The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

PETER K. AUSTIN (2002). Causative and applicative constructions in Australian Aboriginal Languages.

URL: http://www.hrelp.org/aboutus/staff/peter_austin/AustinCausatives.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3273&langcode=ktg (2021-10-22).


Example #1:

    (18)      Ntia       nga-thu       maa         mani-ntiyi.
    money      I-erg         food        get-tr
    `I got food with the money' or `I spent the money on food'. (Blake ex. 5.31b)
Example #2:

    (19) Kalpin-tu             lha-manti-mi             thuarr-ku            thalimpirri.
    man-erg               hit-tr-fut               snake-dat            club
    `The man will use the club to hit the snake.'
Example #3:

    (20)    Thuku-yu       nu-ntiyi       kulapuru.
    dog-erg        lie-tr         blanket
    `The dog lay on the blanket.' (Blake ex. 5.36b)
Example #4:

    (21) Nga-thu              kati-nti-mi          tharntu            kupangurru-u.
    I-erg                bury-tr-fut          hole               old man-dat
    `I will bury the old man in a hole.'
Example #5:

    (22)    Lhayi-manti        jaa        marapai       jipa-yi       iti-yi.
    hit-tr             here       woman         this-erg      man-erg
    `The man hit (him) because of the woman'. (Blake ex. 5.39)
Example #6:

    (23)    Nga-ji      ngalhu-yu        kunti          kari         nga-ji.
    I-dat       daughter-erg     house          clean        I-dat
    `My daughter cleaned the house for me'. (Blake ex. 5.47a)
Example #7:

    (24)    Nga-ji      ngalhu-yu        ngai          kari-nyjama-yi          kunti.
    I-dat       daughter-erg     I:acc         clean-tr                house
    `My daughter cleaned the house for me'. (Blake ex. 5.47b)
Example #8:

    (25)    Marapai-thu       nyini     ati           anya-kin.
    woman-erg         you       meat          gave-you
    `Did the woman give you meat?'. (Blake ex. 3.27b)
Example #9:

    (26) Ngarrkun-tu            ari         kanyirr.
    wallaroo-erg           eat         grass
    `The wallaroo eats the grass' (Blake 1990 ex 40a)
Example #10:

    (27) Ngarrkun                   ari-li       kanyirr-ku.
    wallaroo                   eat-a/p      grass-dat
    The wallaroo eats grass.' (Blake 1990 ex 40b)