The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Robert D. Van Valin, Jr. (1999). Generalized Semantic Roles and the Syntax-Semantics Interface.

URL: http://wings.buffalo.edu/linguistics/rrg/rrg/vanvalin_papers/gensemroles.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 1193&langcode=ind (2021-09-27).


Example #1:

    (3) a. Ali meng-(k)irim surat itu kepada Hasan.                      Indonesian
    ACTIVE-send letter DEF to
    `Ali sent the letter to Hasan.'            Direct object = undergoer (theme)
Example #2:

    a. Surat itu di-kirim kepada Hasan oleh Ali.
    letter DEF PASS-send to                  by
    `The letter was sent to Hasan by Ali.'
Example #3:

    a.*Hasan di-kirim        surat itu (kepada) oleh Ali.
    PASS-send letter DEF (to)          by
    `Hasan was sent the letter (to) by Ali.'
Example #4:

    b. Ali meng-(k)irim-kan Hasan surat itu. Direct object = undergoer (recipient)
    ACTIVE-send-APL              letter DEF
    `Ali sent Hasan the letter.'
Example #5:

    b. Hasan di-kirim-kan           surat itu oleh Ali.
    PASS-send-APL letter DEF by
    `Hasan was sent the letter by Ali.'
Example #6:

    b.*Surat itu di-kirim-kan          Hasan oleh Ali.
    letter DEF PASS-send-APL               by
    `The letter was sent Hasan by Ali.'