The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Robert D. Van Valin, Jr. (2005). Chapter 4.

URL: http://www.phil-fak.uni-duesseldorf.de/summerschool2002/Van5.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 1485&langcode=kin (2021-09-17).


Example #1:

    (4.34)a. Umukobwa a-ra-som-a                  igitabo.                       Kinyarwanda
    girl            1-PRES-read-MOOD book
    `The girl is reading a book.'
Example #2:

    b. Umukobwa a-ra-som-er-a                     umuhungu igitabo.
    girl           1-PRES-read-APPL-MOOD boy               book
    `The girl is reading the boy a book.'
Example #3:

    (4.35)a. Umugre a-r-h-er-a                    umugabo mbwa ibryo.
    woman 1-PRES-give-APPL-MOOD man                   dog     food
    `The woman is giving food to the dog for the man.'
Example #4:

    b. mwana       y-a-andik-i-y-mo                   umugabo igitabo izn rye.
    child         1-PAST-write-APPL-MOOD-LOC          man     book name of.him
    `The child   wrote in the man's book his name.'