The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Robert D. Van Valin, Jr. (1999). Cross-Linguistic Patterns of Linking.

URL: http://linguistics.buffalo.edu/research/rrg/vanvalin_papers/XlingPattLnkg.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 1192&langcode=ind (2021-09-19).


Example #1:

    (21)     a.     Ali meng-(k)irim surat itu kepada Hasan.                      Indonesian
    ACV-send         letter DEF to
    `Ali sent the letter to Hasan.'
Example #2:

    a.    Surat itu di-kirim          kepada Hasan oleh Ali.
    letter DEF PASS-send to                      by
    `The letter was sent to Hasan by Ali.'
Example #3:

    a.   *Hasan di-kirim          surat itu (kepada) oleh Ali.
    PASS-send letterDEF (to)             by
    `Hasan was sent the letter (to) by Ali.'
Example #4:

    b.     Ali meng-(k)irim-kan Hasan surat itu
    ACV-send-APL                    letter DEF
    `Ali sent Hasan the letter.'               Direct object = recipient (UND)
Example #5:

    b.    Hasan di-kirim-kan           surat itu oleh Ali.
    PASS-send-APL letter DEF by
    `Hasan was sent the letter by Ali.'
Example #6:

    b.   *Surat itu di-kirim-kan            Hasanoleh Ali.
    letter DEF PASS-send-APL                 by
    `The letter was sent Hasan by Ali.'