ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Kamil Ud Deen (2006). Subject Agreement in Nairobi Swahili.

URL: http://www.lingref.com/cpp/acal/35/paper1312.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 2898&langcode=swh (2021-07-29).

 

Example #1:

    (1)                 Juma a ­          na ­        kimbi     ­a
    Juma SA3s­ pres­              run       ­ IND
    `Juma is running.'
Example #2:

    (3)       a.         Kibaki a ­ li ­ shind ­ a
    Kibaki SA3s ­ past ­ win ­   IND
    `Kibaki won.'
Example #3:

    (4)      a. watu wa Kenya i wai ­ na ­ wa ­ pend ­ a watoto
    people of Kenya SA3pl-pres-OA3pl-like-IND children
    `People of Kenya like children'
Example #4:

    b. wai ­ na ­ wa ­ pend ­ a watoto watu wa Kenya i
    SA3pl-pres-OA3pl-like-IND children people of Kenya
    `(They) like children, people of Kenya'
Example #5:

    c. watu wa Kenya i ni ­ na ­ fikir - i kuwa wai­na ­ wa­pend­a watoto
    people of Kenya SA1s-pres-think-IND that SA3pl-pres-OA3pl-like-IND children
    `People of Kenya, I think that, (they) like children.'
Example #6:

    (5)      a.       Watu wa Kenya hu - wa ­ pend ­ a watoto
    people of Kenya hab-OA3pl- like - IND children
    `People of Kenya like children'
Example #7:

    b.       *Watu wa Kenya wa - hu - wa ­ pend ­ a watoto
    people of Kenya SA3pl-hab-OA3pl- like - IND children
    `People of Kenya like children'
Example #8:

    (6)       a.        * Hu ­ wa ­ pend ­ a watoto, watu wa Kenya
    hab-OA3pl- like - IND children people of Kenya
    `like children, people of Kenya'
Example #9:

    b.       *Watu wa Kenya ni­na­fikir ­ I kuwa hu ­ wa ­ pend­a watoto
    people of Kenya SA1s-pres-think-IND that hab-OA3pl- like - IND children
    `People of Kenya, I think that, like children'
Example #10:

    i.    ulevi     hu - ondo - a akili
    drunkenness HAB-remove-IND sense
    `Drunkenness removes common sense'
Example #11:

    (8)        nanii ai ­ me ­end­a ?
    who SA3s-pr.prf-go-IND
    who has gone?
Example #12:

    (9)        a.       Ni ­ li ­ fikir - i kuwa mtindi u - me ­ va - a Asha
    SA1s-p   ast-think-IND that brew SA3-pr.prf.-wear-IND Asha
    (lit: I thought that the brew has covered Asha)
Example #13:

    b.       *Mtindi ni ­ li ­ fikir ­ i kuwa u - me ­ va - a Asha
    Brew SA1s-past-think-IND that SA3-pr.prf.-wear-IND Asha
    (lit: (As for) the brew, I thought that it has covered Asha)
Example #14:

    b.        * kila kitabu, a ­ li ­ (ki)­nunu­ a [t]
    every thing SA3s­past­(OA7)­buy­IND [t]
    `Every book, she bought'
Example #15:

    (13)     a.        kila mtoto a ­ li ­ nunu­ a ki ­ tabu
    every child      SA3s­past­buy­IND 7­book
    `Every child bought a book.'
Example #16:

    b.        kila ki­tabu ki ­ li ­ nunuli ­ w ­ a na mtoto
    every 7­book SA7­past­ buy ­passive­IND by child
    `Every book was bought by a child.'
Example #17:

    (15)     a.        nani a ­ li ­ fik ­ a mapema
    who SA3s­past­arrive­IND early
    `Who arrived early?'
Example #18:

    b.        ?? Juma, a ­ li ­ fik ­ a mapema
    Juma, SA3s­past­arrive­IND early
    `Juma, he arrived early.'
Example #19:

    c.        Juma a ­ li ­ fik ­ a mapema
    Juma SA3s­past­arrive­IND early
    `Juma arrived early.'
Example #20:

    (17)     a.        Juma     a - na - m ­ pend - a             Mariam
    Juma SA3s-Pres- OA3s- like - IND           Mariam
    'Juma likes Mariam'
Example #21:

    `echem-némiwe
    1pl/2sg-chased
    `We chased you.'
Example #22:

    b.       a - na - m ­ pend - a          Mariam, Juma
    SA3s-Pres- OA3s-like - IND     Mariam Juma
    'Juma likes Mariam'
Example #23:

    c.       Mariam, Juma       a - na - m ­ pend - a
    Mariam Juma SA3s-Pres- OA3s- like - IND
    '(as for) Mariam, Juma likes (her)'