The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Kroeger, Paul (2004). Backwards resultatives in Kimaragang Dusun.

URL: http://email.eva.mpg.de/~cschmidt/SWL1/handouts/Kroeger.pdf

(Last accessed 2006-01-30).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 1903&langcode=kqr (2021-09-19).


Example #1:

    b. P[in]i-toning-       kuh       it    sapi om karabau                       -po-ogot.
    RECIP[PST]-near-OV 1S.GEN NOM cow and buffalo                               AV-TR2-tie
    `I tied up the cow and the buffalo near each other.'
Example #2:

    d. P[in]i-so-sokot-            dialo      ah=babas            monombir.
    RECIP[PST]-REDUP-join-OV 3sg.GEN        NOM=cloth.scrap AV-TR1-sew
    `She joined the scraps of cloth together sewing (i.e., sewed the scraps together
Example #3:

    b. N-a-awi              di=Jaiwan        mangakan(m-poN-akan)                i=rinapa.
    PST-NVOL-finish      GEN=Jaiwan       AV-TR1-eat                          NOM=cooked.food
    `Jaiwan finished the food eating (i.e., ate up all the food).'
Example #4:

    d. N-o-onong           dialo monokon            do=tandus i=koridai.
    PST-NVOL.OV-hit     3sg     AV-TR1-hurl ACC=spear           NOM=deer
    `He hit the deer with a spear.' (lit: `He hurling a spear hit the deer.')
Example #5:

    b. Lapak-on kuh            it          niyuw.
    split-OV       1sg.GEN NOM          coconut
    `I will split the coconut(s).'
Example #6:

    c. Lapak-an kuh           do     niyuw      it       wogok.
    split-DV      1sg.GEN ACC coconut NOM pig
    `I will split some coconuts for the pigs (to eat).'
Example #7:

    b. Nunuh ot        maan       nuh?
    what     NOM do            2sg.GE   N
    `What are you doing?'
Example #8:

    b. Amu kuh             yalo        n-o-onong                 monimbak.
    not      1sg.GEN 3sg.NOM        PST-NVOL.OV-hit           AV-shoot
    `I didn't hit him when I shot.'
Example #9:

    (18) a. Noko-pilay         yalo        s[in]ungu- do          karabau.
    PST.NVOL.IV-throw 3sg.NOM [PST]-horn-OV GEN buffalo
    `He was gored by a buffalo and tossed (into the air).'
Example #10:

    (19) a. N-o-tuus-            do=karabau      mongotop     i=paray  kuh.
    PAST-NVOL-eat.up-OV GEN=buffalo       AV-TR1-graze NOM=rice 1sg.GE           N
    `My rice crop was grazed bare by buffaloes.'
Example #11:

    b. N-o-tuus-             i=paray kuh           k[in]otop-  do=karabaw.
    PAST-NVOL-eat.up-OV NOM=rice 1sg.GEN [PST]-graze-OV GEN=buffalo
    `My rice crop was all eaten up, grazed off by buffaloes.'
Example #12:

    (20) a. Noko-odop           it     tanak b[in]ayuk        dit     tidi.
    PST-NVOL-sleep      NOM child PST-swing-IV GEN            mother
    `The child fell asleep when its mother swung it (in a cloth sling/baby hammock).
Example #13:

    (21) a. Nopilat           itit       lukap kuh nokoolok             do                           pansang.
    PST-NVOL-wound this.NOM sole        my PST.NVOL.AV-step.on ACC                           nail
    `The sole of my foot got wounded from stepping on a nail.')
Example #14:

    b. *Nopilat            kuh     mongulok        do     pansang itit         lukap                      kuh.
    PST-NVOL-wound 1S.GEN AV-TR1-step.on ACC nail              this.NOM sole                          my
    (intended: `The sole of my foot got wounded from stepping on a nail.')
Example #15:

    (22)    N-o-onong              dialo monokon           do=tandus i=koridai.                      (=3d)
    PST-NONVOL.OV-hit 3sg          AV-TR1-hurl ACC=spear NOM=deer
    `He hit the deer with a spear.' (lit: `He hurling a spear hit the deer.')
Example #16:

    b. *Notipu                dialo l[um]iwan montod kayu                tasawat i=takod yoh.
    PST-NVOL-break-OV 3sg        [AV]-drop from        tree          high    NOM=leg 3sg
    (for: `He broke his leg jumping down from a tree.')
Example #17:

    (27) a. *Naawi           kuh        momilay        dit    walay nuh     it      tongo mangga.
    PST-NVOL-finish 1sg.GEN AV-TR1-throw ACC house your NOM PL                    mango
    (can only mean: `I finished off the mangoes by throwing your house at them.')
Example #18:

    (28) a. N-o-rikot        kuh        *(momilay)       i   walay        nuh.              (cf. 3a)
    PST-NVOL-arrive 1S.GEN       AV-TR1-throw NOM house           your
    `I threw (something) all the way to your house.'
Example #19:

    (30) a. Ipobirud         nopo dialo manganu             at      tobu             toh.
    IV-CAUS-twist only       3sg    AV-TR1-take NOM sugar.cane               PRT
    `Just have him twist the sugar cane off (pick by twisting).'