ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Leston Buell (2003). Introducing Arguments above the Agent.

URL: http://www.fizzylogic.com/users/bulbul/school/wccfl-2003-paper.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 151&langcode=zul (2021-06-18).

 

Example #1:

    A- bantwana ba- fund- el-              a [ e-    sikole- ni. ]   PP
    2- 2.child      2.sbj- study- appl- fv loc:7- 7.school- loc
    "The children study at the school."
Example #2:

    [ I- sikole ]        si-   fund- el-     a a- bantwana.
    7- 7.school        7.sbj- study- appl- fv 2- 2.child
    ( "The children study at school.")
Example #3:

    A- bantwana ba- fund- a i- siZulu.
    2- 2.child     2.sbj- study- fv 7- 7.Zulu
    "The children study Zulu."
Example #4:

    Ngi- thand- a u- ku- cul- a ( e-               sikole- ni ).
    1s.sbj- love-   fv 15- 15- sing- fv loc:7- 7.school- loc
    "I like to sing (at school)."
Example #5:

    U- mfana u- zo- fund- a i- ncwadi.
    1- 1.boy 1.sbj- fut- study- fv 9- 9.book
    "The boy will study the book."
Example #6:

    * I- ncwadi i-    zo- fund- a u- mfana.
    9- 9.book 9.sbj- fut- study- fv 1- 1.boy
    ( "The book will be studied by the boy.")
Example #7:

    I- ncwadi i-    zo- fund- w- a ( ng- u- mfana ).
    9- 9.book 9.sbj- fut- study- psv- fv by- 1- 1.boy
    "The book will be studied by the boy."
Example #8:

    A- bantu ba- zo- jabul- el- a i- mali.
    2- 2.person 2.sbj- fut- rejoice- appl- fv 9- 9.money
    "People will rejoice over the money."
Example #9:

    * I- mali   i-     zo- jabul- el- a a- bantu.
    9- 9.money 9.sbj- fut- rejoice- appl- fv 2- 2.person
    ( "The money will be rejoiced over by people.")
Example #10:

    Ba- zo- cul- a, a- bantwana.
    2.sbj- fut- sing- fv 2- 2.child
    "The children will sing."
Example #11:

    proi Bai - zo- cul- a.
    2.sbj- fut- sing- fv
    "They will sing."
Example #12:

    b. * A- bantwana ba- fund- el-                a [ i- sikole. ]   DP
    2- 2.child     2.sbj- study- appl- fv 7- 7.school
    "The children study at the school."
Example #13:

    (12) Ku-       zo- fund- w- a (* nga- bantwana ).
    17.sbj- fut- study- psv- fv     by:2- 2.child
    "There will be studying going on (by children)."
Example #14:

    b. ( E-      sikole- ni, )i a- bantwana ba- zo- fund- el-              a ti .
    loc:7- 7.school- loc     2- 2.child     2.sbj- fut- study- appl- fv
    "(At the school), children will study."
Example #15:

    I- sikole si-      zo- fund- el-     a a- bantwana.
    7- 7.school 7.sbj- fut- study- appl- fv 2- 2.child
    ( "The school will be studied at (by children).")
Example #16:

    (16) I- sikole ngasinyei si-           fund- el-   a a- bantwana ba- soi .
    7- 7.school 7.each       7.sbj- study- appl- fv 2- 2.child   2.of- 7.it
    ( "Eachi school is studied at by itsi children.")
Example #17:

    ag ent
    7- 7.school 7.sbj- fut- study- appl- fv
    ( "The school will be studied at.")
Example #18:

    ag ent
    loc:7- 7.school- loc       17.sbj- fut- study- appl- fv
    ( "The school will be studied at.")
Example #19:

    Ngi- zo- fund- is- a.
    1s.sbj- fut- study- caus- fv
    "I will teach (someone)."
Example #20:

    * Ku- zo- lal- a.
    17.sbj- fut- sleep- fv
    "Someone will sleep."
Example #21:

    (21) * I- sikole si-        zo- fund- el-        w- a.
    7- 7.school 7.sbj- fut- study- appl- psv- fv
    "The school will be studied at."
Example #22:

    Ba- ya- cul- a ]XP a- bantwana.
    2.sbj- foc- sing- fv          2- 2.child
    "Children are singing."
Example #23:

    A- bantwana ba- ya- zi-             cul- a ]           i- zingoma.
    2- 2.child     2.sbj- foc- 10.obj- sing- fv           10- 10.song
    "The children are singing the songs."
Example #24:

    A- bantwana ba- cul- a bonke. ]XP
    2- 2.child     2.sbj- sing- fv 2.all
    "The children are all singing."
Example #25:

    I- zingoma, a- bantwana ba- zi-      cul- a zonke. ]                 XP
    10- 10.song    2- 2.child     2.sbj- 10.obj- sing- fv 10.all
    "The songs, the children are singing them all."
Example #26:

    b. * I- zikole zi-       fund- el-    a zonke. ]       XP
    8- 8.school 8.sbj- study- appl- fv 8.all
    "The schools are all studied at."