The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Miriam Butt and Gillian Ramchand (2001). Complex Aspectual Structure in Hindi/Urdu.

URL: http://www.ai.mit.edu/people/jimmylin/papers/Butt01.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 118&langcode=urd (2021-06-15).


Example #1:

    (4) a. vo        ro-ne      lAg-i
    Pron.Nom cry-Inf.Obl be.attached-Perf.F.Sg
    `She began to cry.
Example #2:

    b. nadya=ne      mAkan         bAna di-ya
    Nadya.F=Erg house.M.Nom make give-Perf.M.Sg
    `Nadya built a house (completely, for somebody else).'
Example #3:

    (15) a. Adnan          gari   cAla-ta         hE
    Adnan.M.Nom car.F.Nom drive-Impf.M.Sg be.Pres.3.Sg
    `Adnan drives a car.'
Example #4:

    b. Adnan=ne      gari        cAla-yi     hEi
    Adnan.M=Erg car.F.Nom drive-Perf.F.Sg be.Pres.3.Sg
    `Adnan has driven a car.'
Example #5:

    c. nadya=ne     gari=ko cAla-ya          hE
    Nadya.F=Erg car.F=Acc drive-Perf.M.Sg be.Pres.3.Sg
    `Nadya has driven the car.'
Example #6:

    (16) a. nadya=ne      mAkan         bAna li-ya
    Nadya.F=Erg house.M.Nom make take-Perf.M.Sg
    `Nadya built a house (completely).'
Example #7:

    b. nadya=ne      kUrsi           bAna l-i
    Nadya.F=Erg chair.F.Sg.Nom make take-Perf.F.Sg
    `Nadya built a chair (completely).'
Example #8:

    (26) likh to nadya           xAt=ko         l-e-g-i
    write Top Nadya.F.Nom letter.M=Acc take-3.Sg-Fut-F.Sg
    `As for writing, Nadya will be able to write a letter.'
Example #9:

    (40) a. nadya=ne     AnjUm=ko      nikAl-ne    di-ya
    Nadya.F=Erg Anjum.F=Dat emerge-Inf.Obl give-Perf.M.Sg
    `Nadya let Anjum get out.'
Example #10:

    (41) a. nadya=ne     AnjUm=ko     nikal-a
    Nadya.F=Erg Anjum.F=Acc emerge.Caus-Perf.M.Sg
    `Nadya pulled Anjum out.'
Example #11:

    (44) nadya        ro-ne      lAg-i
    Nadya.F.Nom cry-Inf.Obl be.attached-Perf.F.Sg
    `Nadya began to cry.'
Example #12:

    b. nadya          gir ga-yi
    Nadya.F.Nom fall go-Perf.F.Sg
    `Nadya fell (down).'