The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Mokaya Bosire (2006). Hybrid Languages.

URL: http://www.lingref.com/cpp/acal/36/paper1423.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3989&langcode=swh (2021-10-23).


Example #1:

    1) Woyee6 tichee u-si-ni-rwand-e  buu ndi-o i-li-ni-leit-ish-a7
    Please teacher you-neg-me-punish-fv  bus is-it it-past-me-late-made-final vowel (fv)8
    `Please teacher don't beat/punish me  I am late because of the bus'
Example #2:

    2) Tafadhali Mwalimu u-si-ni-pig-e  basi ndi-lo li-li-lo-ni-chelew-esh-a
    Please teacher you-neg-me-punish-fv  bus is it it-past-that-me-late-make-fv
    `Please teacher don't spank me  I am late because of the bus'
Example #3:

    3) u-si-ni-rwand-e
    `do not punish me'
Example #4:

    4) i-li-ni-leit-ish-a
    It-past-me-late-causative-final vowel
    `it made me late'
Example #5:

    5) li-li-ni-chelew-esh-a9
    `it made me late'
Example #6:

    11) ni-li-ona mi-ti mi-tatu mi-refu pori-ni
    I-tense-see cl.4-tree cl.4-three cl.5-tall forest-in
    `I saw three tall trees in the forest'
Example #7:

    12) vi-le      vi-ti     vi-refu ni vy-eusi
    cl.8-that cl.8-chair cl.8-tall are cl.8-black
    `Those high chairs are black'
Example #8:

    19) Ma-babi lazima tu-wa-pige pasi. Kwani wa-na-fikiri sisi ha-tu-demi?
    The-rich have-to we-them-press iron. Why they-tense-think us neg-we-demolish?
    `we have to steal from the rich. Do they think we do not eat?'