The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Masayoshi Shibatani and Prashant Pardeshi (2002). THE CAUSATIVE CONTINUUM*.

URL: http://www.lit.kobe-u.ac.jp/linguistics/KPL/3_2001/KPL_2001_shibatani-pardeshi.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3416&langcode=amp (2021-10-23).


Example #1:

    (21) a. ka- fkne- mŽ-r- m (Direct)
    DP.CAUS- enter-R.PST- 3SM- 3-PL
    `He caused them to enter (something) by physically taking them.'
Example #2:

    b. ha- fkne- mŽ-r- m (Sociative)
    DE.CAU- enter- R.PAST- 3SM - 3PL
    `He caused them to enter (something) by entering with them.'
Example #3:

    c. yima - r      ha- noh- mŽ- r- a (Indirect)
    person- 3SM give- unconscious- R.AST- 3SM- 1S
    `A man gave me (something) (causing) me (to become) unconscious.'