ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Ellen Woolford (1993). Symmetric and Asymmetric Passives.

URL: http://people.umass.edu/ellenw/Woolford%20Symmetric%20and%20Asymmetric%20Passives.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3705&langcode=nya (2021-10-22).

 

Example #1:

    a. Chitsru chi-na-gl-r-a atskna mphtso.
    7-fool    7S-PST-buy-AP-FV 2-girls 9-gift
    'The fool bought a gift for the girls.'
Example #2:

    a. Any |ni     a-ku-phwny-r-a mw |la   d`ngu.
    2-baboons 2S-PR-break-AP-FV 3-stone 5-basket
    'The baboons are breaking the basket with a stone.'
Example #3:

    a. Mbidzi zi-na-perek-a     mpiringidzo kwa mtsikana.
    zebras SP-PAST-hand-ASP crowbar      to girl
    'The zebras handed the crowbar to the girl.'
Example #4:

    b. Mbidzi zi-na-perek-er-a      mtsikana mpiringidzo.
    zebras SP-PAST-hand-APPL-ASP girl     crowbar
    'The zebras handed the girl the crowbar.'
Example #5:

    a. Mbuzi zi-na-pats-idw-a        nsima    ndi ngombe.
    goats SP-PAST-give-PASS-ASP cornmush by cows
    'The goats were given cornmush by the cows.'
Example #6:

    b. *Nsima    i-na-pats-idw-a        mbuzi ndi ngombe.
    cornmush SP-PAST-give-PASS-ASP goats by cows
    'Cornmush was given the goats by the cows.'
Example #7:

    a. Pa-mch `nga pa-ku-lk-r-idw-     mkka.
    16-3-sand 16S-PR-weave-AP-PAS-FV 4-mats
    'The beach is being woven mats on.'
Example #8:

    Kw-    mfmu ku-na-prk-edw-           mphtso.
    17-ASC 9chief 17SB-REC PST-give-PASS-IND 10gift
    'To the chief were given gifts.'
Example #9:

    Kw-    mfmu ku-na-prk-edw-           mphtso.
    17-ASC 9chief 17SB-REC PST-give-PASS-IND 10gift
    'To the chief were given gifts.'
Example #10:

    Msangalatsi a-ku-yend-er-a        ndodo.
    entertainer SP-PRES-walk-APPL-ASP stick.
    'The entertainer is walking with a stick.'
Example #11:

    Mbzi y-a-gw-er-a             m-chi-tsme.
    9goat 9SB-PERF-fall-APPL-IND 18-7-well
    'The goat has fallen into the well.'
Example #12:

    *Mkango u-ku-yend-er-a         anyani.
    lion    SP-PRES-walk-APPL-ASP baboons
    'The lion is walking for the baboons.
Example #13:

    a. Mw|la    u-ku-phwny-r-idw- d `ngu    (nd any |ni).
    3-stone 3S-PR-break-AP-PAS-FV 5-basket by 2-baboons
    'The stone is being used (by the baboons) to break the basket.'