The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Baker, Mark (2002). On Zero Agreement and Polysynthesis.

URL: http://ling.rutgers.edu/people/faculty/baker/Mapuche-polypara-txt2.pdf

(Last accessed 2005-02-15).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 1267&langcode=nnb (2021-09-24).


Example #1:

    (5)    a. N-a-gul-a      eritunda.                    (Kinande)
    1sS-past-buy fruit
    `I bought a fruit.'
Example #2:

    b. Eritunda, n-a-ri-gul-a.
    fruit      1sS-past-OM-buy-FV
    `The fruit, I bought it.'
Example #3:

    (10)    a. Ng-u-li-gul-a      ebitsungu, Kambale a-luandi-bi-kuk-a.
    if-2sS-npst-buy-FV potatoes   Kambale SM-FUT-OM-cook-FV
    `If you buy potatoes, Kambale will cook them.'
Example #4:

    b. #Ng-u-li-gul-a      ebitsungu, Kambale a-luandi-kuk-a.
    if-2sS-npst-buy-FV potatoes     Kambale SM-FUT-cook-FV
    Only as: `If you buy potatoes, Kambale will do the cooking.'
Example #5:

    (19)   a. N-a-(*ri)-gul-a     eritunda.
    1sS-T-OM-buy-FV fruit
    `I bought a fruit.'
Example #6:

    b. Eritunda, n-a-*(ri)-gul-a.
    fruit        1sS-T-OM-buy
    `The fruit, I bought it.'
Example #7:

    (20)    a. Omukali mo-a-sat-ire.
    woman    AFF-3s/T-dance-EXT
    `The woman danced.'
Example #8:

    b. *Mo-a-sat-ire       omukali.
    AFF-3s/T-dance-EXT woman
    `The woman danced.'
Example #9:

    (22)    a. Kambale a-gul-a         ebihi?
    Kambale SM/T-buy-FV what
    `What did Kambale buy?'
Example #10:

    b. *Ebihi    Kambale    a-bi-gul-a?
    What      Kambale    SM/T-OM-buy-FV
    `What did Kambale buy?'
Example #11:

    (i)     Ebihi byo Kambale a-(*bi)-gul-a?                      (confirm)
    what FOC Kambale SM/T-OM-buy-FV
    `What did Kambale buy?'
Example #12:

    (25)   a. Omukali mo-a-gul-ire          *(e)-kindu.
    woman    AFF-SM/T-buy-FV AUG-thing
    `The woman bought something.'
Example #13:

    b. Omukali mo-a-teta-gul-a           kindu.
    woman     AFF-SM-NEG/past-buy-FV thing
    `The woman didn't buy anything.'
Example #14:

    (26)   *Kindu, omukali mo-a-teta-ki-gul-a.
    thing      woman AFF-SM-NEG/PAST-OM-buy-FV
    `Anything, the woman didn't buy it.'
Example #15:

    (i)       *Kambale          yo        n-a-seny-a       [olukwi (lwa) --]
    Kambale           FOC       1sS-T-chop-FV wood ASSOC
    `It's Kambale that I chopped his wood.' (cf., olukwi lwa Kambale `wood of Kambal
Example #16:

    (38)     *Kambale mo-a-tunda-gul-ire.
    Kambale AFF-3sS/T-fruit-buy-EXT
    `Kambale bought (some) fruit.'
Example #17:

    (42)     Mo-ba-nyi-bw-ire      ba-ti   Kambale mo-a-gul-ire   eritunda.
    AFF-3pS-1sO-tell-EXT 3p-that Kambale AFF-3sS-buy-EXT fruit.
    `They told me that Kambale bought fruit.'