ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Douglas Ball (2005). Noun Incorporation in Tongan.

URL: http://www.stanford.edu/~dball/ball-tongan-ni.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 2400&langcode=ton (2021-06-15).

 

Example #1:

    (3)        `a e     motu`a
    abs det man
    `the man'
Example #2:

    (4)        ha vai    mafana
    det water warm
    `some warm water'                                                              (
Example #3:

    (6)        `ene ki`i manioke
    his small cassava
    `his small amount of cassava.'
Example #4:

    Na`e inu kava `a Sione.
    past drink kava abs (name)
    `Sione drank kava.'                                                          (Ch
Example #5:

    (9)       Na`e `alu nai    `a Sione?
    past go mayb e abs (name)
    `Sione went, didn't he?'
Example #6:

    Na`e fakama`a sea `i fale `a Sione
    past clean       chair in house abs (name)
    `Sione cleaned chairs in the house.'                                          (m
Example #7:

    ...ke kumi me`a ke nau nonofo ai.
    sjtv seek thing sjtv 3pl settle there
    `...to seek a place to settle.'                                               (m
Example #8:

    (20)       Na`e fakatau fale vave        `a Sione.
    past transact house quickly abs (name)
    `Sione b ought (or sold) houses quickly.'
Example #9:

    (21)         Na`e kai nai      `a e      ika `e Sione?
    past eat mayb e abs det fish erg (name)
    `Sione ate the fish, didn't he?'
Example #10:

    (22)         Na`e kai ika lahi nai        `a Sione?
    past eat fish big mayb e abs (name)
    `Sione eats a lot of fish, do esn't he?'
Example #11:

    (27)      Na`e to    `a e     manioke `e Sione.
    past plant abs det cassava erg (name)
    `Sione planted the cassavas.'
Example #12:

    (28)      Na`e to    `e Sione `a e     manioke.
    past plant erg (name) abs det cassava
    `Sione planted the cassavas.'
Example #13:

    (33)       Na`e to    `e Sione `ene ki`i manioke.
    past plant erg (name) his small cassava
    `Sione planted his small amount of cassava.'
Example #14:

    (36)     Na`e t     manioke iiki `a Sione.
    past plant cassava small abs (name)
    `Sione planted a small amount of cassava.'                                 (my f
Example #15:

    (37)     Na`e kaiha`asi `e Sione `a e     lole.
    past steal-tr erg (name) abs det candy
    `Sione stole some candy.'                                                  (my f
Example #16:

    (38)     a.   Na`e kaiha`a lole `a Sione.
    past steal     candy abs (name)
    `Sione stole some candy.'                                             (my fieldn
Example #17:

    Na`e tolongi `e Pita       `a e  fo`i pulu.
    past throw-tr erg (name) abs det ball
    `Pita threw the ball.'                                                        (m
Example #18:

    Na`e tolo pulu `a Pita.
    past throw ball abs (name)
    `Pita threw balls.'                                                           (m
Example #19:

    (40)         nofo-`anga
    dwell-nom
    `dwelling place'                                                             (Ch
Example #20:

    (41)         pule-`anga
    rule-nom
    `government, kingdom'                                       (Churchward 1959:420
Example #21:

    (42)         tafe-`anga vai
    flow-nom water
    `place where water flows'                                                    (Ch
Example #22:

    (43)         inu-`anga kava
    drink-nom kava
    `place to drink kava'
Example #23:

    (45)         inu-kava-`anga
    drink-kava-nom
    `place to drink kava'
Example #24:

    *fakatau-fale-hinehina-`anga
    transact-house-white-nom
    Intended: `place for selling white houses'                                  (my
Example #25:

    *fakama`a-sea-`i-fale-`anga
    clean-chair-in-house-nom
    Intended: `place for cleaning the chairs from inside the house'             (my
Example #26:

    (49)       Na`e heka `a Mele he ho osi.
    past ride abs (name) det horse
    `Mary ro de on the horse.'
Example #27:

    (50)       Na`e heka ho osi `a Mele.
    past ride horse abs (name)
    `Mary ro de horses.'
Example #28:

    (51)       a.    Na`e muimui `a Saimone he motu`a.
    past follow abs (name) det man
    `Saimone followed the man.'
Example #29:

    b.    Na`e muimui motu`a `a Saimone.
    past follow    man     abs (name)
    `Saimone follows men.'                                               (my fieldno
Example #30:

    (52)         a.    Na`e `alu ia ki he kolo `i he motok        a.
    past go 3sg to det village in det automobile
    `That (p erson) went to the village in an automobile.'               (my fieldno
Example #31:

    (53)         Na` ne `alu ka kulokula ki he kolo.
    past 3sg go car red          to det town
    `He went by red car to the town.'                                          (my f
Example #32:

    (56)     a.    Na`e `alu `a e  pusi.
    past go abs det cat
    `The cat went.'                                                        (my field
Example #33:

    (58)      a.   Na`e kai `e Sione `a e      ika lahi.
    past eat erg (name) abs det fish big
    `Sione ate the big fish.'                                             (my fieldn
Example #34:

    b.   Na`e kai ika lahi `a Sione.
    past eat fish big abs (name)
    `Sione ate a lot of fish.' or `Sione ate big fish.'                   (my fieldn
Example #35:

    (59)      *Na`e kai ika `a/`e      Sione `a e    lahi
    past eat fish abs/erg (name) abs det big
    Intended: `Sione fish-ate the big one'                                     (my f
Example #36:

    (62)       Na`e to    `e Sione `a e         `akau `i he manioke.
    past plant erg (name) abs det tree in det cassava
    `Sione planted the tree in an area that contains cassava'
Example #37:

    (74)      Na`e kai ika lahi nai        `a Sione?
    past eat fish big mayb e abs (name)
    `Sione eats a lot of fish, do esn't he?'                                     (re
Example #38:

    (76)      Na`e `alu nai    `a Sione?
    past go mayb e abs (name)
    `Sione went, didn't he?'                                                      (r
Example #39:

    (77)      Na`e to    `e Sione `a e     manioke.
    past plant erg (name) abs det cassava
    `Sione planted the cassavas.'                                                 (r
Example #40:

    (95)      *fakatau-fale-hinehina-`anga
    transact-house-white-nom
    Intended: `place for selling white houses'                                    (r
Example #41:

    (96)      *fakama`a-sea-`i-fale-`anga
    clean-chair-in-house-nom
    Intended: `place for cleaning the chairs from inside the house'               (r
Example #42:

    (99)      Na`e foaki      `e Mele `a e      me`ava`inga ki he pusi.
    past give.away erg (name) abs det play-thing to det cat
    `Mele gave the toy to the cat'                                                 (
Example #43:

    (100)     Na`e foaki      me`ava`inga `a Mele ki he pusi.
    past give.away play-thing      abs (name) to det cat
    `Mele gave the toy to the cat'                                                 (
Example #44:

    (101)     *Na`e foaki     pusi `e Mele `a e     me`ava`inga
    past give.away cat erg (name) abs det play-thing
    Intended: `Mele cat-gave the toy'                                              (
Example #45:

    (104)     *Na`e tofi hele `e Sione `a e         faina
    past cut knife erg (name) abs det pineapple
    Intended: `Sione knife-cut the pineapples'                                     (
Example #46:

    (105)     Na`e tolongi `e Pita          `a e fo`i pulu `aki `a e    fu`u `akau
    past throw-tr erg (name) abs det ball        with abs det tree
    `Pita threw a ball at the tree.'                                     (my fieldno
Example #47:

    (109)     Na`e `ave `e Sione `a e            tohi ki he`ene tamai `i he vakapuna.
    past send erg (name) abs det letter to 3sg.poss uncle in det airplane
    `Sione sent the letter to his uncle by plane.'                       (my fieldno