ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Masayoshi Shibatani and P. Pardeshi (2002). The Causative Continuum.

URL: http://www.lit.kobe-u.ac.jp/linguistics/S-P.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 1219&langcode=mar (2021-09-17).

 

Example #1:

    raam- ne         shaam- laa      patra          lih- aaylaa          laaw-l- a
    Ram- ERG         Sham-DAT        letter.N       write- PTCPL          make- PERF - N
    `Ram made Sham write a letter.'
Example #2:

    raam- ne         shaam- laa bas- aaylaa         bhaag paaD- l- a
    Ram- ERG         Sham-DAT sit-PTCPL make- PERF - N
    `Ram left Sham with no choice but to sit.'
Example #3:

    mi raam- laa bas-u             di- l- a
    I       ram- DAT sit- PTCPL give- PERF -N
    `I let Ram sit.'
Example #4:

    mi raam- kaDun         kholi     saaph      kar- un         ghet- l- i
    I       Ram- by        room.F clean         do- CONJ take- PERF -F
    `I had the room cleaned by Ram. '
Example #5:

    (6) a. kapDe          waaL- l- e
    clothes.N     dry- PERF- N
    `The clothes dried.'
Example #6:

    b. raam- ne       kapDe         waal- aw- l- e
    Ram- ERG clothes.N          dry- CAUS -PERF- N
    `Ram dried the clothes.'
Example #7:

    c. *raam- ne      kapDyaan- naa waaL- aaylaa      laaw- l-a
    Ram- ERG clothes- ACC          dry- PTCPL     make- PERF- N
    `Ram made the clothes dry. '
Example #8:

    (7) a. shaam buD- l- aa
    Sham      drown- PERF- M
    `Sham drowned.'
Example #9:

    b. raam- ne       shaam- laa buD- aw- l- a
    Ram- ERG Sham- DAT drown- CAUS - PERF -N
    `Ram drowned Sham. '
Example #10:

    c. *raam- ne      shaam- laa buD- aaylaa       laaw-l- a
    Ram- ERG Sham- DAT drown- PTCPL make- PERF - N
    `Ram made Sham drown. '
Example #11:

    (8) a. mi kapDe            waaL-u           di- l- e
    I      clothes.N         dry- PTCPL give-PERF- N
    `I let the clothes dry. '
Example #12:

    b. mi shaam- laa buD- u                      di- l- a
    I Sham- DAT drown- PTCPL give-PERF- N
    `I let Sham drown. '
Example #13:

    c. mi shaam- laa paL- u                 di- l- a
    I Sham- DAT run- PTCPL give- PERF - N
    `I let Sham run.'
Example #14:

    d. mi shaam- laa patra             lih- u             di- l- a
    I Sham- DAT letter.N write- PTCPL give-PERF- N
    `I let Sham write a letter.'
Example #15:

    (9) a. mi raam- kaDun patra           lih- un              ghet-l- a
    I Ram- by          letter.N write- CONJ            take-PERF- N
    `I had the letter written by Ram.'
Example #16:

    b. mi raam- kaDun kholi           saaph kar- un           ghet- l- i
    I Ram- by          room.F clean do- CONJ take- PERF -F
    `I had the room cleaned by Ram. '
Example #17:

    c. mi raam- kaDun kombDi               maar- un        ghet-l- i
    I Ram- by          chicken.F       kill-CONJ take-PERF- F
    `I had the chicken killed by Ram.'
Example #18:

    d. *?mi raam- kaDun jhuraL                     maar- un        ghet- l- a
    I Ram- by           cockroach.N        kill- CONJ take- PERF - N
    `I had the cockroach killed by Ram. '
Example #19:

    e. *mi      raam- kaDun bas- un             ghet-l- a
    I     Ram- by         sit-CONJ        take-PERF- N
    `I benefited from Ram's sitting.'
Example #20:

    f. *mi raam- kaDun buD- un                  ghet-l- a
    I Ram- by        drown- CONJ take-PERF- N
    `I benefited from Ram's drowning. '
Example #21:

    (10) a. tyaa - ne      bhaat      khaa- ll- aa
    he- ERG       rice.M     eat- PERF- M
    `He ate rice.'
Example #22:

    b. raam- ne       tyaa-laa   bhaat    bharaw - l- aa
    Ram- ERG he- DAT         rice.M   feed-PERF- M
    `Ram fed him rice.'
Example #23:

    c. raam- ne   tyaa-laa bhaat           khaa- ylaa laaw- l-aa
    Ram- ERG he- DAT rice.M             eat- PTCPL make- PERF- M
    `Ram made him eat rice.'
Example #24:

    (11) a.  raam-ne       tyaa- laa bhaat        khaa- u    di- l- aa
    Ram-ERG       he- DAT rice.M eat- PTCPL give- PERF - M
    `Ram let him eat rice.'
Example #25:

    b. *raam-ne       tyaacyaa- kaDun        bhaat   khaa- un     ghet- l- aa
    Ram-ERG       he- by                 rice.M eat- CONJ take- PERF - M
    `Ram benefited through his eating rice.'
Example #26:

    (12) a. tyaa- ne kapDe            ghaat- l- e
    he- ERG clothes.N        wear- PERF - N
    `He wore the clothes.'
Example #27:

    b. raam- ne     tyaa-laa     kapDe ghaat- l- e
    Ram- ERG he- DAT         clothes.N dress- PERF - N
    `Ram dressed him. '
Example #28:

    c. raam- ne   tyaa-laa kapDe              ghaal- aaylaa   laaw-l- e
    Ram- ERG he- ACC clothes.N             wear- PTCPL     make- PERF - N
    `Ram made him wear the clothes.'
Example #29:

    (13) a. raam bas- l- aa
    Ram sit- PERF - M
    `Ram sat.'
Example #30:

    b. mi raam- laa            bas- aw-l- a
    I      Ram- DAT        sit-CAUS - PERF - N
    `I sat/seated Ram. '
Example #31:

    c. mi raam- laa             kholi- t bas- aaylaa   laaw-l- a
    I      Ram- DAT         room- in sit-PTCPL     make- PERF - N
    `I made Ram sit in     the room.'
Example #32:

    (16)   raam don kilomiTar        paL- l-aa
    Ram two kilometer         run- PERF - M
    `Ram ran two kilometers.'
Example #33:

    *paN shaam     raam- barobar paL- l- aa            naahi
    but Sham     Ram- with       run- PERF - M       not
    `Sham made   Ram run two kilometers but he did   not run with Ram. '
Example #34:

    paN shaam    raam- barobar paL-l- aa            naahi
    but Sham     Ram- with       run- PERF- M not
    `Sham made Ram run two kilometers but he did not run with Ram. '
Example #35:

    (18) a. mi    raam- kaDun kholi           saaph kar- aw- l- i
    I     Ram- by      room.F         clean do- CAUS - PERF- F
    `I had Ram clean the room. '
Example #36:

    b. shaam-ne       raam- kaDun        patra      lih-aw- l-a
    Sham- ERG      Ram- by            letter.N   write- CAUS -PERF- N
    `Sham had Ram write a letter.    '
Example #37:

    raam-kaDun kholi             saaf kar- aw- l- i (Sociative)
    Ram-by         room.F        clean do- CAUS- PERF - F
    `I went for a walk for one   hour and during that time had Ram clean the room. '
Example #38:

    raam- kaDun kholi             saaph kar- aaylaa laaw- l-i (Indirect)
    Ram- by         room.F        clean do- PTCPL make- PERF- F
    `I went for a walk for one   hour and during that time had Ram clean the room. '
Example #39:

    (20) a. mi     raam- kaDun kholi        saaph   kar- un       ghet- l- i
    I      Ram- by       room.F clean       do- CONJ      take- PERF - F
    `I got the room cleaned by Ram. '
Example #40:

    b. shaam-ne raam- kaDun patra              lih- un          ghet-l- a
    Sha m- ERG Ram- by          letter.N    write- CONJ      take-PERF- N
    `Sham got the letter written by Ram.'
Example #41:

    (30) a. raam- ne      sitaa- laa     pustak wikat          ghe - un      di- l-a
    Ram- ERG Sita-DAT           book.N purchase take- CONJ give- PERF - N
    `Ram bought Sita a book.'
Example #42:

    b. * raam- ne        sitaa- laa    baadzaar - aat dzaa-un      di- l- a
    Ram- ERG Sita- DAT           market- in     go- CONJ give- PERF - N
    `(lit.) Ram went Sita to the market/Ram went to the market for Sita.'
Example #43:

    (31) a.   raam- ne       sitaa- laa            pustak wikat     ghe- u       di- l- a
    Ram- ERG Sita-DATbook.N purchase                     take- PTCPL give- PERF- N
    `Ram let Sita buy a book.'
Example #44:

    b. raam- ne     sitaa- laa     baadzaar- aat     dzaa-u        di- l- a
    Ram- ERG Sita-DAT           market- in        go- PTCPL give- PERF - N
    `Ram let Sita go to the market.'
Example #45:

    (32) a. raam- ne     sitaa- kaDun patra lih- un      ghet-l- a
    Ram- ERG Sita-by            letter.N write- CONJ take- PERF - N
    `Ram got the letter written by Sita.'
Example #46:

    b. *raam-ne          sitaa- kaDun baadzaar- aat    dzaa- un      ghet- l- a
    Ram-ERG         Sita- by       market- in     go- CONJ take- PERF - N
    `Ram got Sita to go to the market/Ram benefited from Sita's going to the market.