-u-t-oon
    POSS1sg mind be.sweet-NEG-3sg-PAST
    `I am not contented' (lit.: `my mind was not sweet')
Example #228:

    sama xel bi dafa fx
    POSS1sg mind DET S3sg be.fresh
    `I am satisfied' (lit.: `my mind is fresh')
Example #229:

    CONTENTM./      afeer-am daf ma doy-loo
    matter-POSS3sg S3sg O1sg suffice-CS:MID:CIRC
    `his/her affairs made me feel contended'
Example #230:

    EMO:            jabar ji waar-u lool
    wife DET to.surprise-MID very
    `the wife is very surprised'
Example #231:

    ma ne cee
    S1sg to.say cee
    `I was surprised'
Example #232:

    ma ne yabb
    S1sg to.say yabb
    `I was surprised'
Example #233:

    am naa tey m-bett mu ma neex
    `I have a surprise today which pleases me'
Example #234:

    m-bett-eel gee ko jpp
    NZ-to.surprise-NZ DET O3sg to.seize
    `surprise seized him/her'
Example #235:

    daf ma bett
    S3sg O1sg to.surprise
    `it surprised me'
Example #236:

    daf ma waar
    S3sg O1sg to.surprise
    `it surprised me'
Example #237:

    mu ne bilaaye doy na waar
    S3sg to.say bilaaye to.suffice S3sg to.surprise
    `s/he said it is surprising'
Example #238:

    kenn xam-u la
    somebody to.know-NEG O2sg
    `nobody knows you'
Example #239:

    jpp nau ne seen coosaan Sose la
    to.catch S3pl that POSS3pl Mandinka COP:3sg
    `they knew that their origin was Mandinka'
Example #240:

    dafa dugg sama bopp
    S3sg to.enter POSS1sg head
    `I knew it' (lit.: `it entered my head')
Example #241:

    dafa dugg sama xel
    S3sg to.enter POSS1sg mind
    `I knew it' (lit.: `it entered my mind')
Example #242:

    yaangiy dgg lu ma la wax
    UNDER-      PROG:2sg to.hear what S1sg O2sg to.say
    `do you understand what I told you'
Example #243:

    dgg nga Sose
    to.hear S2sg Mandinka
    `do you understand Mandinka'
Example #244:

    maangi soog-a xam li ngeen bgg
    `I begin to understand what you want'
Example #245:

    gis nga un su  w-ee sa kr gis nga
    to.see S2sg
Example #246:

    jpp nga boobu
    to.catch S2sg that
    `did you understand that'
Example #247:

    eske jl-i nga ma
    QUEST to.take-ITIV S2sg O1sg
    `did you understand me'
Example #248:

    dama ftt-ale-eku benn jamano
    REMEMBER-       S1sg to.forget-REV-MID one time
    `I remembered one time'
Example #249:

    xel-mati naa ko
    mind-VZ S1sg O3sg
    `I remembered it'
Example #250:

    dem-oon naa ci dmb
    to.go-PAST S1sg Pp yesterday
    `I remembered yesterday/the past'
Example #251:

    mu jub-l-u dmb
    S3sg be.straight-CS-MID yesterday
    `s/he remebered yesterday/the past'
Example #252:

    moo soxla di dellu gnnaaw
    S3sg need IMV to.return back
    `s/he had to remember the past'
Example #253:

    Grgi janook yar bi mu yar Rkki
    to.educate Rkki
    `Grgi remembered how he educated Rkki'
Example #254:

    dafa dugg sama bopp
    S3sg to.enter POSS1sg head
    `it entered my head'
Example #255:

    dafa dugg sama xel
    S3sg to.enter POSS1sg mind
    `it entered my mind'
Example #256:

    su mu bgg-ee w ci xel-am
    if S3sg to.want-PV to.come Pp mind-POSS3sg
    `if she wanted to come to his memory'
Example #257:

    xel-am dellu ci leeb bi
    mind-POSS3sg to.return Pp story DET
    `his/her mind returned to the story'
Example #258:

    xel-am dellu gnnaaw
    mind-POSS3sg to.return back
    `his/her mind returned to the past'
Example #259:

    xel-am dello ko Walo
    mind-POSS3sg to.return O3sg Walo
    `his/her mind returned him/her to Walo'
Example #260:

    xel-am yepp angi jub-l-u dmb
    `all his/her mind faced was directed towards the past'
Example #261:

    sama xel dal di sore
    POSS1sg mind to.settle IMV be.far
    `my mind was far away (in the past)'
Example #262:

    loolu d-u-ma ko ftte
    that IMV-NEG-1sg o3sg to.forget
    `I will not forget that'
Example #263:

    xam-m-u-u ma
    to.know-VE-NEG-S3pl O1sg
    `they didn't recognize me'
Example #264:

    rae na ko ci xale yi
    `to.recognize S3sg O3sg Pp child DET
    `s/he recognized him/her amongst the children'
Example #265:

    nemmeeku naa ko
    to.recognize:MID S1sg O3sg
    `I recognized it (the place)'
Example #266:

    jpp-u-loo ko bu-m romb-ee
    to catch-NEG-2sg O3sg when-S3sg to.pass.by-PV
    `didn't you recognize her/him when s/he passed by'
Example #267:

    COG:            soo dem-ee dinga xam ne sa yaay am na faayda
    mother to.have S3sg respect/dignity
Example #268:

    ma gis ne dama-y am problem
    S1sg to.see that S1sg-IMV to.have problem
    `I realized that I will have problems'
Example #269:

    mu nettali ni mu yg- biir-u doom ji
    GEN child DET
Example #270:

    Maram mas-ul seet-l-u ne Rakki angiy mat-si jnq EXR
    PROG to.reach-VEN womanhood
Example #271:

    woolu naa la
    BELIEVING/   to.trust:MID S1sg O2sg
    `I trust you'
Example #272:

    danga gum tuuti Ylla
    S2sg to.believe/to.trust little God
    `you trust a little in God'
Example #273:

    dama ko yaakaar
    S1sg O3sg to.believe/to.trust
    `I trust her/him'
Example #274:

    am naa yaakaar ci moom
    to.have S1sg trust Pp him/her
    `I trust her/him'
Example #275:

    k-oolu-te googu mu am-oon ci moom
    NZ-to.trust-NZ DEM REL to.have Pp him/her
    `the trust which s/he had in him/her'
Example #276:

    ci yow laa teg sama yaakaar
    Pp you S1sg to.put POSS1sg trust
    `I trust you'
Example #277:

    u tas sa yaakaar
    S3pl to.scatter POSS2sg trust
    `they destroyed your trust'
Example #278:

    wr na ma ne nob na ko
    be.sure S3sg O1sg that to.love S3sg O3sg
    `I am sure that s/he loves him/her'
Example #279:

    maangiy xal-aat Aida
    PROG:1sg mind-VZ Aida
    `I am thinking of Aida'
Example #280:

    loo xal-aat ci xew boobu
    what:2sg mind-VZ Pp event DEM
    `what do you think about this event'
Example #281:

    wai-l sa xal-aat
    to.reduce-IMP POSS2sg mind-VZ
    `stop thinking'
Example #282:

    ku nekk nga jox-e sa xal-aat
    REL to.be S2sg to.give-VRE POSS2sg mind-VZ
    `everybody shall tell what s/he thinks'
Example #283:

    xal-aat yi Maram di def
    mind-VZ REL Maram IMV to.do
    `what Maram was thinking'
Example #284:

    dinaa ci byyi sama xel
    FUT:1sg Pp to.leave POSS1sg mind
    `I will think of it'
Example #285:

    am naa ci xel torop
    to.have S1sg Pp mind very
    `I think a lot about it'
Example #286:

    moo-y sama xal-aat ci loolu
    S3sg-IMV POSS1sg mind-VZ Pp that
    `this is my thought about it'
Example #287:

    xel-am angi ci kr gi
    mind-POSS3sg COP Pp house Det
    `his/her mind is at the house'
Example #288:

    seen xel ne-wul ci bokk goornemaa Abdu Juuf
    government Abdu Juuf
Example #289:

    xel-u Maram dellu ci doom ji
    mind-GEN Maram to.return Pp child DET
    `Maram thought of her child'
Example #290:

    xel-am jox ko mu dem laaj ko
    `s/he thought about going and asking him/her'
Example #291:

    dama xal-aat-oon ne scc lawoon
    S1sg mind-VZ-PAST that thief COP-PAST
    `I thought it was a thief'
Example #292:

    danga foog ne dama caaxaan
    S2sg to.assume that S1sg to.joke
    `you thought/assumed that I was joking'
Example #293:

    defe-woon naa danga tukki
    to-assume-PAST S1sg S2sg to.travel
    `I thought/assumed (that) you had traveled'
Example #294:

    daf ma teg xale ba tey
    S3sg O1sg to.put child until today
    `s/he thought/assumed (that) I am still a child'
Example #295:

    gum-u-ma ne Binta dina def loolu
    to.believe-NEG-1sg that Binta FUT:3sg to.do that
    `I don't think that Binta will do this'
Example #296:

    yaakaar-u-ma ne dina nangu
    to.hope-NEG-1sg that FUT:3sg to.agree:MID
    `I don't think s/he will agree'
Example #297:

    epp jpp ne Mbaax dafa-y dee
    all to.catch that Mbaax S3sg-IMV to.die
    `all assumed that Mbaax will die'
Example #298:

    sama xel baangiy werante
    POSS1sg mind PROG to.roam.around
    `my mind roams around'
Example #299:

    bgg naa ko
    to.want S1sg O3sg
    `I want it'
Example #300:

    ba naa ko
    to.refuse S1sg O3sg
    `I didn't want it / I refused it'
Example #301:

    dama ko sopp-a am
    S1sg O3sg to.love-PART to.have
    `I want to have it'
Example #302:

    dama bgg-al Bacc mi lu baax
    S1sg to.want-BENE Bacc DET what be.good
    `I wish Bacc all the best'
Example #303:

    maang leen ko aan-al it
    S1sg O2pl O3sg to.ask.for-BENE also
    `I wish it also to you'
Example #304:

    mu yn u jmm
    S3sg wish O1pl peace
    `s/he wished us peace'
Example #305:

    am-u-u benn bgg-bgg
    to.have-NEG-3pl one wish
    `they don't have any wish'
Example #306:

    am naa yn ju opp sax loolu
    to.have S1sg wish REL to.surpass even that
    `I have a desire which is more than that'
Example #307:

    looloo-y sama bgg-bgg
    that-IMV POSS1sg wish
    `that is my wish'
Example #308:

    loolu moo-y sama yn
    that S3sg-IMV POSS1sg desire
    `that is my wish/desire'
Example #309:

    lu-y sa tnk
    what-IMV POSS2sg foot/leg
    `what is your wish/request/concern'
Example #310:

    wante xol bi ba
    but heart DET to.refuse
    `but the heart refused'
Example #311:

    VOL:      dau soxla seen neeg
    S3pl to.need POSS2pl room
    `they need your room'
Example #312:

    am naa soxla ci you
    to.have need Pp you
    `I need you'
Example #313:

    lu ma ko doy-e
    what S1sg O3sg to.suffice-CIRC
    `what do I need it for'
Example #314:

    VOL:            dau ko aaan-e dall-am
    S3pl O3sg to.envy-VIN shoe-POSS3sg
    `they envy him/her his/her shoes'
Example #315:

    ma ee i seen kr sori-wu-l
    `I envy those whose house is not far'
Example #316:

    PERC:           dang ko gis
    S2sg O3sg to.see
    `you saw it'
Example #317:

    xanaa seet-u-loo ko
    QUEST to.look.for-Neg-2sg O3sg
    `didn't you look for it'
Example #318:

    xool naa ko
    to.regard S1sg O3sg
    `I regarded it'
Example #319:

    ma seen Beccek bi
    S1sg to.see.from.afar Beccek DET
    `I saw this Beccek from afar'
Example #320:

    alal ji nga fi xel-mati
    wealth REL S2sg cast.a.glance.at
    `the wealth which you can cast a glance at here'
Example #321:

    bgg-at-u ko gis ak bt
    to.want-REP-NEG:3sg O3sg to.see with eye
    `s/he didn't want to see it with her eyes'
Example #322:

    ci sama biir bt laa ko def-e
    Pp POSS1sg stomach eye S1sg O3sg to.do-CIRC
    lit.: `in my eyes did I do it'
Example #323:

    dafa tek bt njaaxum ba fa am
    S3sg to.put eye misfortune REL there to.have
    lit.:`s/he put eye (on) the misfortune which happened
Example #324:

    mu ne yunn ci neeg bi
    S3sg to.say yunn Pp room DET
    `s/he took a look at the room'
Example #325:

    dgg naa ko
    to.hear S1sg O3sg
    `I heard it'
Example #326:

    dama dg-l-u xabaar bi
    S1sg to.hear-CS-MID news Det
    `I listened to the news'
Example #327:

    Musa gj naa ko jpp nak
    Musa long.time.not S1sg O3sg to.catch INTJ
    `I didn't hear from Musa for quite some time'
Example #328:

    yg-u-leen ne da-y gan-ale
    `to.feel-NEG-2pl that S3sg-IMV guest-VZ
    `didn't you hear that he invites for dinner'
Example #329:

    wax jooju tabbindoo ci nopp-u baay bi
    speech DEM to.fell Pp ear-GEN father DET
    `that speech fall into the father's ear'
Example #330:

    xaj baangiy xee-t-u rab-u all
    dog PROG to.smell-INT-MID animal-GEN bush
    `the dog scents wild animals'
Example #331:

    ma foon litkolo gi
    S1sg to.sniff parfume DET
    `I sniffed the parfume'
Example #332:

    sama biir dafa-y metti
    POSS1sg stomach S3sg-IMV to.pain
    `my stomach pains'
Example #333:

    sama biir daf ma-y metti
    POSS1sg stomach S3sg O1sg-IMV to.pain
    `my stomach pains me'
Example #334:

    dama am metti-t-u biir
    S1sg to.have to.pain-NZ-GEN stomach
    `I have stomach pain'
Example #335:

    di-nga yg metti-t
    FUT-2sg to.feel to.pain-NZ
    `you will feel pain'
Example #336:

    sama bopp bayyi metti rekk
    POSS1sg head to.leave to.pain only
    `my head stopped paining'
Example #337:

    metti-t wee ko jpp
    to.pain-NZ DET:FOC O3sf to.seize
    `pain seized him/her'
Example #338:

    da-y metti sama wet
    S3sg-IMV to.pain POSS1sg side
    `it pains my side'
Example #339:

    PHYS:           dama li-w
    S1sg feel.cold-MID
    `I freeze'
Example #340:

    dama-y yg sedd
    S1sg-IMV to.feel coldness
    `I feel cold'
Example #341:

    COLD/       sedd bi daf ma dee li-u-loo
    `the cold made me freeze'
Example #342:

    PHYS:       dama xiif
    S1sg be.hungry
    `I am hungry'
Example #343:

    xiif moo ma ty
    hunger S3sg O1sg to.hold
    `hunger hold me'
Example #344:

    xiif angi ci dkk bi
    hunger PRS Pp town/country DET
    `hunger is in the town/country'
Example #345:

    HUNGER/     daf ma dee xiif-loo
    Causative   S3sg O1sg HAB be.hungry-CS:MID:CIRC
    `it makes me feel hungry'
Example #346:

    dama aq
    S1sg to.sweat
    `I sweat'
Example #347:

    dama tng
    S1sg be.hot
    `I sweat / feel hot'
Example #348:

    PHYS:       dama feebaar
    S1sg be.sick (french)
    `I am sick'
Example #349:

    dama opp
    S1sg be.sick
    `I am sick'
Example #350:

    dama sibbir-u
    S1sg be.sick-MID
    `I am sick / I have a fever'
Example #351:

    dafa nd ak jangoro sqt
    S1sg to.accompany with sickness cough
    `s/he has a cough'
Example #352:

    mungoog feebaar la def-oon
    there.s/he.is sickness S3sg to.do-PAST
    `s/he is sick' (lit.: s/he did sickness')
Example #353:

    feebaar bi moo ma dal
    sickness DET S3sg O1sg to.come.upon
    lit.: `sickness came upon me'
Example #354:

    feebaar bu bon moo ko jot
    sickness REL be.bad S3sg O3sg befall
    `a bad sickness befall him/her'
Example #355:

    feebaar bii mag rekk la-y jpp
    sickness DEM old.person only S3sg-IMV to.seize
    `this sickness takes only hold of old people'
Example #356:

    su la jangoro ji song-ee
    if O2sg sickness DET to.attack-PV
    `if sickness attacks you'
Example #357:

    PHYS:           dama biir
    S1sg stomach
    `I am pregnant'
Example #358:

    dama mb
    S1sg to.bundle.up
    `I am pregnant'
Example #359:

    jign-u wr-u-l la
    woman-GEN be.healthy-NEG-3sg COP
    `she is pregnant' (lit.: `she is a woman of no health')
Example #360:

    /   daf ko biir-al
    S3sg O3sg stomach-CS
    `he made her pregnant'