The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Kumakhov, Mukhadin, Karina Vamling & Zara Kumakhova (1996). Ergative case in the Circassian languages.

URL: http://www.ling.lu.se/disseminations/pdf/45/Kumachov_et_al.pdf

(Last accessed 2005-02-15).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 183&langcode=ady (2021-06-13).


Example #1:

    (41) a. Sd w-z-a--re-r?
    `What is making you weep?'                                  Adyghe
Example #2:

    (44) a. eti           a-r       -je-s'e-
    every (any) he-ABS O3SG-S3SG-know-PRS
    `Everybody knows him'                                           Adyghe
Example #3:

    b. eti      me-gpse-
    everybody S3SG-think-PRS
    `Everybody is thinking'                                         Adyghe
Example #4:

    b. Murat me-je-
    Murat S3SG-sleep-PRS
    `Murat is sleeping'                                                Adyghe
Example #5:

    c. Murat -w-e-s'e-
    Murat   O3SG-S2SG-DYN-know-PRS
    `You know Murat'                                              Adyghe
Example #6:

    b. Ahmed- me-pxas'-
    Axmed-ABS S3SG-do.carpentry-PRS
    `Axmed is doing carpentry'                                    Adyghe
Example #7:

    (62) a. Jshaq de-m                wne-r        -a-s'-
    Isxak    and.others-ERG house-ABS O3SG-S3PL-do-PF
    `Isxak and the others built the house'                          Adyghe