The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Liina Pylkkanen (2000). What Applicative Heads Apply To.

URL: http://web.mit.edu/liina/Public/PLC-applicatives.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 1363&langcode=jpn (2022-01-20).


Example #1:

    (1 6 )   a.   Taroo-ga     musuko-ni sin-are-ta.
    Taroo-NOM son-DAT        die-PASS-PAST
    `Taro's son died on him'     (adversity passive)
Example #2:

    *Taroo-ga ame-o            hur-ase-ta.
    Taroo-NOM rain-ACC         fall-CAUSE-PAST
    `Taro was rained on'
Example #3:

    Taroo-ga      ame-ni       hur-are-ta.
    Taroo-NOM rain-DAT fall-PASS-PAST
    `Taro was rained on'
Example #4:

    *Taroo-ga musuko-o soba-de                  sob-ase-ta
    Taro-NOM son-ACC          near-LOC          play-CAUSE-PAST
    `Taro was adversely affected by his so    n playing near by'
Example #5:

    (2 1 )   a.    Taroo-ga sensoo-ni-yotte musuko-o sin-ase-ta
    Taroo-ga war-by           son-ACC      die-CAUSE-PAST
    `Taro's son was caused to die on him by the war'
Example #6:

    b.    *Taroo-ga sensoo-ni-yotte musuko-ni sin-are-ta
    Taroo-ga war-by           son-DAT      die-PASS-PAST
    `Taro's son died on him by the war
Example #7:

    (22)     a.    Taroo-ga     titioya-ni    sin-are-ta.
    Taro-NOM father-DAT die-PASS-PAST
    `Taro was affected by his father dying'
Example #8:

    b.    #Taroo-ga titioya-o        sin-ase-ta.
    Taro-NOM father-ACC die-CAUSE-PAST
    `Taro was affected by his father dying'
Example #9:

    (2 3 )   a.    Taroo-ga      katteni      koronda.
    Taro-NOM by.self           fell.down
    `Taro fell down all by himself'
Example #10:

    b.    Taroo-ga      musuko-ni katteni korob-are-ta
    Taro-NOM son-DAT           by.self fall.down-PASS-PAST
    `Taro was affected by his son falling down all by himself'
Example #11:

    c.    ??Taroo-ga musuko-o katteni korob-ase-ta
    Taro-NOM son-ACC           by.self fall.down-CAUSE-PAST
    `Taro was affected by his son falling down all by himself'
Example #12:

    (24)     *Taroo-ga Hanako-ni-yotte yasai-o            kusar-ase-ta
    Taroo-ga Hanako-by        vegetable-ACC rot-CAUSE-PAST
    `Taroo was affected by Hanako's causing the vegetable to rot'