The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Eric Potsdam (2005). More concealed pseudoclefts in Malagasy and the Clausal Typing Hypothesis.

URL: http://www.clas.ufl.edu/users/potsdam/papers/CTH.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 1629&langcode=plt (2021-06-22).


Example #1:

    nividy vary taiza Rasoa?
    buy rice where Rasoa
    `Where did Rasoa buy rice?'
Example #2:

    a.        taiza no nividy vary Rasoa?
    where PRT buy rice Rasoa
    `Where did Rasoa buy rice?'
Example #3:

    b.            iza no nihomehy?
    who PRT laugh
    `Who laughed?'
Example #4:

    (8)       a.       [n-i-vidy    ny akoho]VP i Bao
    PAST-ACT-buy the chicken Bao
    `Bao bought the chicken.'
Example #5:

    b.       [vorona ratsy feo]NP ny goaika
    bird    bad voice the crow
    `The crow is a bird with an ugly voice.'
Example #6:

    (11)      a.        nividy inona ianao?
    buy.ACT what 2SG.NOM
    `What did you buy?'
Example #7:

    c.        nividy vary taiza       ianao?
    buy.ACT rice where.PAST 2SG.NOM
    `Where did you buy rice?'
Example #8:

    (12)      a.       *nihomehy iza?
    laugh.ACT who
    (`Who laughed?')
Example #9:

    b.       *mamaky angano aminao ny ray aman-dreninao iza?
    read.ACT fable to.2SG the parent.2SG           which
    (`Which of your parents reads fables to you?')
Example #10:

    (14)       mihinana vary i Soa/izy/ny mpianatra/ilay gidro
    eat.ACT    rice DET Soa/3SG.NOM/the student(s)/that lemur
    `Soa/(s)he/the student(s)/that lemur is eating rice.'
Example #11:

    (15)      *mihinana vary mpianatra/olona
    eat.ACT rice student/person
    (`A student/someone is eating rice.')
Example #12:

    (16)      misy      mpianatra/olona mihinana vary
    exist.ACT student/person eat.ACT rice
    `There is a student/someone eating rice.'
Example #13:

    (17)      a.      iza no nividy ny akoho?
    who PRT buy.ACT the chicken
    `Who bought the chicken?'
Example #14:

    (18)      a.     *inona no nividy i Bao?
    what PRT buy.ACT Bao
    (`What did Bao buy?')
Example #15:

    b.     *iza no novidina ny akoho?
    who PRT buy.PASS the chicken
    (`Who was the chicken bought by?')
Example #16:

    (21)     a.     iza no nihomehy?
    who PRT laugh.ACT
    `Who laughed?'
Example #17:

    (22)    a.     iza no nihomehy?
    who PRT laugh.ACT
    `Who laughed?'
Example #18:

    (24)    nihomehy ve Rabe?
    laugh    Q Rabe
    `Did Rabe laugh?'
Example #19:

    (25)       a.       nihinana vary (daholo) ny vahiny (*daholo)
    eat.ACT rice all          the guest all
    `All the guests ate rice.'
Example #20:

    b.       manapaka bozaka (anie) Rasoa (*anie)
    cut.ACT grass EXCL Rasoa EXCL
    `Rasoa is really cutting the grass!'
Example #21:

    c.       mihomehy (foana) Rasoa (*foana)
    laugh.ACT always Rasoa always
    `Rasoa is always laughing.'
Example #22:

    (28)     a.     iza daholo no nihinana vary?
    who all     PRT eat.ACT vary
    `Who all ate rice?'
Example #23:

    b.     iza anie no manapaka bozaka?
    who EXCL PRT cut.ACT     grass
    `Who is really cutting the grass?'
Example #24:

    c.     zaza iza    foana no mitomany?
    child which always PRT cry.ACT
    `Which child is always crying?'
Example #25:

    (29)      a.      *iza no nihinana vary daholo?
    who PRT eat.ACT vary all
    (`Who all ate rice?')
Example #26:

    b.        iza no manapaka bozaka anie?
    who PRT cut.ACT     grass EXCL
    `Who is really cutting the grass?'
Example #27:

    (30)      a.      *mainty ny omby (izay) mihinana bozaka daholo
    black the cow REL eat.ACT grass all
    (`The cows that are all eating grass are black.')
Example #28:

    (32)      a.        tokony hamangy an-dRabe Rasoa
    should visit.ACT ACC-Rabe Rasoa
    `Rasoa should visit Rabe.'
Example #29:

    (34)      a.      tokony iza no hamangy an-dRabe?
    should who PRT visit.ACT ACC-Rabe
    `Who should visit Rabe?'
Example #30:

    (35)     a.     iza no tokony hamangy an-dRabe?
    who PRT should visit.ACT ACC-Rabe
    `Who should visit Rabe?'
Example #31:

    c.     iza no ho vadinao?
    who PRT FUT marry.PASS.2    SG
    `Who will you marry?'
Example #32:

    (36)     a.      Rasoa dia mamangy an-dRabe
    Rasoa TOPIC visit      ACC-Rabe
    `Rasoa, she visits Rabe.'
Example #33:

    b.       tokony [CP hamangy an-dRabe Rasoa]
    should     visit     ACC-Rabe Rasoa
    `Rasoa should visit Rabe.'
Example #34:

    b.       tokony hamangy an-dRabe daholo/anie/foana isika
    should visit.ACT ACC-Rabe all/EXCL/always 1PL.NOM
    `We should all/really/always visit Rabe.'
Example #35:

    (42)     a.      Rasoa no nihomehy
    Rasoa PRT laugh.ACT
    `It was Rasoa who laughed.'
Example #36:

    b.      ny mofo no novidin-dRasoa
    the bread PRT buy.PASS-Rasoa
    `It was the bread that was bought by Rasoa.'
Example #37:

    (45)     a.     *ny mofo no nividy i Bao
    the bread PRT buy.ACT Bao
    (`It's the bread that Bao bought.')
Example #38:

    b.       *Rabe no novidina ny akoho
    Rabe PRT buy.PASS the chicken
    (`It's Rabe that the chicken was bought by.')
Example #39:

    (46)       a.       *iza no nihomehy izy?
    who PRT laugh.ACT 3SG.NOM
    (`Who laughed?')
Example #40:

    b.       *Rasoa no nihomehy izy
    Rasoa PRT laugh.ACT 3SG.NOM
    (`It was Rasoa who laughed.')
Example #41:

    b.       Rasoa anie no nanapaka bozaka
    Rasoa EXCL PRT cut         grass
    `It was really Rasoa that cut the grass!'
Example #42:

    c.       Rasoa foana no mihomehy
    Rasoa always PRT laugh
    `It's always Rasoa who laughs.'
Example #43:

    (48)        a.       tokony Rasoa no hamangy an-dRabe
    should Rasoa PRT visit     ACC-Rabe
    `It should be Rasoa who visits Rabe.'
Example #44:

    b.       tena Rabe no nahandro vary
    indeed Rabe PRT cook      rice
    `It's indeed Rabe who cooked the rice.'
Example #45:

    (i)        *ho Rabe no (ho)fidina
    FUT Rabe PRT elect.PASS
    (It will be Rabe who is elected')
Example #46:

    (52)    a.     hanao izany (noho       izaho) Rasoa (noho      izaho)
    do.ACT that because.of 1SG.NOM Rasoa because.of 1SG.NOM
    `Rasoa will do that because of me.'
Example #47:

    b.     namaky boky (androany) ny mpianatra (androany)
    read.ACT book today      the student today
    `The student read a book today.'
Example #48:

    (66)       a.      iza ny prezida?
    who the president
    `Who is the president?'
Example #49:

    c.    ho aiza ianao?
    FUT where 2SG.NOM
    `Where will you be?'
Example #50:

    d.    aiza i Soa?
    where DET Soa
    `Where is Soa?
Example #51:

    (68)     a.      iza [no namaky ilay boky]?
    who PRT read      DEM book
    `Who read that book?'
Example #52:

    b.      iza [DP ny mpianatra namaky ilay boky]?
    who the student        read    DEM book
    `Which student read that book?'
Example #53:

    c.      iza [DP ilay mpianatra]?
    who DEM student
    `Who is that student?'
Example #54:

    d.      iza [DP ianao]?
    who 2SG.NOM
    `Who are you?'
Example #55:

    (69)     a.     *[no mihomehy] Rabe                                             PREDICATE
    PRT laugh        Rabe
    (`Rabe is the one who is laughing.')
Example #56:

    b.     *mahalala [no mihomehy] aho                                     DIRECT OBJECT
    know      PRT laugh      1SG.NOM
    (`I know the one who is laughing.')
Example #57:

    d.     *[no nihomehy] dia iza?                                         FRONTED TOPIC
    PRT laugh       TOPIC who
    (`As for the one who laughed, who is he?')
Example #58:

    (71)     a.       ny lehilahy izay nividy ny akoho
    the man     REL buy.ACT the chicken
    `the man who bought the chicken'
Example #59:

    (72)     a.      *ny akoho izay nividy i Bao
    the chicken REL buy.ACT Bao
    (`the chicken that Bao bought')
Example #60:

    b.      *ny lehilahy izay novidina ny akoho
    the man     REL buy.PASS the chicken
    (`the man who the chicken was bought by')
Example #61:

    (73)     a.       ny toerana izay nianjeran-dRabe
    the place REL fall.CIRC-Rabe
    `the place where Rabe fell'
Example #62:

    (74)     a.       ny andro izay nanapahan-dRasoa bozaka
    the day REL cut.CIRC-Rasoa     grass
    `the day Rasoa cut the grass'
Example #63:

    (75)       a.        ny antony izay nandehanan-dRabe
    the reason REL go.CIRC-Rabe
    `the reason Rabe left'