The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Keenanm Edward L. and Jean-Paulin Razafimamonjy Reciprocals in Malagasy

URL: http://www.linguistics.ucla.edu/people/keenan/Reciprocals_OL_final.pdf

(Last accessed 2005-06-25).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 1490&langcode=plt (2021-06-22).


Example #1:

    (1) a.     m+aN+enjika (manenjika) an-dRabe Rakoto
    pres+act+chase acc-Rabe Rakoto
    Rakoto is chasing Rabe
Example #2:

    b.     m+if+aN+enjika (mifanenjika) Rabe sy Rakoto
    pres+rec+act+chase Rabe and Rakoto
    Rabe and Rakoto are chasing each other
Example #3:

    (4) m+i+enjika any an-tsaha ny omby
    pres+act+run there at-hills the cows
    The cows are running to the hills
Example #4:

    (7) a.   ny olona izay manenjika an-dRabe
    the person who chases acc-Rabe
    the person who is chasing Rabe
Example #5:

    b. *ny olona izay manenjika Rakoto
    the person who chases Rakoto
    the person who Rakoto is chasing
Example #6:

    b.     ny mpianatra izay mifanenjika
    the student(s) rel rec+chase
    the students who are chasing each other
Example #7:

    (9) -enjika+ina+Rakoto (enjehin-dRakoto) Rabe
    pres-chase+thm+Rakoto.gen Rabe
    Rakoto is chasing Rabe
Example #8:

    (15)   a.   m+aN+hataka (mangataka) vola an-dRabe Ravao
    pres+act+ask money acc-Rabe Ravao
    Ravao asks Rabe for money
Example #9:

    (16)     a.   m+i+jery azy aho
    pres+act+look+at him I
    I am looking at him
Example #10:

    b.   m+ifamp+i+jery isika
    pres+rec+act+look+at we.incl
    We (you and I) are looking at each other
Example #11:

    (20)   mifanenjika amin-dRabe Rakoto
    pres+rec+act+chase with-Rabe Rakoto
    Rakoto is engaged in mutual chasing with Rabe
Example #12:

    (21)   a.   ny olona iray izay mifanenjika amin-dRabe
    the person one who pres+rec+act+chase with-Rabe
    the one person who is engaged in mutual chasing with Rabe
Example #13:

    b. *ny olona iray izay mifanenjika
    the person one who pres+rec+act+chase
    the one person who is chasing each other
Example #14:

    (22 ) a.    m+i+homehy aho
    pres+act+laugh 1.sg.nom
    I am laughing
Example #15:

    b.   m+amp+i+homehy azy aho
    pres+cause+act+laugh 3.acc 1.sg.nom
    I am making him laugh
Example #16:

    c.   m+if+amp+i+homehy isika
    pres+rec+cause+act+laugh 1.pl.incl
    We are making each other laugh
Example #17:

    (23)   m+amp+i+homehy izany
    pres+cause+act+laugh that
    That is funny, makes (one) laugh
Example #18:

    c.   m+if+anka+a+siaka (mifankasiaka) Rabe sy Ranaivo
    pres+rec+cause+act+nasty Rabe and Ranaivo
    Rabe and Ranaivo are making each other nasty
Example #19:

    (26)   a.   m+aN+sasa (manasa) lamba Rasoa
    pres+act+wash clothes Rasoa
    Rasoa is washing clothes
Example #20:

    b.   m+amp+aN+sasa (mampanasa) lamba an-dRasoa aho
    pres+cause+act+wash clothes acc-Rasoa 1.sg.nom
    I am having Rasoa wash clothes
Example #21:

    c.   m+if+amp+aN+sasa (mifampanasa) lamba Rabe sy Rasoa
    pres+rec+cause+act+wash clothes Rabe and Rasoa
    Rabe and Rasoa are making each other wash clothes
Example #22:

    (27)   a.   n+i+anatra zavatra betsaka aho
    past +act+study thing many 1.sg.nom
    I studied many things
Example #23:

    b.   n+amp+i+anatra zavatra betsaka ahy Rabe
    past+cause+act+study thing many 1.sg.acc Rabe
    Rabe taught me many things
Example #24:

    c.   n+if+amp+i+anatra zavatra betsaka isika
    past+rec+cause+act+study thing many 1.pl.incl
    We taught each other many things
Example #25:

    (30)   a.     n+aN+ome (nanome) boky an-dRabe aho
    past+act+give book acc-Rabe 1.sg.nom
    I gave Rabe a book
Example #26:

    b.     n+if+aN+ome (nifanome) boky izahay
    past+rec+act+give book 1.pl.excl
    We gave each other books
Example #27:

    (33)   a.   h+i+laza vaovao amin-dRabe aho
    fut+act+say news prep-Rabe 1.sg.nom
    I will tell Rabe the news
Example #28:

    b.   h+ifamp+i+laza vaovao isika
    fut+rec+act+say news 1.pl.incl
    We will tell each other news
Example #29:

    (34)   a.   m+aN+soratra (manoratra) taratasy hoan-dRabe Rasoa
    pres+act+write letter to/for-Rabe Rasoa
    Rasoa is writing a letter to Rabe
Example #30:

    b.   m+if+aN+soratra (mifanoratra) taratasy Rabe sy Rasoa
    pres+rec+act+write letter Rabe and Rasoa
    Rabe and Rasoa write each other letters
Example #31:

    (35)   a.   m+aN+lainga (mandainga) amin-dRasoa Rabe
    pres+act+lie to-Rasoa Rabe
    Rabe lies to Rasoa
Example #32:

    b.   m+if+aN+lainga (mifandainga) Rabe sy Ranaivo
    pres+rec+act+lie Rabe and Ranaivo
    Rabe and Ranaivo lie to each other
Example #33:

    (36)   a.   m+aN+tao (manao) farafara hoan-dRasoa Rabe
    pres+act+make bed for-Rasoa Rabe
    Rabe is making a bed for Rasoa
Example #34:

    b.   m+if+aN+tao (mifanao) farafara Rabe sy Ranaivo
    pres+rec+act+make bed Rabe and Ranaivo
    Rabe and Ranaivo are making each other beds
Example #35:

    (37)   a.   m+i+petraka akaikin-dRasoa Rabe
    pres+act+sit next+to-Rasoa Rabe
    Rabe sits next to Rasoa
Example #36:

    b. *m+ifamp+i+petraka Rabe sy Rasoa
    pres+rec+act+sit Rabe and Rasoa
    Rabe and Rasoa sit next to each other8
Example #37:

    (39)   a.   m+if+aN+seho (mifaneho) sary isika
    pres+rec+act+show pictures we.incl
    We are showing pictures to each other
Example #38:

    b. *m+if+if+aN+seho (mififaneho) isika
    pres+rec+rec+act+show we.incl
    We are showing each other to each other
Example #39:

    (40)   a.   n+amp+aN+seho (nampaneho) sary ny mpianatra ahy Rabe
    past+cause+act+show picture the student(s) 1.sg.acc Rabe
    Rabe had me show pictures to the students
Example #40:

    b.   n+if+amp+aN+seho (nifampaneho) sary ny mpianatra isika
    past+rec+cause+act+show picture the student 1.pl.incl
    We had each other show pictures to the students
Example #41:

    c. *n+if+if+amp+aN+seho (nififampaneho) sary isika
    past+rec+rec+cause+act+show picture 1.pl.incl
    We had each other show each other pictures
Example #42:

    (41)    a.   n+if+aN+daka (nifandaka) isika
    past+rec+act+kick we.incl
    We kicked each other
Example #43:

    b.   n+amp+if+aN+daka (nampifandaka) antsika Rabe
    past+cause+rec+act+kick us.incl Rabe
    Rabe made us kick each other
Example #44:

    c.   n+if+amp+if+aN+daka (nifampifandaka) isika
    past+rec+cause+rec+act+kick we.incl
    We made each other kick each other
Example #45:

    (42)    a.   m+i+jaly aho
    pres+act+suffer 1.sg.nom
    I suffer
Example #46:

    b.   m+if+amp+i+jaly Rabe sy Rasoa
    pres+rec+cause+act+suffer Rabe and Rasoa
    Rabe and Rasoa make each other suffer
Example #47:

    c. *m+if+amp+if+amp+i+jaly Rabe sy Rasoa9
    pres+rec+cause+rec+cause+act+suffer Rabe and Rasoa
    Rabe and Rasoa make each other make each other suffer
Example #48:

    c.   m+if+aN+intona (mifanintona) volo [i Vao sy i Velo]
    pres+rec+act+pull hair art Vao and art Velo
    Vao and Velo are pulling each other's hair
Example #49:

    c.   n+if+aN+halatra+bitro (nifangala-bitro) i Vao i Velo
    past+rec+act+theft+rabbit art Vao art Velo
    Vao and Velo stole each other's rabbit
Example #50:

    d.   nifangala-bitro fotsy i Vao sy i Velo
    past+rec+act+steal-rabbit white art Vao and art Velo
    Vao and Velo stole each other's white rabbit
Example #51:

    (45)   a.   m+i+sasa Rasoa
    pres+act+wash Rasoa
    Rasoa is washing (herself)
Example #52:

    b.   m+i+sasa tanana Rasoa
    pres+act+wash hand Rasoa
    Rasoa is washing her hands
Example #53:

    (46)   a.   m+aN+ome (manome) vola ny zanan-dRavelo Rasoa
    pres+act+give money the child-of-Ravelo Rasoa
    Rasoa gives money to the children of Ravelo
Example #54:

    b.   mifanome vola zanaka Rasoa sy Ravelo
    pres+rec+act+give money child Rasoa and Ravelo
    Rasoa and Ravelo give money to each other's children
Example #55:

    (47)   a.   m+aN+toro (manoro) hevitra ny zanan-dRabe Rakoto
    pres+act+indicate idea the child-of-Rabe Rakoto
    Rakoto gives advice to the child of Rabe
Example #56:

    b.   m+if+aN+toro (mifanoro) hevitra zanaka Rabe sy Rakoto
    pres+rec+act+indicate idea child Rabe and Rakoto
    Rabe and Rakoto give advice to each other's child
Example #57:

    d. *mifanintona volo zanaka i Soa sy i Vao
    pres+rec+act+pull hair child art Soa and art Vao
    Soa and Vao are pulling each other's child's hair
Example #58:

    c.   m+if+aN+fantatra (mifamantatra) toetra [i Soa sy i Vao]
    pres+rec+act+known character art Soa and art Vao
    Soa and Vao seek to know each other's character
Example #59:

    (51)   a.   mifandaka intelo Rabe sy Ravao
    pres+rec+act+kick three+times Rabe and Ravao
    Rabe and Ravao kicked each other three times
Example #60:

    (52)   nifampindram-bola intelo Rabe sy Ravao
    past+rec+borrow-money three+times Rabe and Ravao
    Rabe and Ravao borrowed money from each other three times
Example #61:

    (53)   a.   m+i+laza Ravelo fa n+aN+halatra+vary (nangala-bary) Rasoa
    pres+act+say Ravelo that past+act+steal+rice Rasoa
    Ravelo says that Rasoa stole rice
Example #62:

    b.   m+i+laza an-dRasoa ho nangala-bary Ravelo
    pres+act+say acc-Rasoa as past+steal-rice Ravelo
    Ravelo says Rasoa to have stolen rice
Example #63:

    c.   n+ifamp+i+laza ho nangala-bary Rasoa sy Ravelo
    past+rec+act+say as past+steal-rice Rasoa and Ravelo
    (Rasoa and Ravelo said that each other stole rice)
Example #64:

    b.     no+laza+ina+Ravelo (nolazain-dRavelo) fa nangala-bary Rasoa
    past+say+thm+Ravelo.gen that stole-rice Rasoa
    That Rasoa stole rice is said by Ravelo
Example #65:

    b.   no+laza+ina Ravelo (nolazain-dRavelo) ho nangala-bary Rasoa
    past+say+thm+Ravelo.gen as stole-rice Rasoa
    Rasoa was said by Ravelo to have stolen rice
Example #66:

    (59)   a.   m+aN+antena (manantena) ny zana-dRasoa ho salama Ravelo
    pres+act+hope the child-of-Rasoa as healthy Ravelo
    Ravelo hopes the children of Rasoa to be healthy
Example #67:

    b.   m+if+aN+antena (mifanantena) zanaka ho salama Rasoa sy Ravao
    pres+rec+act+hope child as healthy Rasoa and Ravao
    Rasoa and Ravao hope that each other's children are healthy
Example #68:

    b.   m+ifamp+i+laza ray aman-dreny ho mangala-bary i Soa sy i Vao
    pres+rec+act+say father and-mother as steal-rice art Soa and art Vao
    Soa and Voa say that each other's parents are stealing rice
Example #69:

    b.   m+i+resadresaka amin-dRabe Rasoa
    pres+act+chitchat with-dRabe Rasoa
    Rasoa is chitchatting with Rabe
Example #70:

    c.   m+ifamp+i+resadresaka Rabe sy Rasoa
    pres+rec+act+chitchat Rabe and Rasoa
    Rabe and Rasoa are chitchatting with each other
Example #71:

    b.   n+i+aro ny zanany sy ny vadiny izy ireo
    past+act+defend the child+3gen and the spouse+3gen 3nom dem+pl
    They defended their children and their spouses
Example #72:

    c.   nifampiaro izy ireo
    past+rec+act+defend 3nom dem+pl
    They defended each other
Example #73:

    d. *nifampiaro [e] sy ny vadiny izy ireo
    past+rec+act+defend [e] and spouse+3gen 3nom dem+pl
    They defended each other and their/each other's spouses
Example #74:

    c.   [[if+[aN+tao]]+vana]+y] (ifanaovy) farafara ity vy ity!
    rec+act+do+circ+imp bed this metal this
    Use this metal to make beds for each other!
Example #75:

    (69)   a.   ny taratasy (izay) n+if+aN+soratra+ana (nifanoratan)-dRabe sy Rasoa
    the letters (that) past+rec+act+write+circ+gen-Rabe and Rasoa
    the letters (that) were written to each other by Rabe and Rasoa.
Example #76:

    b.   ny vaovao (izay) n+ifamp+i+tantara+ana (nifampitantaran)-dR sy R
    the news that past+rec+act+narrate+circ Rabe and Rasoa
    the news that was told to each other by Rabe and Rasoa
Example #77:

    c.   ny soa n+if+aN+tao+vana+tsika (nifanaovantsika)
    the good past+rec+act+do+circ+us(1pl.incl.gen)
    the good that was done for each other by us
Example #78:

    (72)   a.   m+ifanka+ahalala (mifankahalala) ny mpianatra
    pres+rec+know the student(s)
    The students know each other
Example #79:

    b.   m+amp+ifanka+ahalala (mampifankahalala) azy ireo ny mpampianatra
    pres+cause+rec+know 3acc.dem+pl the teacher
    The teacher introduced the students to each other
Example #80:

    (73)   a.   n+aN+vono (namono)tena Rabe
    past+act+ kill self Rabe
    Rabe killed himself
Example #81:

    b.   n+amp+aN+vono tena an-dRabe Rakoto
    past+cause+act+kill self acc-Rabe Rakoto
    Rakoto made Rabe kill himself
Example #82:

    b. +amp+if+aN+tao+vana+ko (ampifanaovako) farafara azy ireo ity vy ity
    pres+cause+rec+act+make+circ+1sg.gen bed 3acc dem+pl this metal this
    I am making them make each other beds with this metal
Example #83:

    (77)    a.   mifamangy matetika ireto mpifanome vola ireto
    visit-each+other often these givers-to-each+other (of) money these
    These givers to each other of money visit each other often
Example #84:

    b.   miady mafy ireo mpifampilaza ho mpangalatra ireo
    fight hard those nom+rec+act+say as nom+act+steal those
    Those people who said each other to be thieves are fighting hard
Example #85:

    b.     hotohizana ny fifanolorantsika fanomezana isan-taona
    fut+continue+thm the rec+offer+circ+by+us.gen.incl gifts each+year
    Our yearly giving of gifts to each other will continue
Example #86:

    (83)   a.     n+i+kasa h+aN+vaky (nikasa hamaky) io boky io aho
    past+act+intend fut+act+read that book that I
    I intended to read that book
Example #87:

    b.    no+kasa+ina+-ko ho+vaky+ina (nokasaiko ho vakina) io boky io
    past+intend+thm+1.sg.gen fut+read+thm that book that
    That book was intended by me to be read (by me)
Example #88:

    (84)   a.     naniry hifandefa boky izahay
    past-act-desire fut+rec+act+send book we.excl
    We desired to send each other books
Example #89:

    b.     ny boky n+iry+ina+nay h+if+aN+lefa+sana (nirinay hifandefasana)
    the books past+desire+thm+1.pl.excl.gen fut+rec+act+send+circ
    the books we desired to send to each other
Example #90:

    (86)   a.   m+aha+azo (mahazo) m+ifamp+i+tantara vaovao maro isika
    pres+aha+receive pres+rec+act+tell news much we.incl
    We may / are permitted to tell each other much news
Example #91:

    b.   Maro ny vaovao azo+ntsika ifamp+i+tantara+ana (ifampitantarana)
    many the news receive.thm+1.pl.incl.gen rec+act+tell+circ17
    We have much to tell each other
Example #92:

    (87)   a.   h+aN+ampy (hanampy) azy h+i+tsara ireto fanadinana ireto isika
    fut+act+help 3acc fut+act+judge these exam these we.incl
    We will help them grade these exams
Example #93:

    b.   h+if+aN+ampy (hifanampy) h+i+tsara ireto fanadinana ireto isika
    fut+rec+act+help fut+act+judge these exams these we.incl
    We will help each other grade these exams
Example #94:

    (88)   a.   hifanampiantsika hotsaraina ireto fanadinana ireto
    fut+rec+act+help+circ+1.incl.gen fut+judge+thm these exam these
    "We will help each other grade these exams"
Example #95:

    (89)    a.     n+i+kasa hifanampy hitsara ny fanadinana izahay
    past+act+intend fut+rec+act+help fut+act+judge the exam 1pl.excl
    We intended to help each other grade the exams
Example #96:

    b.     no+kasa+ina+nay (nokasainay) hifanampiana hotsaraina ny fanadinana
    past+intend+thm+1pl.excl.gen fut-rec+act+help+circ fut+judge+thm
    "We intended to help each other grade the exams"         [the exams
Example #97:

    (90)    a.     nanampy azy nifandefa entana isika
    past+act+help them past+rec+act+send packages we.incl
    We helped them send each other packages
Example #98:

    c.     ny entana nifanampiantsika nifandefasana
    the package past-rec+act+help+circ+1.pl.incl past+rec+act+send+circ
    the package(s) (that) we helped each other send each other
Example #99:

    (92)   a.    m+aN+haja (manaja) an-dRabe kokoa Rasoa noho Ranaivo
    pres+act+respect acc-Rabe Rasoa more than Ranaivo
    Rasoa respects Rabe more than Ranaivo (does)
Example #100:

    b.    m+if+aN+haja (mifanaja) kokoa izy ireo noho Ravelo sy Ravao
    pres+rec+act+respect more they than Ravelo and Ravao
    *They respect e.o. more than (they respect) Ravelo and Ravao
Example #101:

    b.    nifamonoan-dRabe sy Ravao [e] ity basy ity
    past+rec+act+kill+circ+gen.Rabe and Ravao [e] this gun this
    This gun was used by Rabe and Ravao to kill each other
Example #102:

    b. +if+aN+rai+sana+ny (ifandraisany) fanomezana ny taom-baovao
    pres+rec+receive+circ+3gen gifts the year-new
    The New Year is the time they receive gifts from each other
Example #103:

    (96)     a.   n+a+hita sy n+i+arahaba azy ireo aho
    past+act+see and past+act+greet 3acc dem+pl 1.sg.nom
    I saw and greeted them
Example #104:

    b.   n+ifank+a+hita sy n+ifamp+i+arahaba izahay
    past+rec+act+seen and past+rec+act+greet we(excl)
    We saw each other and greeted each other
Example #105:

    c.     nijoro teto sy nifampitantara vaovao ireo tovolahy ireo
    stood here and told each other news those young+men those
    Those young men stood here and told each other news
Example #106:

    (100)        ny trano+n-dRabe sy Rasoa               *...n-dRabe sy+n-dRasoa
    the house+poss-Rabe and Rasoa
    the house of Rabe and Rasoa
Example #107:

    b. *n+ifamp+i+arahaba [e] sy ny vadiny Rabe sy Rakoto
    past+rec+act+greet [e] and the spouse+3gen Rabe and Rakoto
    Rabe and Rakoto greeted each other and their spouses
Example #108:

    iii. m+if+amp+a+toky azy isika
    pres+rec+cause+act+trust him we.incl
    We inspire each other to trust him
Example #109:

    i.     m+amp+if+amp+i+jaly azy ireo aho
    pres+cause+rec+cause+act+suffer 3.acc dem+pl I
    I make them make each other suffer
Example #110:

    mandeha (fiara) any Antsirabe aho
    goes      (car) there Antsirabe I
    I go to Antsirabe (by car)
Example #111:

    a.   m+amp+ifanka+aha+lala (mampifankahalala) ny mpianatra aho
    pres+cause+rec+pot/cause+know the student(s) I
    I am having the students get to know each other