ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Leston Buell (2002). Swahili Amba-Less Relatives Without Head Movement.

URL: http://www.fizzylogic.com/users/bulbul/school/working-papers-thesis.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 1723&langcode=swh (2021-06-14).

 

Example #1:

    (3) Juma a-          li- soma kitabu.
    Juma 3s.subj- past- read           book
    `Juma read a book'
Example #2:

    (5) kitabu a-          li- cho- ki- soma Juma shule- ni
    7.book 1.subj- past- 7.o- 7.obj- read      Juma 9.school- in
    `the book that Juma read in school'
Example #3:

    (6) tu-        na- ki- soma
    1p.subj- pres- 7.obj- read
    `we're reading it'
Example #4:

    (7) ha- tu-         ki- som- i
    neg- 1p.subj- 7.obj- read - neg
    `we don't read it'
Example #5:

    (8) kitabu ha- ki-         ta- som- w- a
    7.book neg- 7.subj- fut- read- pass- defau lt.vowel
    `the book won't be read'
Example #6:

    (9) ili       tu-      si- ki- som- e
    in.order 1p.subj- neg- 7.obj- read - subj
    `so that we not read it'
Example #7:

    (10) kitabu amba- cho a-             li- (ki-) soma shule- ni
    book    comp- 7.o 1.subj- past- 7.obj read      9.school- loc
    `the book that Juma read in school'
Example #8:

    (12) kitabu a-              li- cho- (ki-) soma Juma shule- ni
    7.book 1.subj- past- 7.o- 7.obj- read          Juma 9.school- loc
    `the book that Juma read in school'
Example #9:

    (15)       a. kitabu a-             li- cho- ki- soma Juma shule- ni
    7.book 1.subj- past- 7.o- 7.obj- read           Juma 9.school- loc
    `the book that Juma read in school'
Example #10:

    b. * kitabu Juma a-                 li- cho- ki- soma shule- ni
    7.book Juma 1.subj- past- 7.o- 7.obj- read              9.school- loc
    `the book that Juma read in school'
Example #11:

    (16) * kitabu a-             li- cho Juma ki- soma shule- ni
    7.book 1.subj- past- 7.o Juma 7.obj- rea d          9.school - loc
    `the book that Juma read in school'
Example #12:

    (17)      a. Soma!
    rea d
    `Read!'
Example #13:

    a. a-        li- [ki- la]
    1.subj- past- 7.obj- eat
    `he ate it'
Example #14:

    b. a-    li- [ku- la]
    1.subj- past- inf - eat
    `he ate'
Example #15:

    c. * a-     li- [la]
    1.subj- past- eat
    `he ate'
Example #16:

    a. kitu a-           li- cho- [ki- la]
    7.thin g 1.subj- past- 7.o- 7.obj- eat
    `the thing which he ate'
Example #17:

    b. kitu a-           li- cho- [ku- la] mnofu wake
    7.thin g 1.subj- past- o-        inf - eat 3.flesh   3.its
    `the thing whose flesh he ate'
Example #18:

    c. * kitu a-           li- cho- [la] mnofu wake
    7.thing 1.subj- past- o-      inf - eat     3.flesh 3.its
    `the thing whose flesh he ate'
Example #19:

    (27)    a. kitabu ni-            li- cho- ki- soma
    7.book 1s.subj- past- 7.o- 7.obj- read
    `the book which I read'
Example #20:

    b. kitabu ni-            na- cho- ki- soma
    7.book 1s.subj- pres- 7.o- 7.obj- read
    `the book which I am reading'
Example #21:

    c. kitabu ni-            taka- cho- ki- soma
    7.book 1s.subj- future - 7.o- 7.obj- read
    `the book which I will read'
Example #22:

    d. kitabu ni-            si- cho- ki- soma
    7.book 1s.subj- neg- 7.o- 7.obj- read
    `the book not read by me'
Example #23:

    b. * kitabu ni-            me- cho- ki- soma
    7.book 1s.subj- perf- 7.o- 7.obj- read
    `the book which I have read'
Example #24:

    (30)   a. ni-      ta- ki- soma kitabu
    1.subj- past- 7.obj- read    7.book
    `the book which I read'
Example #25:

    b. kitabu ni-           taka- cho- ki- soma
    7.book 1.subj- futur e- 7.o- 7.obj- rea d
    `the book which I will read'
Example #26:

    (36) Juma a-         li- ki- soma kitabu shule- ni.
    Juma 1.subj- past- 7.obj- read    7.book 9.school- loc
    `Juma read the book in school.'
Example #27:

    (38) Juma a-            li- ki- soma kitabu shule- ni
    Juma 1.subj- past- 7.obj- read               7.book 9.school- loc
    `Juma read the book in school.'
Example #28:

    (40) kitabu a-             li- cho- ki- soma Juma shule- ni
    7.book 1.subj- past- 7.o             7.obj- read          Juma 9.school- loc
    `the book which Juma read in school'
Example #29:

    (45) kitabu a-            ki- soma- cho Juma
    7.book 1.subj- 7.obj- read-              7.o Juma
    `the book (being) read by Juma'