The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:


URL: http://ling.cornell.edu/people/Whitman/JBWWP2005ChineseSyntacticChange.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 1782&langcode=cmn (2021-09-24).


Example #1:

    (i)     Ta    paoqi -le      Lisi/ wo -de pengyou/ wo
    3SG abandon-PERF Lisi/ 1SG-SUB friend / 1SG
    'She abandoned Lisi/my friend/me.'
Example #2:

    (ii)    Ta   mei ba Lisi/ wo -de pengyou/ wo paoqi
    3SG NEG BA Lisi/ 1SG-SUB friend / 1SG abandon
    'She has not abandoned Lisi/my friend/me.'
Example #3:

    (2)    Ta ba Lisi paoqi -le                    (Modern Mandarin)   2
    3SG BA Lisi abandon-PERF
    `She abandoned Lisi .'
Example #4:

    (9)     Mama ba [ [di   ca    -le    you   ca ] [zhuozi mo -le      you mo] ]
    Mom BA floor scrub-PERF again scrub table wipe-PERF again wipe
    'Mom again and again scrubbed the floor and again and again wiped the table.'
Example #5:

    (ii)    Ta zui    hao [ ba [[Zhangsan jieshao gei Lisi], [Wangwu jieshao        gei Laoli]]
    3SG most good BA Zhangsan introduce to Lisi         Wangwu introduce to Laoli
    `He'd better introduce Zhangsan to Lisi and Wangwu to Laoli.'
Example #6:

    (iii)   Ta zui    hao [ ba [Zhangsan jieshao gei Lisi]], [ ba [Wangwu jieshao gei Laoli]]
    1SG BA      Zhangsan introduce to Lisi Wangwu introduce to Laoli
    'I introduced Zhangsan to Lisi, and Wangwu to Laoliu.'
Example #7:

    (11)     Wo [dui      Wangwu] hen you yijian          , [*(dui)    Laoli] ye hen you yijian
    I    towards Wangwu very have prejudice          towards Laoli also very have prejudice
    `I am very prejudiced against Wangwu, and also against Laoli.'
Example #8:

    (12) a [Zhangsan [PP dui         /*ba zhei-jian shi] de    anpai         ] bu tuodang
    Zhangsan     towards/ BA this-CL matter SUB arrangement NEG suitable
    'Zhangsan 's arrangement of this matter is not suitable.'
Example #9:

    b Zhangsan [dui       zhei-jian shi ] ba xijie dou anpai -hao -le
    Zhangsan towards this-CL matter BA detail all arrange-good-PERF
    `Zhangsan with respect to that matter arranged all the details.'       (Fu Jingq
Example #10:

    (13)     [DP [IP ba     men ] de nei-ge ren]    shui jiao le
    guard door SUB that-CL person sleep sleep PART
    'The person who guards the door has fallen asleep.'
Example #11:

    gei Amei, wo (gei Amei) zuo -le       chaomian
    for Amei 1SG for Amei make-PERF fried.noodles
    'For Mary, I made wonton soup, for Amy, fried noodles.'
Example #12:

    (*ba dayi), ni keyi ba dayi fang zai chuang-shang
    BA coat 2SG can BA coat put at bed            -top
    'The books, you can put on the table, the coat, you can put on the bed.'
Example #13:

    (15)     Youju        , cong zher, ni wang nan qu.             (Lü et al. 1980/1995: 130)
    post.office from here 2SG toward south go
    `The post office, from here, you go south.'
Example #14:

    (17)    Ta (henxinde) ba Zhangsan (henxinde) paoqi-le.                   (slightly changed example
    3SG cruelly           BA Zhangsan cruelly       abandon          from Tang 1990: 145)
    `She heartlessly abandoned Zhangsan.'
Example #15:

    (19)    Ta   zuotian   ba Zhangsan (*zuotian ) paoqi -le
    3SG yesterday BA Zhangsan       yesterday abandon-PERF
    'She abandoned Zhangsan yesterday.'
Example #16:

    (20)    Ta (mingtian) yao (mingtian) qu Beijing
    3SG tomorrow want tomorrow go Beijing
    'He wants to go to Beijing tomorrow.'
Example #17:

    (21)    Wo gang [PP cong nongcun ] hui -lai                  (Lü et al. 1980/1995: 130)
    1SG just       from village      return-come
    `I have just come back from the village.'
Example #18:

    (24) a *[DP [PP cong Beijing] de xuesheng ]
    from Beijing DE student
    (`the student from Beijing')
Example #19:

    b [DP [IP [PP cong Beijing ] lai ] de xuesheng]
    from Beijing come DE student
    'the student who comes from Beijing'
Example #20:

    (27)    Qian pai , cong zuo-qi            di     si ren    jiu   shi ta      (Lü 1980/95: 130)
    front row from left -onward number 4 person then be 3SG
    'Front row, the fourth person from the left is him.'
Example #21:

    (32) Ta bei [qinren huaiyi ] [wairen             zhize ]        (Hashimoto 1988: 332, (9))
    3SG BEI relatives suspect stranger criticize
    'He is not only criticized by strangers, but suspected even by his own people.'
Example #22:

    (33) Ta [[[PP zai xuexiao] xuexi ] [[PP *(zai) jiali ] xiuxi]]
    3SG     at school study               at home rest
    'He studies at school and rests at home.'               (Hashimoto 1988: 332, (1