The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Oshima, David Y. (2004). Syntactic direction and obviation as empathy-based phenomena: a typological approach.

URL: http://www.stanford.edu/~davidyo/docs/empinv.pdf

(Last accessed 2005-06-06).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 1302&langcode=jpn (2022-01-20).


Example #1:

    (2)        a.     Taro-ga Hanako-o tasukete-yat-ta.
    Taro-Nom Hanako-Acc help-Ben-Past
    `Taro helped Hanako (for her/my/... sake).'
Example #2:

    okane-o     yat-ta.
    money-Acc give-Past
    `Taro gave money to Hanako because Hanako gave him a book.'
Example #3:

    a. Boku-ga Max-ni hon-o          yat-ta.
    I-Nom Max-Dat book-Acc give-Past
    `I gave Max a book.'
Example #4:

    a. Boku-ga Max-o tasuke-ta.
    I-Nom Max-Acc help-Past
    `I helped Max.'
Example #5:

    b. ?Max-ga boku-ni tasuke-rare-ta.
    Max-Nom I-Dat help-Pass-Past
    `Max was helped by me.'
Example #6:

    a. Maxi -wa karei -no musuko-ni tasuke-rare-ta.
    Maxi -Top hei -Gen son-Dat help-Pass-Past
    `Max was helped by his son.'
Example #7:

    b. *Maxi -no musuko-ga karei -ni tasuke-rare-ta.
    Maxi -Top hei -Gen son-Dat help-Pass-Past
    `Max's son was helped by him.'
Example #8:

    `Taro is prosperous these days. I gave him money.'
Example #9:

    `Taro is short of money these days. He gave me his money.'
Example #10:

    `This fence protects sheep against wolves.'
Example #11:

    (69)      Boku-wa Max-ni hon-o      yat-ta.
    I-Top    Max-Dat book-Acc give-Past
    `I gave Max a book.'