The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Katharina Hartmann and Malte Zimmermann (2004). Focus Strategies in Chadic.

URL: http://www.sfb632.uni-potsdam.de/publications/isis01_6hartmann-zimmermann.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 1809&langcode=tan (2021-09-28).


Example #1:

    (9) a.        Lak padu-g landá                                   (neutral)
    L. buy-PERF dress
    `Laku bought a dress.'
Example #2:

    (17) a.      [S Malay [VP múdúd-gó]]                                     (neutral)
    M.         die-PERF
    `Malay died.'
Example #3:

    (22) a.       Áudu mad-ug     littáfi.
    A.   read-PERF book
    `Audu read a book.'
Example #4:

    (24) a.     Fátíma wur-go.                                                  (neutral)
    F.       laugh-PERF
    `Fatima laughed.'
Example #5:

    A: Lak wai-gó lánda
    L. sell-PERF dress
    `Laku sold [A DRESS]   FOC.'
Example #6:

    A: Lak waig-ó lánda
    L. sell-PERF dress
    `Laku [sold A DRESS]FOC.'
Example #7:

    A: Lak wai-gó lánda
    L. sell-PERF dress
    `Laku [SOLD]FOC a dress.'
Example #8:

    (36) a.    N fad-go      núm littáfi-i, n fad-ug     wam gáayi-m (OBJ-focus)
    I buy-PERF only book-the I buy-PERF s.th.else-NEG
    `I bought only THE BOOK, I bought nothing else.'
Example #9:

    b.    N fad-go      núm littáfi-i, n yaa-g      wam gáayi-m        (VP-focus)
    I buy-PERF only book-the I do-PERF s.th.else-NEG
    `I only bought THE BOOK, I did nothing else.'
Example #10:

    c.    N fad-go     núm littáfi-i, fon di n mad-go-m                (V-focus)
    I buy-PERF only book-the but yet I read-PERF -NEG
    `I only BOUGHT the book, but I have not read (it) yet.'