The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Liina Pylkkänen (2003). Applicatives.

URL: http://www.twocw.net/mit/NR/rdonlyres/Linguistics-and-Philosophy/24-953Argument-Structure-and-SyntaxSpring2003/48BAE58A-F570-44F0-BD1A-B117020174AF/0/applpylkkanenspring03.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 1716&langcode=jpn (2022-01-27).


Example #1:

    a. Taroo-ga          Ziroo-o        hihansita.
    Taro-Nom        Jiro-Acc       criticized
    `Taro criticized Jiro.'
Example #2:

    b.    Ziroo-ga        Taroo-ni / -niyotte hihans-are-ta.
    Jiro-Nom        Taro-by             criticize-PASS-PAST
    `Jiro was criticized by Taro.'
Example #3:

    Taroo-ga ame-ni /*-niyotte fur-are-ta.
    Taro-Nom rain-Dat          fall-PASS-PAST
    `Taro was rained on.'
Example #4:

    Taroo-ga doroboo-ni / -niyotte heya-o          aras-are-ta.
    Taro-Nom thief-Dat/by             room-Acc destroy-PASS-PAST
    `Taro's room got destroyed on him by the thief.'
Example #5:

    * Iwa-ga           ame-ni fur-are-ta.
    rock-Nom        rain-Dat fall-PASS-PAST
    `The rock       was rained on.'
Example #6:

    Sono daishuzyutu-ga          (Yamada-isi-niyotte) sittoo-o           kaisis-are-ta.
    that    big.operation-Nom (Dr. Yamada-by)            performance-Acc begin-PASS
    `That big operation had Dr. yamada start its performance.'
Example #7:

    (21) a. Taroo-ga       sushi-o       tabeta.
    Taro-Nom       sushi-Acc     ate
    `Taro ate sushi.'
Example #8:

    b. [VP sushi-o       tabe]-sae      Tagroo-ga ___ sita.
    [VP sushi-Acc ate ]-even         Taro-Nom ___ did
    `Even eat sushi, Taro did.'
Example #9:

    c.* [VP tabe]-sae Taroo-ga sushi-o    sita. (cannot strand the object of V)
    [VP ate ]-even Taro-Nom sushi-Acc did
    `Even eat sushi, Taro did.'
Example #10:

    a. Taroo-ga        doroboo-ni     heya-o    aras-are-ta.
    Taro-Nom       thief-by       room-Acc destroy-PASS-PAST
    `Taro had the thief destroy his room.'
Example #11:

    b. [VP doroboo-ni heya-o          aras-are]-sae         Taroo-ga ____ sita.
    [VP thief-by       room-Acc destroy-PASS]-evenTaro-Nom ___ did
    `Even have his room be destroyed by the thief, Taro did.'
Example #12:

    a. Taroo-ga      Hanako-ni         koukou-o        yame-rare-ta.
    Taro-Nom     Hanako-Dat        high.school-Acc drop.out-PASS-PAST
    `Taro got Hanako dropping out of high school.'
Example #13:

    b.   [VP Hanako-ni koukou-o               yame-rare]-sae         Taroo-ga ____ sita.
    [VP Hanako-Dat high.school-Acc drop.out-PASS]-even         Taro-Nom ____ did
    `Even have Hanako drop out of high school, Taro did.
Example #14:

    c.   [VP Hanako-ni koukou-o               yame]-sae        Taroo-ga ____ s-are-ta.
    [VP Hanako-Dat high.school-Acc drop.out]-even Taro-Nom ____ do-PASS
    `Even Hanako drop out of high school, Taro did have.'
Example #15:

    Hanako-ga      suugaku-no-sensei-ni        sikar-/homer- are-ta.
    Hanako-Nom math-Gen-teacher-by             scold/praise - PASS
    `Hanako was scolded/praised by the math teacher.'
Example #16:

    Nagasaki-sityoo-ga    bakudan/hoosyoozyoo-o        okur-are-ta.
    Nagasaki-mayor-Nom bomb/testimonial-Acc            send-PASS-PAST
    `The mayor of Nagasaki was sent a bomb/testimonial.'
Example #17:

    * Tiimu-ga koochi-ni nak-are-ta.
    team-Nom coach-by cry-PASS
    `The team was cried on by its coach.'
Example #18:

    Taroo-ga      koochi-ni        nak-are-ta.
    Taro-Nom      coach-Dat        cry-PASS
    `Taro was cried on by the coach.'
Example #19:

    (27)  Gakuseii -ga     Tanaka-sensei-niyotte t i futa-ri ronbun-o hihans-are-ta.
    studentsi -Nom Prof. Tanaka-by            t i 2-CL article-Acc criticize-PASS
    `Two students's articles were criticized by Prof. Tanaka.'