The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Keenan, Edward L. (2005). Extraction without Movement: is Malagasy a Perfect Language?.

URL: http://www.linguistics.ucla.edu/people/keenan/papers/KeenanMalagasyPerfectLanguage.pdf

(Last accessed 2005-06-25).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 1489&langcode=plt (2021-06-22).


Example #1:

    (2)    a.      [n+aN+enjika (nanenjika) ny jiolahy] Rabe
    past+AF+chase           the thief    Rabe
    Rabe chased the thief
Example #2:

    b.      [n+enjika+ina+Rabe (nenjehin-dRabe)]        ny jiolahy
    past+chase+TF+Rabe.gen                      the thief
    Rabe chased the thief (The thief was chased by Rabe)
Example #3:

    (4)     a.      nanenjika azy izy
    past+AF+chase 3sg.acc 3nom
    He/She chased him/her
Example #4:

    b.      n+enjika+ina+-ny (nenjehiny) izy
    past+chase+TF+3gen 3nom
    He/She was chased by him/her
Example #5:

    ny    alahelo               n-dRazay an-drai+ny
    the compassion           gen-Razay acc-father+her
    Razay's compassion for her father
Example #6:

    (16) n+[[aN+halatra]+ina]+Rabe (nangalarin-dRabe) ny omby
    past[[AF+steal]+TF+Rabe.gen the cow
    The cow was stolen by Rabe
Example #7:

    (17) a. n+amp+aN+taov (nampanao) farafara azy ireo Rabe
    Past+Cause+AF+make bed 3.acc dem.pl Rabe
    Rabe made them make beds
Example #8:

    b. n+[amp+aN+taov]+ina+Rabe (ampanaovin-dRabe) farafara izy ireo
    Past+[[Cause+AF+make]+TF]+Rabe        bed    3.nom dem.pl
    They were made by Rabe to make beds
Example #9:

    c. [m+amp+aN+sasa (mampanasa) lamba azy] Rasoa
    pres+Cause+AF+wash clothes him Rasoa
    Rasoa is making him wash clothes
Example #10:

    d. [i+amp+aN+sasa+ina+Rasoa (ampanasain-dRasoa) lamba] izy
    pres+[[Cause+AF+wash]+TF]+Rasoa.gen clothes he
    He is being made by Rasoa to wash clothes
Example #11:

    (18) a. [n+aN+tosika (nanosika) ny fiara] Rabe          (AF)
    past+AF+push the car Rabe
    Rabe pushed the car
Example #12:

    b.   [n+a+tosika+Rabe (natosi-dRabe)] ny fiara      (TF)
    past+TF+push+Rabe.gen the car
    Rabe pushed the car
Example #13:

    (19) a.   n+aN+tolotra (nanolotra) boky azy aho
    past+AF+offer            book 3acc 1nomI
    I offered a book to him
Example #14:

    b.   no+tolotra+(a)na+ko (notolorako) boky izy
    past+offer+GF+1sg.gen            book 3nom
    He was offered a book by me
Example #15:

    c.     n+a+tolotra+ko (natolotro) azy ny boky
    past+TF+offer+1sg.gen      3acc the book
    The book was offered to him by me
Example #16:

    (21)        m+if+aN+enjika (mifanenjika) Rabe sy Rakoto
    pres+Rec+AF+chase Rabe and Rakoto
    Rabe and Rakoto are chasing each other
Example #17:

    c.     [n+[aN+enjika]+ana+Rabe (nanenjehan-dRabe) ny jiolahy] ny fiara
    past+[[AF+chase]+CF]+Rabe.gen              the thief the car
    The car was used by Rabe to chase the thief
Example #18:

    b.     m+aN+taov (manao) ny trano Rabe
    pres+aN+make the house Rabe
    Rabe is making a house
Example #19:

    b.       m+aN+taov (manao) ny trano ho an-dRasoa Rabe                        (AF)
    pres+aN+make the house for Rasoa Rabe
    Rabe is making the house for Rasoa
Example #20:

    (37) a. ny fahazotoana n+[[i+asa]+ana]+Rabe (niasan-dRabe)
    the zeal      past+[[AF+work]+CF]+Rabe.gen
    *the zeal (which) was worked with by Rabe
Example #21:

    b. ny andro n+aha+teraka+ana+Rabe (nahaterahan-dRabe)
    The day on which [past+[[AF+born]+CF]]+Rabe.gen
    *the day(that) was born(ed) on by Rabe
Example #22:

    (38)     ny    hafalian-dehibe n+i+arahaba+ana+nay (niarahabanay) anao
    the   happiness-great past [[AF+greet]+CF]+1.pl.excl 2sg.acc
    *the    great happiness (that) were greeted you by us
Example #23:

    b. [i+anaovan-dRabe trano] Rasoa
    pres+[AF+do]+CF+Rabe.gen house Rasoa
    Rabe is making a house for/because of Rasoa
Example #24:

    c. [i+anaovan-dRabe trano] ny birikinay
    pres+[aN+do]+CF+Rabe.gen house the bricks+our
    Rabe is making a house with our bricks
Example #25:

    d. ny vehivavy [i+anaovan-dRabe trano]
    the woman makes-Rabe house
    *?the woman who is being made by Rabe a house for/because of
Example #26:

    (40) a.    [m+aN+ampy an-dRabe h+aN+petraka (hametraka) ny kodiarana] Rasoa
    pres+AF+help acc-Rabe fut+AF+place the wheel Rasoa
    Rasoa is helping Rabe change the tire
Example #27:

    b.    [ampian-dRasoa h+a+petraka+Rabe (hapetra-dRabe)] ny kodiarana
    help+TF-Rasoa.gen fut+TF+place+Rabe.gen the wheel
    Rasoa is helping Rabe change the tire
Example #28:

    c.     ny kodiarana ampian-dRasoa hapetra-dRabe
    the wheel which Rasoa is helping Rabe change
    * the wheel which is being helped by Rasoa to be changed by Rabe
Example #29:

    (41) a. [niakatra hianatra teny vahiny tany Antananarivo] i Soa
    past+AF+go+up fut+AF+study lg foreign past+loc Antananarivo art Soa
    Soa went up to study foreign languages in Antananarivo
Example #30:

    (42) a.    [n+i+kasa h+aN+vaky (nikasa hamaky) io boky io] Rabe
    past+AF+intend fut+AF+read that book that Rabe
    Rabe intended to read that book
Example #31:

    b.    [no+kasa+ina-dRabe (nokasain-dRabe) ho vaky+ina (vakina)] io boky io
    past+intend+TF+Rabe.gen fut read+TF that book that
    Rabe intended to read that book
Example #32:

    c.     ny boky nokasain-dRabe ho vakina
    the book that Rabe intended to read
    *?the book that was intended to be read by Rabe (intended by whom?)
Example #33:

    (43) a.          manantena aho fa nanaovan-dRabe trano Rasoa
    pres+AF+hope 1.sg.nom that past+[AF+do]+CF+Rabe.gen house Rasoa
    I hope that Rabe made a house for Rasoa2
Example #34:

    b.        [manantena an-dRasoa ho nanaovan-dRabe trano] aho                (RTO)
    pres+AF+hope acc-Rasoa as past+do+CF-Rabe.gen house I
    I hope Rabe made a house for Rasoa
Example #35:

    d.     ny    vehivavy [antenaiko ho nanaovan-dRabe trano]
    the   woman hoped+1sg.gen as built+CF-Rabe.gen house
    ??the   woman who is hoped by me to have been built a house for by Rabe
Example #36:

    (44) a.          Hadino+ko ny anarana+ny (anarany)
    forget(TF root)+1sg.gen the name+3.gen
    I forgot his name
Example #37:

    b.        Hadino+ko anarana izy                           (Raising from DP)
    forget(TF root)+1sg.gen name 3nom
    He had his name forgotten by me
Example #38:

    c.     ny mpianatra hadinoko anarana
    the student forget(TF root)+1sg.gen name
    *?the student who is name-forgotten by me
Example #39:

    (45)        a.     Fohy ny andro n+i+velo+mana+Rabe (niveloman-dRabe)
    Short the days past+[AF+live]+CF+Rabe.gen
    The days during which Rabe lived were short/few
Example #40:

    b.     Fohy andro nivelomana Rabe                        (Raising from DP)
    Short day lived+CF Rabe.nom
    Rabe had a short life
Example #41:

    c.     ny olona fohy andro nivelomana
    the people short day lived+CF
    the people who had a short life
Example #42:

    c.  ny taranatsika amonoantsika tena
    the descendants that [AF+kill]+CF+1pl.gen.incl self
    the descendants that we kill ourselves for
Example #43:

    (47) a. [n+aN+ampy (nanampy) azy h+i+tsara ny fanadinana] isika
    past+AF+help 3acc fut+AF+judge the exams we.incl
    We helped them grade the exams
Example #44:

    b         [n+if+an+ampy h+i+tsara ny fanadinana] isika
    past+rec+AF+help fut+AF+judge the exams we.incl
    We helped each other grade the exams
Example #45:

    c.        [nifanampian+tsika hitsarana] ny fanadinana
    past+[rec+[AF+help]+CF]+1.gen.pl.incl fut+[[AF+judge]+CF] the exams
    We helped each other grade the exams
Example #46:

    d.     ny fanadinana [nifanampian-tsika hitsarana]
    the exams past+[rec+[AF+help]+CF]+1.gen.pl.incl fut+[[AF+judge]+CF]
    *the exams that were reciprocally helped by us to be graded
Example #47:

    (48) *ny trano nataon-dRabe ny farafara
    the house built-by-Rabe the bed
    The house that Rabe made a bed
Example #48:

    (49)   a. milalao ao an-trano ny zazalahy sy ny zazavavy
    play there in-house the boys and the girls
    The boys and the girls are playing in the house
Example #49:

    (50)   a. nandositra ny olona nangalatra ny omby
    fled        the person stole (AF) the cow
    the person who stole the cow fled
Example #50:

    (60)   Ity radary ity dia ny Rosiana no nanao azy
    this radar this top the Russians Foc past+AF+make 3acc
    As for this radar, it was the Russians who built it
Example #51:

    (62)   m+aN+tolotra (nanolotra) azy ny vahiny aho
    pres+AF+offer            3acc the guests 1sg.nom
    I offer it to the guests
Example #52:

    dia hividianako sy homeko fahasambarana (ianao)
    then fut+buy+CF+1sg.gen and fut+give+GF+1sg.gen happiness.acc (2sg.nom)
    If you will be obediant ... then I will buy for and give you happiness
Example #53:

    (71) a. n+aN+tondro+ana+ko (nanondroako) ilay toerana ianao
    past+[AF+indicate]+CF+1sg.gen    that place 2sg.nom
    I pointed out that place to you
Example #54:

    b. nanondroako sy naka ilay toerana ianao
    indicate-by-me and took that place you
    You were shown by me, and took, that place
Example #55:

    b. *noho ilay zanaka no Ramavo manambady
    because that son Foc Ramavo married
    because it was that son that Ramavo married
Example #56:

    Tsy fantatro [izay mpianatra [P1 nanenjika azy]]
    not known-by-me who student chased+AF her
    I don't know which student chased her
Example #57:

    Any ambanivohitra izy no mipetraka
    there countryside 3nom Foc pres+AF+sit
    It is in the country that he lives
Example #58:

    Aiza izy no mipetraka?
    Where he Foc pres+AF+sit
    Where is it that he lives?
Example #59:

    a. [P1 mihevitra an-dRabe ho [P1 nanenjika azy]] Rasoa
    thinks acc-Rabe comp chased+AF her Rasoa
    Rasoa thinks Rabe to have chased her
Example #60:

    b. [P1 mihevitra an-dRasoa ho [P1 nenjehin-dRabe]] aho
    pres+AF+think acc-Rasoa comp chased+TF+Rabe 1.sg.nom
    I think Rasoa to have been chased by Rabe
Example #61:

    c. [P1 i+heveriko ho[P1 nenjehin-dRabe]] Rasoa
    pres+think+TF+2sg.gen comp past+chase+TF+Rabe.gen Rasoa
    Rasoa is thought by me to have been chased by Rabe
Example #62:

    [P1 manampy azy hametraka ny kodiarana] Rabe
    help+AF him fut+change the wheel Rabe
    Rabe is helping him change the tire
Example #63:

    a. Tsy tian-dRakoto ny [P1 n+a+tao+nao azy]
    not like+TF-Rakoto.gen the past+TF+do+2.sg.gen 3.acc
    Rakoto doesn't like what you did to him
Example #64:

    b. araka izao [[ahitana-ii sy ahafantara-nareoi] ahy] izao     (= (53))
    according this [[[see+CF and know+CF]+2.gen.pl] 1.sg.acc] this
    according to that which you see and (you) understand of me
Example #65:

    (i) a. manolóra (m+aN+tólotra+a) vary azy!         (Stress marked)
    offer+AF pres+aN+offer+imp rice them
    Offer them rice
Example #66:

    b. tolóry (tólotra+y) vary izy
    offer+GF offer+imp rice they
    Offer them rice
Example #67:

    c. atolóry (a+tólotra+y) azy ny vary
    offer TF+offer+imp them the rice
    Offer them the rice
Example #68:

    d. anolóry vary azy ny lovia vaovao
    offer+CF rice them the dishes new
    Use the new dishes to serve them rice
Example #69:

    (ii) a. mahazo manao (m+aN+tao(v)) izany aho
    permitted pres+aN+do that I
    I can do that
Example #70:

    b. Tsy azoko (azo + ko) atao izany
    Not can + 1.sg.gen a+do that
    I can't do that
Example #71:

    b. Tsy haiko (hay + ko) anoratana (aN+soratra+ana) io penina io
    not able+1.sg.gen aN+write+ana that pen that
    I can't write with that pen
Example #72:

    (iv) a. n+i+kasa (ny) hamaky (h+aN+vaky) io boky io aho
    past+i+intend (the) fut+aN+read that book that I
    I intended to read that book
Example #73:

    b. nokasaiko (no+kasa+ina+ko) (ny) hovakina (ho+vaky+ina) io boky io
    past+intend+Vna+1.sg.gen (the) fut+read+ina that book that
    I intended to read that book
Example #74:

    c. Voa+kapoka (voakapoka) ilay alika
    TF beat         that (aforementioned) dog
    That dog was beaten
Example #75:

    b. [P1 Heverin-dRabe fa nangalatra ny omby] Rakoto
    Think(TF)-Rabe.gen that stole(AF) the cow Rakoto
    Rabe thinks that Rakoto stole the cow
Example #76:

    (ii) a. Inona no heverin-dRabe?
    What Foc think+TF+Rabe.gen
    What does Rabe think?
Example #77:

    b. Iza no heverin-dRabe fa nangalatra ny omby?         (ho is preferred to fa here)
    Who Foc think+Rabe that stole+AF the cow
    Who does Rabe think stole the cow?