The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Ellen Woolford (1993). Symmetric and Asymmetric Passives.

URL: http://people.umass.edu/ellenw/Woolford%20Symmetric%20and%20Asymmetric%20Passives.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3705&langcode=bez (2021-10-23).


Example #1:

    a. Umugosi i-hwandih-ila umudala      ibaluwa.
    man     ag-write-app woman        letters
    'The man is writing the woman     letters.'
Example #2:

    b.   Umudala a-hwandih-ilil-we   ibaluwa n-umugosi.
    woman   ag-write-app/T-pass letters by-man
    'The woman was written letters by the man.'
Example #3:

    c. *Ibaluwa dza-hwandih-ilil-we umudala n-umugosi.
    letters ag-write-app/T-pass woman   by-man
    'Letters were written the woman by the man.'
Example #4:

    a. Umugosi a-vind-iye      iliduma ibunduhi mu-musitu.
    man     ag-hunt-inst/T leopard gun      in-forest
    'The man hunted the leopard with the gun in the forest.'
Example #5:

    b.     Iliduma lya-vind-ilil-we    ibunduhi mu-musitu n-umugosi.
    leopard ag-hunt-inst/T-pass gun      in-forest by-man
Example #6:

    a. umusehe a-bahile mu-nyumba.
    old-man ag-remain in-house
    'The old man remained in the house.'
Example #7:

    b. mu-nyumba mwa-bahil-we   n-umusehe
    in-house ag-remain-pass by-old-man
    'In the house was remained by the old man.'
Example #8:

    *mu-hijiji mwa-nyamul-ilil-we umusehe ihidoto n-umudala
    in-village ag-carry-app/T-pass old-man basket by-woman
    the woman.'
Example #9:

    Mu-nyumba mwa-bah-ilil-we       avana    n-umusehe.
    in-house ag-remain-app/T-pass children by-old-man
    'In the house was remained (for) the children by the old man.'