ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Bergeton, Uffe (2004). The Independence of Binding and Intensification, Chapter 3: Binding: Reflexives and Pronouns in Mode.

URL: http://www-scf.usc.edu/~bergeton/D_CH3_May12.pdf

(Last accessed 2005-03-29).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 965&langcode=dan (2018-10-23).

 

Example #1:

    (1)      a.      Peter vasker sig/sig selv.                (neutral)
    Peter washes REFL/REFL self
    `Peter washes (himself).'
Example #2:

    b.      Peter hader *sig/sig selv.                (anti-reflexive)
    Peter hates REFL/REFL self
    `Peter hates himself.'
Example #3:

    c.      Peter hviler sig/*sig selv.               (inherently reflexive)
    Peter rests REFL/REFL self
    `Peter is resting.'
Example #4:

    (2)         a.        [Peteri bad mig barbere sigi].
    Peter ask-PAST me shave-INF REFL
    `Peter asked me to shave him.'
Example #5:

    b.        [Peteri sagde [at Marie dansede med alle andre end hami selv]].
    Peter say-PAST that Marie dance-PAST with all others than him self
    `Peter said that Mary danced with all others than himself.'
Example #6:

    (5)         a.        Idai fortalte Mariez om sigi/*z selv.
    Ida told Marie about REFL self
    `Ida told Marie about himself.'
Example #7:

    b.        Idai fortalte Mariez om hende*i/z selv.
    Ida told Marie about her self
    `Ida told Marie about herself (<her herself).'
Example #8:

    (6)         a.       Johni sagde at Peterk bad Hansm vaske sin*i/k/m/*z bil.
    John said that Peter asked Hans wash POSSREFL car
    `John said that Peter asked Hans to wash his car.'
Example #9:

    b.       Johni sagde at Peterk bad Hansm vaske hansi/k/*m/z bil.
    John said that Peter asked Hans wash his car
    `John said that Peter asked Hans to wash his car.'
Example #10:

    (7)         a.        Peteri lader folk tale om hami/z/sigi.
    Peter let-PRES people talk-INF about him/REFL
    `Peter lets people talk about him.'
Example #11:

    b.        Peteri bad mig om at invitere sigi/hami/z.
    Peter ask-PAST me about to invite-INF REFL/him
    `Peter asked me to invite him.'
Example #12:

    (i)       a.     Peter vasker sig.
    Peter washes REFL-ACC
    `Peter washes (himself).'
Example #13:

    b.        Peter købte sig et hus.
    Peter bought REFL-DAT a house-ACC
    `Peter bough himself a house.'
Example #14:

    (ii)     a.        Peter vasker ham.
    Peter washes him-ACC
    `Peter washes himself.'
Example #15:

    c.        Peter købte him et hus.
    Peter bought him-DAT a house-ACC
    `Peter bough him a house.'
Example #16:

    (8)         a.       PROi at lade folk tale om sigi/ham*i/z er kedeligt.
    PRO to let people talk about REFL/him be-PRES boring
    `To let people talk about one/him, is boring.'
Example #17:

    b.       Mani/Enhveri bad mig om at invitere sigi/ham*i/z.
    one/everybody ask-PAST me about to invite-INF REFL/him
    `One/Everybody asked me to invite him.'
Example #18:

    (9)         a.       Enhveri/mani skal forsvare sigi (selv) mod politiet.
    everyone/one must defend REFL against police-the
    `Everyone/one must defend himself/oneself against the police.'
Example #19:

    b.       PROi At præsentere sigi (selv) for studenterne er kedeligt.
    PRO to introduce REFL for students-the is boring
    `To introduce oneself to the students is boring.'
Example #20:

    (12)        a.        Hvorfor barberer han sig?
    why shaves he REFL
    `Why does he shave (himself)?'
Example #21:

    b.        Han barberer sig.
    he shaves RELF
    `He shaves (himself).'
Example #22:

    (14)        a.        Marie klæder (sig) og reder sig omhyggeligt.
    Marie dresses (REFL) and combs REFL carefully
    `Marie dresses and combs herself carefully.'
Example #23:

    b.        Peter barberede (sig), vaskede (sig) og tørrede sig.
    Peter shaved washed and dried REFL
    `Peter shaved, washed and dried (himself).'
Example #24:

    (15)        a.        Peteri vasked   e sigi / *sigi selv / *HAMz / hamz / *bilen ikke.(+object shift)
    Peter washed     REFL/*REFL self/him/*car-the not
    Peter did not   wash (himself)/him/the car.'
Example #25:

    b.        Peteri vasked   e ikke *sigi / sigi selv / HAMz / *hamz / bilen. (-object shift)
    Peter washed     not *REFL/REFL self/him/car-the
    Peter did not   wash himself/him/the car.'
Example #26:

    (18)    Peteri bad Jørgenz barbere sigi/z / sig*i/z selv.
    Peter ask-PAST Jørgen shave-INF REFL
    `Peter asked Jørgen to shave him/himself.'
Example #27:

    (19)        a.         [Peteri barberede sigi/*o].
    Peter shave-PAST REFL
    `Peter shaved (himself).'
Example #28:

    b17.      [Peteri bad migz barbere sigi/*z].
    Peter ask-PAST me shave-INF REFL
    `Peter asked me to shave him.'
Example #29:

    c.        [Peteri bad Jørgenz barbere sigi/z].
    Peter ask-PAST Jørgen shave-INF REFL
    `Peter asked Jørgen to shave him/himself.'
Example #30:

    (23)     Peteri fortalte Mariez om sigi/*z selv.
    Peter told Marie about REFL self
    `Peter told Marie about himself.'
Example #31:

    (29)      Peteri hørte Mariez bede sygeplejerskeno vaske sigi/z/o.
    Peter heard Mary ask-INF nurse-the wash-INF REFF
    `Peter heard Marie ask the nurse to wash REFL.'
Example #32:

    b.      Sentence:       .... at John ikke vasker sig.
    that John not washes REFL
    `... that John doesn't wash himself.'
Example #33:

    b.     Sentence:          ... at John bad Hans vaske sig.
    that John asked Hans wash REFL
    `... that John asked Hans to wash him/himself.'
Example #34:

    (37)     McArthuri bad sygeplejerenk give _____          en morfinindsprøjtning.
    McArthur asked nurse-the give           a morphine injection
    `McArthuri asked the nursei to give himself a morphine injection.'
Example #35:

    morfinindsprøjtning.
    morphine injection
    morphine injection.'
Example #36:

    morfinindsprøjtning.
    morphine injection
    morphine injection.'
Example #37:

    (40)    a.       Læreren havde selv skrevet en stil.
    teacher-the had self written an essay
    `The teacher had himself written an essay.'
Example #38:

    b.       Selv har kongen ringe magt.
    self has king-the slight power
    `The king himself has little power.'
Example #39:

    (41)    a.       Vagteni afløste *sigi / sigi selv.
    guard-the replaced REFL/REFL self
    `The guard replaced himself.'
Example #40:

    b.       Vagteni bad Peterk afløse sigi/*k / sig??i/k selv.
    Guard-the asked Peter replace REFL
    `The guard asked Peter replace himself.'
Example #41:

    b.               .......          sigi selv.
    Bill Clinton shaved       RELF/REFL self
    `Bill Clinton shaved      Ø/Ø himself.'
Example #42:

    b.                                        (?)sigi selv.
    Clinton asked Hillary shave       REFL/REFL self
    `Clinton asked Hillary to shave him.'
Example #43:

    a.     Peter vasker sig / sig selv / bilen.
    Peter washes REFL / REFL-SELF / car-the
    `Peter washes himself / the car.'
Example #44:

    b.        Peter forsvarer sig /sig selv / Marie.
    Peter defends REFL / REFL-SELF / Mary
    `Peter defends himself / Mary.'
Example #45:

    a.      Peter mistænker *sig / sig selv / Marie.
    Peter suspects *REFL / REFL-SELF / Mary
    `Peter suspects himself / Mary.'
Example #46:

    b.      Peter misunder *sig / sig selv / Marie.
    Peter envies *REFL / REFL-SELF / Mary
    `Peter envies himself / Mary.'
Example #47:

    a.      Peter skammer sig /*sig selv /*Maire.
    Peter shames RELF / *REFL-SELF / *Mary
    `Peter is ashamed of himself / Mary.'
Example #48:

    b.      Peter dukker sig / *sig selv / *Marie.
    Peter ducks REFL / *REFL-SELF / *Mary
    `Peter ducks *himself / *Mary.'
Example #49:

    (iii) inher. refl. ditransitive : Peter anskaffede sig        /         *sig selv /     *Mary et hus.
    Peter acquired    REFL                REFL self       Mary      a house
    `Peter sold/bought/acquired himself/Mary a house.'
Example #50:

    (50)      a.        Vagten afløste *sig / sig selv.
    guard-the replaced REFL / REFL self
    `The guard replaced himself (as guard).
Example #51:

    b.        Henry IV efterfulgte *sig / sig selv.
    Henry IV succeeded REFL / REFL self
    `Peter succeeded himself (as king of England).'
Example #52:

    c.        Peter bønfaldte *sig / sig selv.
    Peter implored REFL / REFL self
    `Peter implored himself.'
Example #53:

    d.        Peter mistænkte *sig /sig selv.
    Peter suspected REFL / REFL self
    `Peter suspected himself of doing something.'
Example #54:

    e.        Peter misude *sig / sig selv.
    Peter envied REFL / REFL self
    `Peter envied himself'
Example #55:

    (i)       Peter<real> barberede *sig<statue./sig<statue> selv.           (statue-reading)
    Peter shaved REFL self
    `Peter shaved himself.'
Example #56:

    (ii)      Peter, i egenskab af barber, barberede *sig/sig selv.          (qua-sentence)
    Peter, in quality of barber, shaved REFL
    `Peter, working as barber, shaved himself.
Example #57:

    (52)     a.        Peter barberede/tørrede/pyntede        sig / sig selv / John.
    Peter shaved / dried / adorned REFL / REFL self / John.
    `Peter shaved/dried/adorned himself/John.'
Example #58:

    (55)     Peter solede sig / *sig selv / *Marie.                      (Danish)
    Peter tanned REFL / REFL self / Marie
    `Peter was tanning/sunbathing.'
Example #59:

    b.        Peter tog kniven med                    sig / *sig selv / *Mary. (Danish)
    Peter took knife-the with               RELF / REFL self / Mary
    `Peter took the knife with              him / *himself / *Mary.'
Example #60:

    (59)    Peteri barberede/tørrede/pyntede sigi /            sigi selv       /       John.
    Peter shaved /dried / adorned REFL /               REFL self       /       John
    `Peter shaved (himself) / John.'
Example #61:

    (60)    Peter kogte     #sig     /        sig selv           /      Mary.
    Peter boiled    REFL /            REFL self         /       Mary
    `Peter boiled himself / Mary.'
Example #62:

    (63)    Marsbeboeren mistænkte *sig / sig selv / Peter.
    Mars-dweller-the suspected REFL / REFL self / Peter
    `The Martian suspected himself / Peter.'
Example #63:

    (72)    Q:       Hvem var det nu at Peter havde vasket? Havde han vasket sin hund?
    who was it now that Peter had washed had he washed POSSREFL dog
    `Who was it that Peter had washed? Had he washed his dog?'
Example #64:

    A:       Nej, han havde vasket SIG SELV / *SIG.
    No he had washed REFL SELF / REFL
    `No, he had washed himself.'
Example #65:

    (73)    Q:       Hvad var det nu at Peter havde gjort før han gik i seng?
    what was it now that Peter had done before he went to bed
    `What was it Peter had done before he went to bed?'
Example #66:

    Havde han barberet sig?
    had he shaved RELF
    `Had he shaved himself?'
Example #67:

    A:       Nej, han havde VASKET sig / #sig selv.
    no he had WASHED REFL / REFL self
    `No, He had WASHED himself.'
Example #68:

    Peter vaskede hænderne.
    Peter washed hands-the.
    (ii) `Peter washed the hands (of the body he was dissecting).'    (alienable)
Example #69:

    Peter stjal hænderne.
    Peter stole hands-the.
    (ii) `Peter stole the hands (of the body he was dissecting).'     (alienable)
Example #70:

    Peter kogte hænderne.
    Peter boiled hands-the.
    (ii) `Peter boiled the hands (of the body he was dissecting).' (alienable)
Example #71:

    (77)    Marsmanden kogte hænderne i olie førend han lavede mad.                   (inalienable)
    Martian-the boiled hands-the in oil before he made food
    `The Martian washed his hands in oil before cooking.'
Example #72:

    (ii)      Peter stjal sine hænder.
    Peter stole POSSREFL hands
    `Peter stole his hands.'
Example #73:

    b.      Bill Clintoni barberede sigi selv.
    Bill Clinton shaved     RELF/REFL self
    `Bill Clinton shaved (himself).'
Example #74:

    (84)    a.      Peter, i egenskab af barber, barberede ??*sig.
    Peter in quality of barber shaved REFL
    `Peter, qua barber, shaved.'
Example #75:

    b.      Peter, i egenskab af barber, barberede sig selv.
    Peter in quality of barber shaved REFL self
    `Peter, qua barber, shaved himself.'
Example #76:

    (85)    Henry IV efterfulgte *sig / sig selv.
    Henry IV succeeded REFL / REFL self
    `Peter succeeded himself (as king of England).'
Example #77:

    (86)        a.       Peter vaskede sig og det gjorde Hans også.                        (only sloppy)
    Peter washed REFL and it did Hans also
    `Peter washed (himself) and so did Peter.'
Example #78:

    b.       Peter vaskede sig selv og det gjorde Hans også.                   (strict and sloppy)
    Peter washed REFL self and it did Hans also
    `Peter washed himself and so did Peter.'
Example #79:

    (88)    Peteri bad sygeplejersken vaske sigi og det gjorde Hans også.
    Peter asked nurse-the wash REFL and it did Hans also
    `Peter asked the nurse to wash himself, and so did Hans.'
Example #80:

    (89)    Peteri bad sygeplejersken vaske hami og det gjorde Hans også.
    Peter asked nurse-the wash REFL and it did Hans also
    `Peter asked the nurse to wash himself, and so did Hans.'
Example #81:

    (90)    a.       Soldaterne forsvarede sig.               (collective/distributive)
    soldiers-the defended REFL
    `The soldiers defended themselves.'
Example #82:

    b.       Soldaterne forsvarede sig selv. (distributive)
    soldiers-the defended REFL self
    `The soldiers defended themselves.'
Example #83:

    (91)    a.       (?)Soldaterne forsvarede sig, men overladte civil befolkningen til fjenden.
    soldiers-the defended REFL but left civil population to enemy-the
    `The soldiers defended but left the civilians to the enemy.'
Example #84:

    b.       Soldaterne forsvarede sig selv, men overladte civil befolkningen til fjenden.
    soldiers-the defended REFL self but left civil population to enemy-the
    `The soldiers defended themselves but left the civilians to the enemy.'
Example #85:

    (92)    a.       Soldaterne vaskede sig.                  (distributive)
    soldiers-the washed REFL
    `The soldiers washed (themselves).'
Example #86:

    b.       Soldaterne vaskede sig selv.             (distributive)
    soldiers-the washed REFL self
    `The soldiers washed themselves.'
Example #87:

    c.        Peter arbejdede           sig selv                                       rig.
    Peter worked              REFL/REFL self/his parents                     rich
    `Peter worked himself/his parents rich.'
Example #88:

    c.      Peter drak                sig selv                    under bordet.
    Peter drank               REFL/REFL self/Hans under table-the
    `Peter drank himself/Hans under the table.'
Example #89:

    c.      Peter arbejdede           #sig selv                                          svedig.
    Peter worked              REFL/REFLself/his parents                          sweaty
    `Peter worked himself/#his parents sweaty.
Example #90:

    c.      Peter dansede             #sig selv                til verdensmesterskabet.
    Peter danced      REFL/REFLself/his parents        to the world championship
    `Peter danced himself/#his parents to the world   championship.'
Example #91:

    c.        Peter anså              sig selv           for at være intelligent.
    Peter considered REFL/REFL self/his parents for to be intelligent
    `Peter considered himself/his parents to be intelligent.'
Example #92:

    c.     Peter anså              sig selv          for at være    død.
    Peter considered REFL/REFL self/his parents for to       be dead
    `Peter considered himself/his parents to be dead.'
Example #93:

    see (i). (i)         a.        Peter så sig/sig selv danse i spejlet.
    Peter saw REFL/REFL self dance in mirror-the
    `Peter saw himself dance in the mirror.'
Example #94:

    b.        Peter så #sig/sig selv danse på video-optagelsen.
    Peter saw REFL/REFL self dance on video-recording-the
    `Peter saw himself dance in the video-recording.'
Example #95:

    (109)     a.        Peteri bad Hansk vaske sini/k hund.
    Peter asked Hans wash POSSREFL dog
    `Peteri asked Hansi to wash hisi/k dog.'
Example #96:

    stuen.
    the in living room-the
    the living room.'
Example #97:

    a. Han var ved at gaa ud af sit /?* sit eget/*Peters gode skind af glæde.
    happiness
    `He nearly jumped out of his good skin of sheer happiness.'
Example #98:

    Peter bad Hans om at vaske*SIG / SIG SELV/ KONGEN.
    Peter asked Hans about to wash REFL/REFL SELF/ KING-the
    `Peter asked Hans to wash *REFL/REFL SELF/the KING.'
Example #99:

    Peter vaskede barnet og *sig / sig selv / hunden.
    Peter washed child-the and REFL /REFL self /dog-the
    `Peter washed the child and *REFL / REFL SELF / the dog.'
Example #100:

    Det var *sig / sig selv / hunden Peter vaskede.
    it was REFL / REFL self / dog-the Peter washed
    `It was *REFL / REFL SELF / the dog that Peter washed.'
Example #101:

    *Sig / sig selv / hunden vaskede Peter ikke.
    REFL / REFL self / dog-the washed Peter not
    `*REFL / REFL SELF / the dog Peter didn't wash.'
Example #102:

    (i)      Peter er ikke som alle de andre børn. Han er noget for sig.
    Peter is not like all the other children he is something for REFL
    `Peter is not like all the other children. He is something special.'
Example #103:

    a.     Peter er stolt af *sig/sig selv/Marie.
    Peter is proud of REFL/REFL self/Maire
    Peter is proud of himself/Marie.'
Example #104:

    b.     Peter er tilfreds med *sig/sig selv/Marie.
    Peter is satisfied of REFL/REFL self/Marie
    `Peter is happy with himself/Marie.'
Example #105:

    a.     Peter er misundelig på *sig/sig selv/Marie.
    Peter is jealous on REFL/REFL self/Maire
    `Peter is jealous of himself/Marie.'
Example #106:

    b.     Peter sludrer med *sig/sig selv/Marie.
    Peter chats with REFL/REFL self/Marie
    `Peter is chatting with himself/Marie.'
Example #107:

    a.      at være bange af sig
    to be afraid of REFL
    `to be (naturally) timid'
Example #108:

    b.      at have en revolver på sig
    to have a gun on REFL
    `to carry a gun (with oneself)'
Example #109:

    c.      at bide smerten i sig
    to bite pain-the in REFL
    `to bear the pain without flinching'
Example #110:

    d.      at slå fra sig
    to hit from REFL
    `to defend oneself, hit back, fight back'
Example #111:

    e.      at bide fra sig
    to bite from REFL
    `(fig) hit back, fight back, give as good as one gets'
Example #112:

    f.      at være om sig
    to be about REFL
    `be enterprising, be busy; have an eye for opportunities'
Example #113:

    (124)     Peter er bange af sig / *sig selv / *Mary.
    Peter is afraid of REFL / REFL self / Mary
    `Peter is (naturally) timid'
Example #114:

    a.        Peter så en slange bag sig / sig selv /Mary.
    Peter saw a snake behind REFL / REFL self /Mary
    `Peter saw a snake behind himself / Mary'
Example #115:

    b.        Peter så en slange foran sig / sig selv /Mary.
    Peter saw a snake before REFL / REFL self /Mary
    `Peter saw a snake in front of himself / Mary'
Example #116:

    (127)     a.       Peter pegede                        på mig. (type illustrated in (115-7))
    Peter pointed                       on me
    `Peter pointed                      at me.'
Example #117:

    b.       Jeg havde en revolver               på mig. (type illustrated in (123))
    I had a gun                         on me
    `I was carrying a gun.'
Example #118:

    (138)    Peter er ude af *sig/sig selv/*Mary af glæde.
    Peter is out of REFL/REFL self/Mary of happiness
    `Peter is beside himself/*Mary with happiness.'
Example #119:

    (149)     a.        HAN kom til mødet.
    HE came to meeting-the
    `HE came to the meeting.'
Example #120:

    b.        Han selv kom til mødet.
    He self came to meeting-the
    `He himself came to the meeting.'
Example #121:

    (150)     a.        KONGEN kom til mødet.
    KING-the came to meeting-the
    `THE KING came to the meeting.'
Example #122:

    b.        Kongen selv kom til mødet.
    King self came to meeting-the
    `The king himself came to the meeting.'
Example #123:

    (155)   a.      [Peteri barberede ham*i/o].
    Peter shave-PAST him
    `Peter shaved him*i/o.'
Example #124:

    b.      [Peteri bad migz barbere hami/*z].
    Peter ask-PAST me shave-INF him
    `Peter asked me to shave himi/*z.'
Example #125:

    c.      [Peteri bad Jørgenz barbere hami/*z].
    Peter ask-PAST Jørgen shave-INF him
    `Peteri asked Jørgenz to shave himi/*z.'
Example #126:

    d.      [Peteri sagde [at jeg barberede hami]].
    Peteri say-PAST that I shave-PAST him
    `Peter said that I shaved him.'
Example #127:

    b.        Kongen troede at ingen kunne lide
    king-the thought that nobody could like him.      [=(2e) in section 1 above]
    `The king thought that nobody liked him.'
Example #128:

    af? Vil Jon absolut giftes med en kvinde, som er stolt af hans far?
    father
    absolutely want to marry a woman who admires his father?'
Example #129:

    selv.
    self
    `No, idiot! Jon want to marry a woman who is proud of (him) himself.'
Example #130:

    b.        Peteri sagde at orkestret ikke maatte spille        med andre end hami/*z selv
    as conductor
    conductor.'
Example #131:

    end hami/z selv som dirrigent.
    than him self as conductor
    anybody but himself as conductor.'
Example #132:

    orkestret ikke maatte spille med andre end ham#i/z selv som dirrigent.
    could play with anybody but himself as conductor.
    the orchestra couldn't play with anybody but himself as conductor.'
Example #133:

    lavede versene.
    verses-the
    the verses.' (J.P.Jacobsen (1880) Niels Lyhne, p. 83, bold and italic added here