The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Robert D. Van Valin, Jr. (1999). Cross-Linguistic Patterns of Linking.

URL: http://linguistics.buffalo.edu/research/rrg/vanvalin_papers/XlingPattLnkg.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 1192&langcode=swh (2021-09-19).


Example #1:

    a.    Barua i-li-andik-w-a               na Badru (%kwa Juma).
    letter 9-PAST-write-PASS-IND by                 to
    `The letter was written (to Juma) by Badru.'
Example #2:

    b.     Badru a-li-mw-andik-i-a            Juma barua.
    1-PAST-1-write-APL-IND           letter
    `Badru wrote Juma a letter.'          Direct object = recipient (UND)
Example #3:

    b.    Juma a-li-andik-i-w-a                  barua na Badru.
    1-PAST-write-APL-PASS-IND letter by
    `Juma was written a letter by Badru.'
Example #4:

    b.   *Barua i-li-mw-andik-i-w-a                Juma na Badru.
    letter 9-PAST-1-write-APL-PASS-IND              by
    `The letter was written Juma by Badru.'